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1.
J Virol ; 94(8)2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996435

RESUMO

Argentine hemorrhagic fever is a potentially lethal disease that is caused by Junin virus (JUNV). There are currently around 5 million individuals at risk of infection within regions of endemicity in Argentina. The live attenuated vaccine strain Candid #1 (Can) is approved for use in regions of endemicity and has substantially decreased the number of annual Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) cases. The glycoprotein (GPC) gene is primarily responsible for attenuation of the Can strain, and we have shown that the absence of an N-linked glycosylation motif in the subunit G1 of the glycoprotein complex of Can, which is otherwise present in the wild-type pathogenic JUNV, causes GPC retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we show that Can GPC aggregates in the ER of infected cells, forming incorrect cross-chain disulfide bonds, which results in impaired GPC processing into G1 and G2. The GPC fails to cleave into its G1 and G2 subunits and is targeted for degradation within lysosomes. Cells infected with the wild-type Romero (Rom) strain do not produce aggregates that are observed in Can infection, and the stress on the ER remains minimal. While the mutation of the N-linked glycosylation motif (T168A) is primarily responsible for the formation of aggregates, other mutations within G1 that occurred earlier in the passage history of the Can strain also contribute to aggregation of the GPC within the ER.IMPORTANCE The development of vaccines and therapeutics to combat viral hemorrhagic fevers remains a top priority within the Implementation Plan of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise. The Can strain, derived from the pathogenic XJ strain of JUNV, has been demonstrated to be both safe and protective against AHF. While the vaccine strain is approved for use in regions of endemicity within Argentina, the mechanisms of Can attenuation have not been elucidated. A better understanding of the viral genetic determinants of attenuation will improve our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to disease pathogenesis and provide critical information for the rational design of live attenuated vaccine candidates for other viral hemorrhagic fevers.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1831, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440231

RESUMO

Gag proteins underlie retroviral replication by fulfilling numerous functional roles at various stages during viral life cycle. Out of the four mature proteins, Gag-capsid (CA) is a major component of viral particles, and has been most well studied biogenetically, biochemically and structurally. Gag-CA is composed of two structured domains, and also of a short stretch of disordered and flexible interdomain linker. While the two domains, namely, N-terminal and C-terminal domains (NTD and CTD), have been the central target for Gag research, the linker region connecting the two has been poorly studied. We recently have performed systemic mutational analyses on the Gag-CA linker region of HIV-1 by various experimental and in silico systems. In total, we have demonstrated that the linker region acts as a cis-modulator to optimize the Gag-related viral replication process. We also have noted, during the course of conducting the research project, that HIV-1 and SIVmac, belonging to distinct primate lentiviral lineages, share a similarly biologically active linker region with each other. In this brief article, we summarize and report the results obtained by mutational studies that are relevant to the functional significance of the interdomain linker of HIV/SIV Gag-CA. Based on this investigation, we discuss about the future directions of the research in this line.

3.
J Virol ; 93(17)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189701

RESUMO

The retroviral Gag capsid (Gag-CA) interdomain linker is an unstructured peptide segment connecting structured N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Although the region is reported to play roles in virion morphogenesis and infectivity, underlying molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. To address this issue, we determined biological and molecular phenotypes of HIV-1 CA linker mutants by experimental and in silico approaches. Among the nine linker mutants tested, eight exhibited attenuation of viral particle production to various extents mostly in parallel with a reduction in viral infectivity. Sucrose density gradient, confocal microscopy, and live-cell protein interaction analyses indicated that the defect is accompanied by attenuation of Gag-Gag interactions following Gag plasma membrane targeting in the cells. In silico analyses revealed distinct distributions of interaction-prone hydrophobic patches between immature and mature CA proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted that the linker mutations can allosterically alter structural fluctuations, including the interaction surfaces apart from the mutation sites in both the immature and mature CA proteins. These results suggest that the HIV-1 CA interdomain linker is a cis-modulator of the CA interaction surfaces to optimize efficiency of Gag assembly, virion production, and viral infectivity.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 particle production and infection are highly ordered processes. Viral Gag proteins play a central role in the assembly and disassembly of viral molecules. Of these, capsid protein (CA) is a major contributor to the Gag-Gag interactions. CA consists of two structured domains, i.e., N-terminal (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domains, connected by an unstructured domain named the interdomain linker. While multiple regions in the NTD and CTD are reported to play roles in virion morphogenesis and infectivity, the roles of the linker region in Gag assembly and virus particle formation remain elusive. In this study, we showed by biological and molecular analyses that the linker region functions as an intramolecular modulator to tune Gag assembly, virion production, and viral infectivity. Our study thus illustrates a hitherto-unrecognized mechanism, an allosteric regulation of CA structure by the disordered protein element, for HIV-1 replication.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705669

RESUMO

HIV-1 Env protein functions in the entry process and is the target of neutralizing antibodies. Its intrinsically high mutation rate is certainly one of driving forces for persistence/survival in hosts. For optimal replication in various environments, HIV-1 Env must continue to adapt and evolve through balancing sometimes incompatible function, replication fitness, and neutralization sensitivity. We have previously reported that adapted viruses emerge in repeated and prolonged cultures of cells originally infected with a macaque-tropic HIV-1NL4-3 derivative. We have also shown that the adapted viral clones exhibit enhanced growth potentials both in macaque PBMCs and individuals, and that three single-amino acid mutations are present in their Env V1/C2/C4 domains. In this study, we investigated how lab-adapted and highly neutralization-sensitive HIV-1NL4-3 adapts its Env to macaque cells with strongly replication-restrictive nature for HIV-1. While a single and two mutations gave a significantly enhanced replication phenotype in a macaque cell line and also in human cell lines that stably express either human CD4 or macaque CD4, the virus simultaneously carrying the three adaptive mutations always grew best. Entry kinetics of parental and triple mutant viruses were similar, whereas the mutant was significantly more readily inhibited for its infectivity by soluble CD4 than parental virus. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations of the Env ectodomain (gp120 and gp41 ectodomain) bound with CD4 suggest that the three mutations increase binding affinity of Env for CD4 in solution. Thus, it is quite likely that the affinity for CD4 of the mutant Env is enhanced relative to the parental Env. Neutralization sensitivity of the triple mutant to CD4 binding site antibodies was not significantly different from that of parental virus, whereas the mutant exhibited a considerably higher resistance against neutralization by a CD4-induced epitope antibody and Env trimer-targeting V1/V2 antibodies. These results suggest that the three adaptive mutations cooperatively promote viral growth via increased CD4 affinity, and also that they enhance viral resistance to several neutralization antibodies by changing the Env-trimer conformation. In total, we have verified here an HIV-1 adaptation pathway in host cells and individuals involving Env derived from a lab-adapted and highly neutralization-sensitive clone.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2510, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405570

RESUMO

A major issue for present HIV-1 research is to establish model systems that reflect or mimic viral replication and pathogenesis actually observed in infected humans. To this end, various strategies using macaques as infection targets have long been pursued. In particular, experimental infections of rhesus macaques by HIV-1 derivatives have been believed to be best suited, if practicable, for studies on interaction of HIV-1 and humans under various circumstances. Recently, through in vitro genetic manipulations and viral cell-adaptations, we have successfully generated a series of HIV-1 derivatives with CXCR4-tropism or CCR5-tropism that grow in macaque cells to various degrees. Of these viruses, those with best replicative potentials can grow comparably with a pathogenic SIVmac in macaque cells by counteracting major restriction factors TRIM5, APOBEC3, and tetherin proteins. In this study, rhesus macaques were challenged with CXCR4-tropic (MN4/LSDQgtu) or CCR5-tropic (gtu + A4CI1) virus. The two viruses were found to productively infect rhesus macaques, being rhesus macaque-tropic HIV-1 (HIV-1rmt). However, plasma viral RNA was reduced to be an undetectable level in infected macaques at 5-6 weeks post-infection and thereafter. While replicated similarly well in rhesus peripheral blood mononuclear cells, MN4/LSDQgtu grew much better than gtu + A4CI1 in the animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that HIV-1 derivatives (variants) grow in rhesus macaques. These viruses certainly constitute firm bases for generating HIV-1rmt clones pathogenic for rhesus monkeys, albeit they grow more poorly than pathogenic SIVmac and SHIV clones reported to date.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1751, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123198

RESUMO

The family Arenaviridae is divided into three genera: Mammarenavirus, Reptarenavirus, and Hartmanivirus. The Mammarenaviruses contain viruses responsible for causing human hemorrhagic fever diseases including New World viruses Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, Sabia, and Chapare virus and Old World viruses Lassa, and Lujo virus. These two groups of arenaviruses share the same genome organization composed of two ambisense RNA segments. These segments contain four open reading frames that encode for four proteins: the nucleoprotein, glycoprotein precursor, L protein, and Z. Despite their genome similarities, these groups exhibit marked differences in their replication life cycles. This includes differences in attachment, entry, and immune evasion. By understanding the intricacy of replication in each of these viral species we can work to develop counter measures against human diseases. This includes the development of vaccines and antivirals for these emerging viral threats. Currently only the vaccine against Junin virus, Candid#1, is in use as well as Ribavirin for treatment of Lassa Fever. In addition, small molecule inhibitors can be developed to target various aspects of the virus life cycle. In these ways an understanding of the arenavirus replication cycle can be used to alleviate the mortality and morbidity of these infections worldwide.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1884, 2018 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760382

RESUMO

While five arenaviruses cause human hemorrhagic fevers in the Western Hemisphere, only Junin virus (JUNV) has a vaccine. The GP1 subunit of their envelope glycoprotein binds transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) using a surface that substantially varies in sequence among the viruses. As such, receptor-mimicking antibodies described to date are type-specific and lack the usual breadth associated with this mode of neutralization. Here we isolate, from the blood of a recipient of the live attenuated JUNV vaccine, two antibodies that cross-neutralize Machupo virus with varying efficiency. Structures of GP1-Fab complexes explain the basis for efficient cross-neutralization, which involves avoiding receptor mimicry and targeting a conserved epitope within the receptor-binding site (RBS). The viral RBS, despite its extensive sequence diversity, is therefore a target for cross-reactive antibodies with activity against New World arenaviruses of public health concern.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Arenavirus do Novo Mundo/imunologia , Febre Hemorrágica Americana/prevenção & controle , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/química , Vírus Junin/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antígenos CD/química , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Arenavirus do Novo Mundo/genética , Sítios de Ligação de Anticorpos , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Febre Hemorrágica Americana/imunologia , Febre Hemorrágica Americana/virologia , Humanos , Soros Imunes/química , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Junin/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/imunologia , Receptores da Transferrina/química , Receptores da Transferrina/genética , Receptores da Transferrina/imunologia , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
8.
J Med Invest ; 65(1.2): 110-115, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29593179

RESUMO

Capsid (CA) protein is a major virion-constituent of all retroviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and is essential for early and late phases in viral replication cycle through interaction with numerous cellular factors. In particular, N-terminal domain (NTD) of HIV-1 CA has been frequently and well reported to bind to various host cell proteins that considerably affect viral replication potential. In this study, in order to better define biological bases of the CA-NTD for HIV-1 replication, we performed an extensive mutational analysis in an unprecedented manner. By aligning CA-NTD sequences derived from representative infectious molecular clones of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from the rhesus macaque (SIVmac), a number of amino acids specific to HIV-1 were selected, and were replaced with those from SIVmac at the corresponding sites. Mutant viruses thus generated were then examined for multi-cycle infectivity, single-cycle infectivity, and ability to produce progeny virions. While some CA-NTD mutations affected viral replication ability to varying degrees, those in helix 7 abolished viral growth potential without exception. These results highlight functional importance of non-conserved amino acids in helix 7, and give new insights into functionality of HIV-1 CA-NTD. J. Med. Invest. 65:110-115, February, 2018.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Replicação Viral , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1882, 2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382894

