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J Mycol Med ; 31(4): 101203, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517273


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major public health problem worldwide. These patients are at increased risk of developing secondary infections due to a combination of virus- and drug-induced immunosuppression. Recently, several countries have reported an emergence of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM), particularly among patients with uncontrolled diabetes, with India reporting an alarming increase in rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) in post-COVID cases. Hyperglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are the major underlying risk factors. So far, case reports and review articles have reported CAM only in adult patients. Here, we describe the first cases of COVID-19-associated ROCM in two pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Both the cases had asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 and developed ROCM during the course of treatment of DKA. None of them had exposure to systemic steroids. Imaging findings in both cases revealed involvement of orbit, paranasal sinuses, and brain with cavernous sinus thrombosis. The patients underwent craniotomy with evacuation of abscess. Microbiological and histopathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of mycormycosis, with fungal culture growing Rhizopus arrhizus. Post-operatively, the patients received liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) and systemic antibiotics. Retrobulbar injection of LAMB was given in an attempt to halt orbital disease progression. However, it wasn't successful and both of them had to undergo orbital exenteration eventually. ROCM is a rapidly progressive disease and prompt diagnosis with aggressive surgery and timely initiation of antifungal therapy can be life-saving. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion, so as to avoid a delayed diagnosis, particularly in post-COVID patients with uncontrolled diabetes.

World Neurosurg ; 155: 135-143, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363996


For thousands of years, anatomical models have served as essential tools in medical instruction. While human dissections have been the regular source of information for medical students for the last few centuries, the scarcity of bodies and the religious and social taboos of previous times made the process of acquiring human cadavers a challenge. The dissection process was dependent on the availability of fresh cadavers and thus was met with a major time constraint; with poor preservation techniques, decomposition turned the process of employing bodies for instruction into a race against time. However, the advent of anatomical models has countered this issue by supplying accurate anatomical detail in a physical, three-dimensional form superior to that of the two-dimensional illustrations previously used as the primary adjunct to dissection. Artists worked with physicians and anatomists to prepare these models, creating an interdisciplinary interaction that advanced anatomical instruction at a tremendous rate. These models have taken the form of metal, wood, ivory, wax, papier-mâché, plaster, and plastic and have ultimately evolved into computerized and digital representations currently. We provide a brief historical overview of the evolution of anatomical models from a unique neuroanatomical perspective.

Indian J Crit Care Med ; 21(10): 707-709, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142384


Type 2 respiratory failure is defined as hypercapnia associated with hypoxia. Chiari 1.5 is known as herniation of the cerebellar tonsils along with brain stem and fourth ventricle. We report a 35-year-old male who presented with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (Type 2), without any preexisting neurological or respiratory abnormality. Analysis of blood gases in emergency revealed a pH of 7.12, pCO2 of 132 mmHg, and arterial oxygen tension of 118 mm Hg. He was intubated and ventilated. Magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed herniation of the cerebellar tonsils along with brain stem and fourth ventricle. The patient underwent surgery and gradually weaned off. He was mobilized and discharged on day 6. Acute respiratory failure has not been reported with Chiari 1.5 malformation. The lesson to be learned from this case is that craniospinal pathology must be looked for in a patient with hypercapnic respiratory failure.

World Neurosurg ; 89: 601-10, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26897702


OBJECTIVE: Detailed knowledge about anatomic variations of the aortic arch and its multiple branches is extremely important to endovascular and diagnostic radiologists. It is often hypothesized that anomalous origin and distribution of large aortic vessels may alter the cerebral hemodynamics and potentially lead to a vascular pathology. METHODS: In this article, we describe a case of anomalous origin of the right vertebral artery, which was detected during an intervention. We further reviewed the available literature of anomalous origin of the right vertebral artery. The probable embryologic development and clinical significance are discussed. RESULTS: The incidence of anomalous origin of a vertebral artery seems to be underestimated in recent literature. A careful review of the literature shows more than 100 such cases. The right vertebral artery can arise from the aortic arch or one of its branches. Dual origin of the vertebral artery is not uncommon. The embryologic developmental hypotheses are contradictory and complex. CONCLUSIONS: Anomalous origin of the right vertebral artery may not be the sole reason behind a disease process. However, it can certainly lead to a misdiagnosis during diagnostic vascular studies. Detailed information is essential for any surgery or endovascular intervention in this location.

Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Artéria Vertebral/anormalidades , Angiografia Digital , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/cirurgia , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem