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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5445, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521854

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max) serves as a major source of protein and edible oils worldwide. The genetic and genomic bases of the adaptation of soybean to tropical regions remain largely unclear. Here, we identify the novel locus Time of Flowering 16 (Tof16), which confers delay flowering and improve yield at low latitudes and determines that it harbors the soybean homolog of LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY). Tof16 and the previously identified J locus genetically additively but independently control yield under short-day conditions. More than 80% accessions in low latitude harbor the mutations of tof16 and j, which suggests that loss of functions of Tof16 and J are the major genetic basis of soybean adaptation into tropics. We suggest that maturity and yield traits can be quantitatively improved by modulating the genetic complexity of various alleles of the LHY homologs, J and E1. Our findings uncover the adaptation trajectory of soybean from its temperate origin to the tropics.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Produtos Agrícolas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genoma de Planta , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Clima Tropical
2.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388296

RESUMO

Soybean is one of the most important oilseed and fodder crops. Benefiting from the efforts of soybean breeders and the development of breeding technology, large number of germplasm has been generated over the last 100 years. Nevertheless, soybean breeding needs to be accelerated to meet the needs of a growing world population, to promote sustainable agriculture and to address future environmental changes. The acceleration is highly reliant on the discoveries in gene functional studies. The release of the reference soybean genome in 2010 has significantly facilitated the advance in soybean functional genomics. Here, we review the research progress in soybean omics (genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics and proteomics), germplasm development (germplasm resources and databases), gene discovery (genes that are responsible for important soybean traits including yield, flowering and maturity, seed quality, stress resistance, nodulation and domestication) and transformation technology during the past decade. At the end, we also briefly discuss current challenges and future directions.

3.
Curr Biol ; 31(17): 3755-3767.e4, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270946

RESUMO

The classical soybean (Glycine max) trait long juvenile (LJ) is essentially a reduction in sensitivity to short-day (SD) conditions for induction and completion of flowering, and has been introduced into soybean cultivars to improve yield in tropical environments. However, only one locus, J, is known to confer LJ in low-latitude varieties. Here, we defined two quantitative trait loci contributing to the LJ trait, LJ16.1 and LJ16.2, and identified them as the florigen (FT) homologs FT2a and FT5a, respectively. The two selected florigen variations both delay flowering time under SD conditions by repressing the floral meristem identity gene GmAPETALA1. Single mutants have a relatively subtle effect on flowering time and displayed a substantial genetic compensation response, but this was absent in ft2a ft5a double mutants, which showed an enhanced LJ phenotype that translated to higher yields under SD conditions. A survey of sequence diversity suggests that FT2a and FT5a variants have diverse origins and have played distinct roles as soybean spread to lower latitudes. Our results show that integration of variants in the florigen genes offers a strategy for customizing flowering time to adjust adaptation and improve crop productivity in tropical regions.

4.
Sci China Life Sci ; 64(9): 1533-1545, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236584

RESUMO

Male sterility is an essential trait in hybrid seed production, especially for monoclinous and autogamous food crops. Soybean male-sterile ms1 mutant has been known for more than 50 years and could be instrumental in making hybrid seeds. However, the gene responsible for the male-sterile phenotype has remained unknown. Here, we report the map-based cloning and characterization of the MS1 gene in soybean. MS1 encodes a kinesin protein and localizes to the nucleus, where it is required for the male meiotic cytokinesis after telophase II. We further substantiated that MS1 colocalizes with microtubules and is essential for cell plate formation in soybean male gametogenesis through immunostaining. Both ms1 and CRISPR/Cas9 knockout mutants show complete male sterility but are otherwise phenotypically normal, making them perfect tools for producing hybrid seeds. The identification of MS1 has the practical potential for assembling the sterility system and speeding up hybrid soybean breeding.

5.
Plant Physiol ; 185(4): 1745-1763, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793936

RESUMO

Many plant species open their leaves during the daytime and close them at night as if sleeping. This leaf movement is known as nyctinasty, a unique and intriguing phenomenon that been of great interest to scientists for centuries. Nyctinastic leaf movement occurs widely in leguminous plants, and is generated by a specialized motor organ, the pulvinus. Although a key determinant of pulvinus development, PETIOLULE-LIKE PULVINUS (PLP), has been identified, the molecular genetic basis for pulvinus function is largely unknown. Here, through an analysis of knockout mutants in barrelclover (Medicago truncatula), we showed that neither altering brassinosteroid (BR) content nor blocking BR signal perception affected pulvinus determination. However, BR homeostasis did influence nyctinastic leaf movement. BR activity in the pulvinus is regulated by a BR-inactivating gene PHYB ACTIVATION TAGGED SUPPRESSOR1 (BAS1), which is directly activated by PLP. A comparative analysis between M. truncatula and the non-pulvinus forming species Arabidopsis and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) revealed that PLP may act as a factor that associates with unknown regulators in pulvinus determination in M. truncatula. Apart from exposing the involvement of BR in the functionality of the pulvinus, these results have provided insights into whether gene functions among species are general or specialized.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Medicago truncatula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago truncatula/genética , Medicago truncatula/metabolismo , Pulvínulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulvínulo/genética , Pulvínulo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Homeostase/genética , Homeostase/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Mutação
6.
Plant Physiol ; 185(4): 1697-1707, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793917