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) causes mostly asymptomatic infection or mild febrile illness. However, with an increasing number of patients, various clinical features such as microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome and thrombocytopenia have also been reported. To determine which host factors are related to pathogenesis, the E protein of ZIKV was analyzed with the Informational Spectrum Method, which identifies common information encoded by primary structures of the virus and the respective host protein. The data showed that the ZIKV E protein and the complement component C1q cross-spectra are characterized by a single dominant peak at the frequency F = 0.338, suggesting similar biological properties. Indeed, C1q-specific antibodies were detected in sera obtained from mice and monkeys infected with ZIKV. As C1q has been known to be involved not only in immunity, but also in synaptic organization and different autoimmune diseases, a ZIKV-induced anti-C1q antibody response may contribute to the neurological complications. These findings might also be exploited for the design of safe and efficacious vaccines in the future.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Complemento C1q/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/imunologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/virologia , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Microcefalia/imunologia , Microcefalia/virologia
10.
Antiviral Res ; 149: 34-40, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126899

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, has recently been linked to abnormal pregnancies, fetal death, microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Merimepodib (MMPD, VX-497), a potent inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), has shown antiviral activity against HCV and a variety of DNA and RNA viruses in vitro. In this report, we expand the antiviral spectrum of MMPD, and demonstrate that MMPD inhibits ZIKV RNA replication with an EC50 of 0.6 µM. Furthermore, MMPD reduces the virus production of ZIKV as well as several other important emerging viral pathogens such as Ebola, Lassa, Chikungunya, and Junin viruses. The inhibition can be reversed by addition of exogenous guanosine to culture media, consistent with the mechanism of action of MMPD as an IMPDH inhibitor. We also provide evidence that MMPD can be used in combination with other antivirals such as ribavirin and T-705 (favipiravir) to enhance suppression of virus production.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Carbamatos/farmacologia , IMP Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , RNA Viral/biossíntese , Células Vero , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
11.
Microbes Infect ; 20(9-10): 610-614, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859896

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is specifically adapted for replication, persistence, transmission, and survival in humans. HIV-1 is highly mutable in nature, and well responds to a variety of environmental pressures by altering its genome sequences. In this review, we have described experimental evidence that demonstrates this phantasmagoric property of HIV-1.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Animais , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Mutação , Replicação Viral
12.
Genome Announc ; 5(39)2017 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28963223

RESUMO

We have constructed two human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) derivatives, CXCR4 tropic and CCR5 tropic, that replicate in rhesus macaques. They are genetically engineered to be resistant to macaque restriction factors against HIV-1, including TRIM5α, APOBEC3, and tetherin proteins. The two HIV-1 variants described here are fundamental clones aiming for rhesus infection studies of HIV-1.

13.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 1413, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791001

RESUMO

Varieties of in vitro systems have been used to study biochemical properties of human immunodeficiency virus Gag-capsid protein (HIV Gag-CA). Recently, we have comparatively characterized HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag-CA proteins using such technology, and have demonstrated that the NaCl-initiated CA-polymerization in vitro and the stability of CA N-terminal domain as judged by differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) are inversely correlated. In this study, we found that ZnCl2 works as a competent initiator of the in vitro HIV-1 CA-polymerization at much lower concentrations than those of NaCl frequently used for the polymerization initiation. We also showed by DSF assays that ZnCl2 highly destabilize HIV-1 CA. Furthermore, PF74, a well-known inducer of premature HIV-1 uncoating in infected cells, was demonstrated to unusually promote the HIV-1 CA-disassembly in the presence of ZnCl2 as revealed by DSF assays. Taken together, we conclude that the DSF method may be useful as an efficient monitoring system to screen anti-HIV-1 CA molecules.

14.
J Virol ; 91(20)2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28794024

RESUMO

The arenavirus family consists of several highly pathogenic viruses, including the Old World (OW) arenavirus Lassa fever virus (LASV) and the New World (NW) Junin virus (JUNV) and Machupo virus (MACV). Host response to infection by these pathogenic arenaviruses is distinct in many aspects. JUNV and MACV infections readily induce an interferon (IFN) response in human cells, while LASV infection usually triggers an undetectable or weak IFN response. JUNV induces an IFN response through RIG-I, suggesting that the host non-self RNA sensor readily detects JUNV viral RNAs (vRNAs) during infection and activates IFN response. Double-stranded-RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase R (PKR) is another host non-self RNA sensor classically known for its vRNA recognition activity. Here we report that infection with NW arenaviruses JUNV and MACV, but not OW LASV, activated PKR, concomitant with elevated phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Host protein synthesis was substantially suppressed in MACV- and JUNV-infected cells but was only marginally reduced in LASV-infected cells. Despite the antiviral activity known for PKR against many other viruses, the replication of JUNV and MACV was not impaired but was slightly augmented in wild-type (wt) cells compared to that in PKR-deficient cells, suggesting that PKR or PKR activation did not negatively affect JUNV and MACV infection. Additionally, we found an enhanced IFN response in JUNV- or MACV-infected PKR-deficient cells, which was inversely correlated with virus replication.IMPORTANCE The detection of viral RNA by host non-self RNA sensors, including RIG-I and MDA5, is critical to the initiation of the innate immune response to RNA virus infection. Among pathogenic arenaviruses, the OW LASV usually does not elicit an interferon response. However, the NW arenaviruses JUNV and MACV readily trigger an IFN response in a RIG-I-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that pathogenic NW arenaviruses JUNV and MACV, but not the OW arenavirus LASV, activated the dsRNA-dependent PKR, another host non-self RNA sensor, during infection. Interestingly, the replication of JUNV and MACV was not restricted but was rather slightly augmented in the presence of PKR. Our data provide new evidence for a distinct interplay between host non-self RNA sensors and pathogenic arenaviruses, which also provides insights into the pathogenesis of arenaviruses and may facilitate the design of vaccines and treatments against arenavirus-caused diseases.


Assuntos
Arenavirus do Novo Mundo/patogenicidade , Arenavirus do Velho Mundo/patogenicidade , Imunidade Inata , Vírus Junin/patogenicidade , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , Células A549 , Arenavirus do Novo Mundo/fisiologia , Arenavirus do Velho Mundo/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interferons/biossíntese , Interferons/imunologia , Vírus Junin/fisiologia , Fosforilação , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , eIF-2 Quinase/genética
15.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 1082, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28659897

RESUMO

Timely disassembly of viral core composed of self-assembled capsid (CA) in infected host cells is crucial for retroviral replication. Extensive in vitro studies to date on the self-assembly/disassembly mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CA have revealed its core structure and amino acid residues essential for CA-CA intermolecular interaction. However, little is known about in vitro properties of HIV-2 CA. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the polymerization properties of bacterially expressed HIV-1 and HIV-2 CA proteins. Interestingly, a much higher concentration of NaCl was required for HIV-2 CA to self-assemble than that for HIV-1 CA, but once the polymerization started, the reaction proceeded more rapidly than that observed for HIV-1 CA. Analysis of a chimeric protein revealed that N-terminal domain (NTD) is responsible for this unique property of HIV-2 CA. To further study the molecular basis for different in vitro properties of HIV-1 and HIV-2 CA proteins, we determined thermal stabilities of HIV-1 and HIV-2 CA NTD proteins at several NaCl concentrations by fluorescent-based thermal shift assays. Experimental data obtained showed that HIV-2 CA NTD was structurally more stable than HIV-1 CA NTD. Taken together, our results imply that distinct in vitro polymerization abilities of the two CA proteins are related to their structural instability/stability, which is one of the decisive factors for viral replication potential. In addition, our assay system described here may be potentially useful for searching for anti-CA antivirals against HIV-1 and HIV-2.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220142