RESUMO

Seed storage protein (SSP) acts as one of the main components of seed storage reserves, of which accumulation is tightly mediated by a sophisticated regulatory network. However, whether and how gibberellin (GA) signaling is involved in this important biological event is not fully understood. Here, we show that SSP content in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is significantly reduced by GA and increased in the GA biosynthesis triple mutant ga3ox1/3/4. Further investigation shows that the DELLA protein RGA-LIKE3 (RGL3), a negative regulator of GA signaling, is important for SSP accumulation. In rgl3 and 35S:RGL3-HA, the expression of SSP genes is down- and upregulated, respectively, compared with that in the wild-type. RGL3 interacts with ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), a critical transcription factor for seed developmental processes governing SSP accumulation, both in vivo and in vitro, thus greatly promoting the transcriptional activating ability of ABI3 on SSP genes. In addition, genetic evidence shows that RGL3 and ABI3 regulate SSP accumulation in an interdependent manner. Therefore, we reveal a function of RGL3, a little studied DELLA member, as a coactivator of ABI3 to promote SSP biosynthesis during seed maturation stage. This finding advances the understanding of mechanisms in GA-mediated seed storage reserve accumulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/genética , Sementes/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 649634, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33897737

RESUMO

Transcription is the first step of central dogma, in which the genetic information stored in DNA is copied into RNA. In addition to mature RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), high-throughput nascent RNA assays have been established and applied to provide detailed transcriptional information. Here, we present the profiling of nascent RNA from trifoliate leaves and shoot apices of soybean. In combination with nascent RNA (chromatin-bound RNA, CB RNA) and RNA-seq, we found that introns were largely spliced cotranscriptionally. Although alternative splicing (AS) was mainly determined at nascent RNA biogenesis, differential AS between the leaf and shoot apex at the mature RNA level did not correlate well with cotranscriptional differential AS. Overall, RNA abundance was moderately correlated between nascent RNA and mature RNA within each tissue, but the fold changes between the leaf and shoot apex were highly correlated. Thousands of novel transcripts (mainly non-coding RNA) were detected by CB RNA-seq, including the overlap of natural antisense RNA with two important genes controlling soybean reproductive development, FT2a and Dt1. Taken together, we demonstrated the adoption of CB RNA-seq in soybean, which may shed light on gene expression regulation of important agronomic traits in leguminous crops.

8.
Plant Cell ; 33(1): 153-171, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751092

RESUMO

Plants have evolved precise mechanisms to optimize immune responses against pathogens. ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1) plays a vital role in plant innate immunity by regulating basal resistance and effector-triggered immunity. Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of EDS1 is required for resistance reinforcement, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that EDS1-INTERACTING J PROTEIN1 (EIJ1), which acts as a DnaJ protein-like chaperone in response to pathogen infection, functions as an essential negative regulator of plant immunity by interacting with EDS1. The loss-of-function mutation of EIJ1 did not affect plant growth but significantly enhanced pathogen resistance. Upon pathogen infection, EIJ1 relocalized from the chloroplast to the cytoplasm, where it interacted with EDS1, thereby restricting pathogen-triggered trafficking of EDS1 to the nucleus and compromising resistance at an early infection stage. During disease development, EIJ1 was gradually degraded, allowing the nuclear accumulation of EDS1 for transcriptional resistance reinforcement. The avirulent strain Pst DC3000 (AvrRps4) abolished the repressive action of EIJ1 by rapidly inducing its degradation in the effector-triggered immunity response. Thus, our findings show that EIJ1 is an essential EDS1-dependent negative regulator of innate plant immunity and provide a mechanistic understanding of how the nuclear versus cytoplasmic distribution of EDS1 is regulated during the immune response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
9.
Curr Biol ; 31(8): 1643-1652.e2, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609454