RESUMO

Junin virus (JUNV), a highly pathogenic New World arenavirus, is the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). The live-attenuated Candid #1 (Can) strain currently serves as a vaccine for at-risk populations. We have previously shown that the Can glycoprotein (GPC) gene is the primary gene responsible for attenuation in a guinea pig model of AHF. However, the mechanisms through which the GPC contributes to the attenuation of the Can strain remain unknown. A more complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying the attenuation and immunogenicity of the Can strain will potentially allow for the rational design of additional safe and novel vaccines. Here, we provide a detailed comparison of both RNA and protein expression profiles between both inter- and intra-segment chimeric JUNV recombinant clones expressing combinations of genes from the Can strain and the pathogenic Romero (Rom) strain. The recombinant viruses that express Can GPC, which were shown to be attenuated in guinea pigs, displayed different RNA levels and GPC processing patterns as determined by Northern and Western blot analyses, respectively. Analysis of recombinant viruses containing amino acid substitutions selected at different mouse brain passages during the generation of Can revealed that altered Can GPC processing was primarily due to the T168A substitution within G1, which eliminates an N-linked glycosylation motif. Incorporation of the T168A substitution in the Rom GPC resulted in a Can-like processing pattern of Rom GPC. In addition, JUNV GPCs containing T168A substitution were retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and displayed significantly lower cell surface expression than wild-type Rom GPC. Interestingly, the reversion A168T in Can GPC significantly increased GPC expression at the cell surface. Our results demonstrate that recombinant JUNV (rJUNV) expressing Can GPC display markedly different protein expression and elevated genomic RNA expression when compared to viruses expressing Rom GPC. Additionally, our findings indicate that the N-linked glycosylation motif at amino acid positions 166-168 is important for trafficking of JUNV GPC to the cell surface, and the elimination of this motif interferes with the GPC release from the ER.


Assuntos
Motivos de Aminoácidos , Arenavirus do Novo Mundo/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Febre Hemorrágica Americana , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Arenavirus do Novo Mundo/genética , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Cricetinae , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Glicosilação , Febre Hemorrágica Americana/imunologia , Febre Hemorrágica Americana/metabolismo , Febre Hemorrágica Americana/prevenção & controle , Febre Hemorrágica Americana/virologia , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Transporte Proteico , Transcrição Genética , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Virulência
17.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 188, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28223982

RESUMO

Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Symptomatic mice developed deficits in prepulse inhibition that lasted through 6 months post infection; these deficits were absent in asymptomatic or mock-infected groups. Accompanying prepulse inhibition deficits, symptomatic animals exhibited thalamus damage as visualized with H&E staining, as well as increased GFAP expression in the posterior complex of the thalamus and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These histological changes and increased GFAP expression were absent in the asymptomatic and mock-infected animals, indicating that glial scarring could have contributed to the prepulse inhibition phenotype observed in the symptomatic animals. This model provides a tool to test mechanisms of and treatments for the neurological sequelae of viral encephalitis and begins to delineate potential explanations for the development of such sequelae post infection.

18.
Virol J ; 14(1): 13, 2017 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by hantavirus infection is characterized by fever, renal dysfunction and hemorrhage. An animal model mimicking symptoms of HFRS remains to be established. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of an HFRS patient-derived Hantaan virus (HTNV) in adult mice. METHODS: Five clones of HTNV strain KHF 83-61 BL (KHFV) that was derived from blood of an HFRS patient were obtained by plaque cloning. The pathogenicity of the virus clones was evaluated by using 6-week-old female BALB/c mice. Sequence analysis of the viral genome was performed by conventional methods. RESULTS: All of the mice intravenously inoculated with KHFV clone (cl)-1, -2, -3 and -5 showed signs of disease such as transient body weight loss, ruffled fur, reduced activity and remarkably prominent hemorrhage in the renal medulla at 6 to 9 days post-inoculation (dpi) and then recovered. In contrast, mice intravenously inoculated with KHFV cl-4 did not show any signs of disease. We selected KHFV cl-5 and cl-4 as representative of high-pathogenic and low-pathogenic clones, respectively. Quantities of viral RNA in kidneys of KHFV cl-5-infected mice were larger than those in KHFV cl-4-infected mice at any time point examined (3, 6, 9 and 12 dpi). The quantities of viral RNA of KHFV cl-5 and cl-4 peaked at 3 dpi, which was before the onset of disease. Sequence analysis revealed that the amino acid at position 417 in the glycoprotein Gn was the sole difference in viral proteins between KHFV cl-5 and cl-4. The result suggests that amino acid at position 417 in Gn is related to the difference in pathogenicity between KHFV cl-5 and cl-4. When the inoculum of KHFV cl-5 was pretreated with a neutralizing antibody against HTNV strain 76-118, which belongs to the same serotype as KHFV clones, mice did not show any signs of disease, confirming that the disease was caused by KHFV infection. CONCLUSION: We found that an HFRS patient-derived HTNV caused renal hemorrhage in adult mice. We anticipate that this infection model will be a valuable tool for understanding the pathogenesis of HFRS.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vírus Hantaan/patogenicidade , Hemorragia/patologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/patologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/virologia , Rim/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Vírus Hantaan/genética , Vírus Hantaan/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oxalobacteraceae , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 2542, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326677