RESUMO

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a major global food staple and source of dietary protein that was domesticated independently in Mexico and Andean South America. Its subsequent development as a crop of importance worldwide has been enabled by genetic relaxation of the strict short-day requirement typical of wild forms, but the genetic basis for this change is not well understood. Recently, a loss of photoperiod sensitivity was shown to result from mutations in the phytochrome photoreceptor gene Ppd/PHYA3 that arose independently within the two major domesticated lineages. Here, we define a second major photoperiod sensitivity locus, at which recessive alleles associate with deleterious mutations affecting the CONSTANS-like gene COL2. A wider survey of sequence variation in over 800 diverse lines, including wild, landrace, and domesticated accessions, show that distinct col2 haplotypes are associated with early flowering in Andean and Mesoamerican germplasm. The relative frequencies and distributions of COL2 and PHYA3 haplotypes imply that photoperiod adaptation developed in two phases within each gene pool: an initial reduction in sensitivity through impairment of COL2 function and subsequent complete loss through PHYA3. Gene expression analyses indicate that COL2 functions downstream of PHYA3 to repress expression of FT genes and may function in parallel with PvE1, the bean ortholog of a key legume-specific flowering repressor. Collectively, these results define the molecular basis for a key phenological adaptation, reveal a striking convergence in the naturally replicated evolution of this major crop, and further emphasize the wider evolutionary lability of CONSTANS effects on flowering time control.

10.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 63(7): 1181-1196, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615731

RESUMO

Substantial diversity exists for both the size and shape of the leaf, the main photosynthetic organ of flowering plants. The two major forms of leaf are simple leaves, in which the leaf blade is undivided, and compound leaves, which comprise several leaflets. Leaves form at the shoot apical meristem from a group of undifferentiated cells, which first establish polarity, then grow and differentiate. Each of these processes is controlled by a combination of transcriptional regulators, microRNAs and phytohormones. The present review documents recent advances in our understanding of how these various factors modulate the development of both simple leaves (focusing mainly on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana) and compound leaves (focusing mainly on the model legume species Medicago truncatula).

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(8)2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558416

RESUMO

Photoperiod sensitivity is a key factor in plant adaptation and crop production. In the short-day plant soybean, adaptation to low latitude environments is provided by mutations at the J locus, which confer extended flowering phase and thereby improve yield. The identity of J as an ortholog of Arabidopsis ELF3, a component of the circadian evening complex (EC), implies that orthologs of other EC components may have similar roles. Here we show that the two soybean homeologs of LUX ARRYTHMO interact with J to form a soybean EC. Characterization of mutants reveals that these genes are highly redundant in function but together are critical for flowering under short day, where the lux1 lux2 double mutant shows extremely late flowering and a massively extended flowering phase. This phenotype exceeds that of any soybean flowering mutant reported to date, and is strongly reminiscent of the "Maryland Mammoth" tobacco mutant that featured in the seminal 1920 study of plant photoperiodism by Garner and Allard [W. W. Garner, H. A. Allard, J. Agric. Res. 18, 553-606 (1920)]. We further demonstrate that the J-LUX complex suppresses transcription of the key flowering repressor E1 and its two homologs via LUX binding sites in their promoters. These results indicate that the EC-E1 interaction has a central role in soybean photoperiod sensitivity, a phenomenon also first described by Garner and Allard. EC and E1 family genes may therefore constitute key targets for customized breeding of soybean varieties with precise flowering time adaptation, either by introgression of natural variation or generation of new mutants by gene editing.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/efeitos da radiação , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/efeitos da radiação
12.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 63(6): 1004-1020, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458938

RESUMO

Flowering time and stem growth habit determine inflorescence architecture in soybean, which in turn influences seed yield. Dt1, a homolog of Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), is a major controller of stem growth habit, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Dt1 affects node number and plant height, as well as flowering time, in soybean under long-day conditions. The bZIP transcription factor FDc1 physically interacts with Dt1, and the FDc1-Dt1 complex directly represses the expression of APETALA1 (AP1). We propose that FT5a inhibits Dt1 activity via a competitive interaction with FDc1 and directly upregulates AP1. Moreover, AP1 represses Dt1 expression by directly binding to the Dt1 promoter, suggesting that AP1 and Dt1 form a suppressive regulatory feedback loop to determine the fate of the shoot apical meristem. These findings provide novel insights into the roles of Dt1 and FT5a in controlling the stem growth habit and flowering time in soybean, which determine the adaptability and grain yield of this important crop.