RESUMO

Genomic RNA of HIV-1 contains localized structures critical for viral replication. Its structural analysis has demonstrated a stem-loop structure, SLSA1, in a nearby region of HIV-1 genomic splicing acceptor 1 (SA1). We have previously shown that the expression level of vif mRNA is considerably altered by some natural single-nucleotide variations (nSNVs) clustering in SLSA1 structure. In this study, besides eleven nSNVs previously identified by us, we totally found nine new nSNVs in the SLSA1-containing sequence from SA1, splicing donor 2, and through to the start codon of Vif that significantly affect the vif mRNA level, and designated the sequence SA1D2prox (142 nucleotides for HIV-1 NL4-3). We then examined by extensive variant and mutagenesis analyses how SA1D2prox sequence and SLSA1 secondary structure are related to vif mRNA level. While the secondary structure and stability of SLSA1 was largely changed by nSNVs and artificial mutations introduced to restore the original NL4-3 form from altered ones by nSNVs, no clear association of the two SLSA1 properties with vif mRNA level was observed. In contrast, when naturally occurring SA1D2prox sequences that contain multiple nSNVs were examined, we attained significant inverse correlation between the vif level and SLSA1 stability. These results may suggest that SA1D2prox sequence adapts over time, and also that the altered SA1D2prox sequence, SLSA1 stability, and vif level are mutually related. In total, we show here that the entire SA1D2prox sequence and SLSA1 stability critically contribute to the modulation of vif mRNA level.

20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(8): e0004969, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27580122

RESUMO

Machupo virus (MACV), a New World arenavirus, is the etiological agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF). Junin virus (JUNV), a close relative, causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). Previously, we reported that a recombinant, chimeric MACV (rMACV/Cd#1-GPC) expressing glycoprotein from the Candid#1 (Cd#1) vaccine strain of JUNV is completely attenuated in a murine model and protects animals from lethal challenge with MACV. A rMACV with a single F438I substitution in the transmembrane domain (TMD) of GPC, which is equivalent to the F427I attenuating mutation in Cd#1 GPC, was attenuated in a murine model but genetically unstable. In addition, the TMD mutation alone was not sufficient to fully attenuate JUNV, indicating that other domains of the GPC may also contribute to the attenuation. To investigate the requirement of different domains of Cd#1 GPC for successful attenuation of MACV, we rescued several rMACVs expressing the ectodomain of GPC from Cd#1 either alone (MCg1), along with the TMD F438I substitution (MCg2), or with the TMD of Cd#1 (MCg3). All rMACVs exhibited similar growth curves in cultured cells. In mice, the MCg1 displayed significant reduction in lethality as compared with rMACV. The MCg1 was detected in brains and spleens of MCg1-infected mice and the infection was associated with tissue inflammation. On the other hand, all animals survived MCg2 and MCg3 infection without detectable levels of virus in various organs while producing neutralizing antibody against Cd#1. Overall our data suggest the indispensable role of each GPC domain in the full attenuation and immunogenicity of rMACV/Cd#1 GPC.


Assuntos
Vírus Junin/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Receptores de Interferon/deficiência , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Células A549 , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Haplorrinos , Febre Hemorrágica Americana/prevenção & controle , Vírus Junin/patogenicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Testes de Neutralização , Receptores de Interferon/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
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