Assuntos
Meristema/metabolismo , Meristema/fisiologia , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Hábitos , Meristema/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/genética
13.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 63(6): 995-1003, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205888

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max) is an important legume crop that was domesticated in temperate regions. Soybean varieties from these regions generally mature early and exhibit extremely low yield when grown under inductive short-day (SD) conditions at low latitudes. The long-juvenile (LJ) trait, which is characterized by delayed flowering and maturity, and improved yield under SD conditions, allowed the cultivation of soybean to expand to lower latitudes. Two major loci control the LJ trait: J and E6. In the current study, positional cloning, sequence analysis, and transgenic complementation confirmed that E6 is a novel allele of J, the ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3). The mutant allele e6PG , which carries a Ty1/Copia-like retrotransposon insertion, does not suppress the legume-specific flowering repressor E1, allowing E1 to inhibit Flowering Locus T (FT) expression and thus delaying flowering and increasing yields under SD conditions. The e6PG allele is a rare allele that has not been incorporated into modern breeding programs. The dysfunction of J might have greatly facilitated the adaptation of soybean to low latitudes. Our findings increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the LJ trait and provide valuable resources for soybean breeding.

14.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 63(6): 981-994, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090664

RESUMO

Photoperiodic flowering is one of the most important factors affecting regional adaptation and yield in soybean (Glycine max). Plant adaptation to long-day conditions at higher latitudes requires early flowering and a reduction or loss of photoperiod sensitivity; adaptation to short-day conditions at lower latitudes involves delayed flowering, which prolongs vegetative growth for maximum yield potential. Due to the influence of numerous major loci and quantitative trait loci (QTLs), soybean has broad adaptability across latitudes. Forward genetic approaches have uncovered the molecular basis for several of these major maturity genes and QTLs. Moreover, the molecular characterization of orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana flowering genes has enriched our understanding of the photoperiodic flowering pathway in soybean. Building on early insights into the importance of the photoreceptor phytochrome A, several circadian clock components have been integrated into the genetic network controlling flowering in soybean: E1, a repressor of FLOWERING LOCUS T orthologs, plays a central role in this network. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in elucidating photoperiodic flowering in soybean, how it contributes to our fundamental understanding of flowering time control, and how this information could be used for molecular design and breeding of high-yielding soybean cultivars.

15.
New Phytol ; 229(5): 2660-2675, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095906

RESUMO

The circadian clock plays essential roles in diverse plant biological processes, such as flowering, phytohormone biosynthesis and abiotic stress responses. The manner in which circadian clock genes regulate drought stress responses in model plants has been well established, but comparatively little is known in crop species, such as soybean, a major global crop. This paper reports that the core clock components GmLHYs, the orthologues of CCA1/LHY in Arabidopsis, negatively control drought tolerance in soybean. The expressions of four GmLHYs were all induced by drought, and the quadruple mutants of GmLHYs demonstrated significantly improved drought tolerance. Transcriptome profiling suggested that the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway is regulated by GmLHYs to respond to drought tolerance. Genetic dissections showed that two homologous pairs of LHY1a and LHY1b redundantly control the drought response. Functional characterization of LHY1a and LHY1b in Arabidopsis and soybean further supported the notion that GmLHYs can maintain cellular homeostasis through the ABA signaling pathway under drought stress. This study improves our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms on soybean drought tolerance. Furthermore, the two homologues of LHY1a and LHY1b provide alternative targets for genome editing to rapidly generate mutant alleles in elite soybean cultivars to enhance their drought tolerance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Ácido Abscísico , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Mol Plant ; 14(3): 517-529, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316467

RESUMO

The coordinated utilization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is vital for plants to maintain nutrient balance and achieve optimal growth. Previously, we revealed a mechanism by which nitrate induces genes for phosphate utilization; this mechanism depends on NRT1.1B-facilitated degradation of cytoplasmic SPX4, which in turn promotes cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling of PHR2, the central transcription factor of phosphate signaling, and triggers the nitrate-induced phosphate response (NIPR) and N-P coordinated utilization in rice. In this study, we unveiled a fine-tuning mechanism of NIPR in the nucleus regulated by Highly Induced by Nitrate Gene 1 (HINGE1, also known as RLI1), a MYB-transcription factor closely related to PHR2. RLI1/HINGE1, which is transcriptionally activated by PHR2 under nitrate induction, can directly activate the expression of phosphate starvation-induced genes. More importantly, RLI1/HINGE1 competes with PHR2 for binding to its repressor proteins in the nucleus (SPX proteins), and consequently releases PHR2 to further enhance phosphate response. Therefore, RLI1/HINGE1 amplifies the phosphate response in the nucleus downstream of the cytoplasmic SPX4-PHR2 cascade, thereby enabling fine-tuning of N-P balance when nitrate supply is sufficient.


Assuntos
Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myb/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003317

RESUMO

Gibberellins (GAs), a class of phytohormones, act as an essential natural regulator of plant growth and development. Many studies have shown that GA is related to rhizobial infection and nodule organogenesis in legume species. However, thus far, GA metabolism and signaling components are largely unknown in the model legume Medicago truncatula. In this study, a genome-wide analysis of GA metabolism and signaling genes was carried out. In total 29 components, including 8 MtGA20ox genes, 2 MtGA3ox genes, 13 MtGA2ox genes, 3 MtGID1 genes, and 3 MtDELLA genes were identified in M. truncatula genome. Expression profiles revealed that most members of MtGAox, MtGID1, and MtDELLA showed tissue-specific expression patterns. In addition, the GA biosynthesis and deactivation genes displayed a feedback regulation on GA treatment, respectively. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that all the three MtGID1s interacted with MtDELLA1 and MtDELLA2, suggesting that the MtGID1s are functional GA receptors. More importantly, M. truncatula exhibited increased plant height and biomass by ectopic expression of the MtGA20ox1, suggesting that enhanced GA response has the potential for forage improvement.


Assuntos
Giberelinas/metabolismo , Medicago truncatula/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Biomassa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Medicago truncatula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago truncatula/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas , Rhizobium/genética , Rhizobium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 62(12): 1868-1879, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619080

RESUMO

Flowering time and plant height are key agronomic traits that directly affect soybean (Glycine max) yield. APETALA1 (AP1) functions as a class A gene in the ABCE model for floral organ development, helping to specify carpel, stamen, petal, and sepal identities. There are four AP1 homologs in soybean, all of which are mainly expressed in the shoot apex. Here, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) - CRISPR-associated protein 9 technology to generate a homozygous quadruple mutant, gmap1, with loss-of-function mutations in all four GmAP1 genes. Under short-day (SD) conditions, the gmap1 quadruple mutant exhibited delayed flowering, changes in flower morphology, and increased node number and internode length, resulting in plants that were taller than the wild type. Conversely, overexpression of GmAP1a resulted in early flowering and reduced plant height compared to the wild type under SD conditions. The gmap1 mutant and the overexpression lines also exhibited altered expression of several genes related to flowering and gibberellic acid metabolism, thereby providing insight into the role of GmAP1 in the regulatory networks controlling flowering time and plant height in soybean. Increased node number is the trait with the most promise for enhancing soybean pod number and grain yield. Therefore, the mutant alleles of the four AP1 homologs described here will be invaluable for molecular breeding of improved soybean yield.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Mutação/genética , Soja/metabolismo
19.
Nat Genet ; 52(4): 428-436, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231277

RESUMO

Adaptive changes in plant phenology are often considered to be a feature of the so-called 'domestication syndrome' that distinguishes modern crops from their wild progenitors, but little detailed evidence supports this idea. In soybean, a major legume crop, flowering time variation is well characterized within domesticated germplasm and is critical for modern production, but its importance during domestication is unclear. Here, we identify sequential contributions of two homeologous pseudo-response-regulator genes, Tof12 and Tof11, to ancient flowering time adaptation, and demonstrate that they act via LHY homologs to promote expression of the legume-specific E1 gene and delay flowering under long photoperiods. We show that Tof12-dependent acceleration of maturity accompanied a reduction in dormancy and seed dispersal during soybean domestication, possibly predisposing the incipient crop to latitudinal expansion. Better understanding of this early phase of crop evolution will help to identify functional variation lost during domestication and exploit its potential for future crop improvement.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Domesticação , Fabaceae/genética , Fotoperíodo , Sementes/genética
20.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 272, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256507

RESUMO

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an important crop for oil and protein resources worldwide, and its farming is impacted by increasing soil salinity levels. In Arabidopsis the gene EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), increased salt tolerance by suppressing salt stress response pathways. J is the ortholog of AtELF3 in soybean, and loss-of-function J-alleles greatly prolong soybean maturity and enhance grain yield. The exact role of J in abiotic stress response in soybean, however, remains unclear. In this study, we showed that J expression was induced by NaCl treatment and that the J protein was located in the nucleus. Compared to NIL-J, tolerance to NaCl was significantly lower in the NIL-j mutant. We also demonstrated that overexpression of J increased NaCl tolerance in transgenic soybean hairy roots. J positively regulated expression of downstream salt stress response genes, including GmWRKY12, GmWRKY27, GmWRKY54, GmNAC, and GmSIN1. Our study disclosed a mechanism in soybean for regulation of the salt stress response. Manipulation of these genes should facilitate improvements in salt tolerance in soybean.

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