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1.
Addict Behav ; 125: 107167, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753093

RESUMO

PURPOSE: E-cigarette use is a problem among youth, yet few vaping cessation programs exist. This study aimed to understand what youth want in a school-based vaping cessation program to inform intervention development. METHODS: We conducted 8 focus groups in Fall 2019 with Connecticut high school youth (N = 4-10 adolescents per group, total N = 62, 50% female). 6 groups were with youth who were current (i.e., past-month) e-cigarette users and 2 groups were with past users (i.e., lifetime users with no past-month use). Discussions focused on desired features and concerns about a vaping cessation program and analyses used an iterative inductive and deductive approach to identify qualitative themes. We also collected brief survey data assessing skills youth wanted to learn from a vaping cessation program. RESULTS: Qualitative themes emerged indicating that youth want a vaping cessation program to include education about health effects of vaping, relatable personal anecdotes from others, and rewards for quitting. Potential concerns include confidentiality (e.g., ensuring teachers/coaches would not know about e-cigarette use), perceptions that youth may not want to participate due to lack of interest/apathy or embarrassment, and needing methods to verify abstinence to limit inaccurate reporting. The most frequently endorsed skills from the survey indicated youth want to learn ways to deal with stress (92%), relax (60%), and deal with poor concentration/attention (55%). CONCLUSIONS: Findings identified key features to include and issues to address when developing school-based vaping cessation programs. Developing effective vaping cessation programs that appeal to youth is important for addressing youth e-cigarette use.

2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing youth vaping expectancies using a psychometrically sound measure can improve understanding of e-cigarette susceptibility and use. METHODS: We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Short-Form Vaping Consequences Questionnaire (SF-VCQ), an expectancy measure previously validated with adults, within a sample of 1,753 high school adolescents who completed an online, school-based survey in Fall 2020 (51.6% female; 15.56[1.22] years old; 46.6% non-Hispanic white; 26.9% reported lifetime but no past-30-day vaping; 12.6% reported past-30-day vaping). Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, measurement invariance, between-group differences, and test-criterion relationships. RESULTS: The 4-factor structure was confirmed and was scalar invariant by lifetime and past-month vaping status, sex, and race. All subscales were internally reliable (mean α=0.94). The subscales were sensitive to differences based on sex, race, vaping susceptibility among never users, and lifetime and past-month vaping status. For example, students who vaped in the past-month held weaker expectancies for negative consequences but stronger expectancies for positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and appetite/weight control compared to lifetime vapers. Unadjusted relationships within the subsamples of lifetime and past-month vapers provided evidence of convergent validity. Evidence for concurrent validity was observed for all samples after accounting for covariates. For example, expectancies for positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and appetite/weight control remained significantly associated with past-month vaping frequency. CONCLUSIONS: The SF-VCQ evidenced excellent internal reliability, scalar measurement invariance, and construct, convergent, and concurrent validity in samples of never, lifetime, and past-month adolescent e-cigarette users. Findings support using the SF-VCQ for assessing youths' vaping-related expectancies. IMPLICATIONS: The current study established the psychometric properties of the SF-VCQ for use among adolescents with and without vaping experience, including measurement invariance that permits direct comparisons of expectancies across these two groups. When considered in concert with previously published research in adults, the SF-VCQ provides researchers with a measure that can be used with both youth and adult samples. Observed relationships between positive expectancies and vaping susceptibility in vaping naïve youth and indices of vaping frequency in youth with vaping experience suggest that challenging positive expectancies may be a valuable addition to prevention and intervention efforts to reduce youth vaping.

3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 228: 109104, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaping is the second most common modality of using cannabis following smoking. We examined differences in demographics and substance use behaviors between adolescent cannabis vapers and those exclusively using other cannabis modalities. METHODS: In 2019, 4875 students from six Connecticut high schools completed school-wide, online surveys. Past-month cannabis users (n = 931; 52.8% female, 16.38(1.27) years old, 44.9% non-Hispanic White) reported on cannabis modalities used (e.g., combustible, vaporizable, edible) and were classified as cannabis vapers or non-vapers. Cannabis vapers reported on device type used to vape cannabis: a cannabis-specific device or modified/hacked e-cigarette. Unadjusted and adjusted relationships were examined to identify demographic and substance-related differences between cannabis vapers and non-vapers. RESULTS: 56.3% of past-month cannabis users reported vaping cannabis. Cannabis vapers reported using both cannabis-specific vaporizers (91.9%) and modifying/hacking e-cigarettes (23.7%). Cannabis vapers, relative to other cannabis users, were more likely to be male, White, initiate cannabis use at a younger age; endorse past-month use of all cannabis modalities, alcohol, and e-cigarettes; and report smoking and dabbing cannabis more frequently; consuming more drinks per drinking day; and using e-cigarettes at a younger age and more frequently. CONCLUSIONS: Relative to other cannabis modalities, vaping was associated with increased use of several cannabis products and other substances. Adolescent past-month cannabis users reported modifying e-cigarettes to vape cannabis. Findings suggest that regulations should be implemented to prevent e-cigarettes from being modifiable for use with cannabis and highlight the importance of assessing different cannabis use modalities, as vaping was associated with distinct substance-related risks.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256844, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469460

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: E-liquid flavor is typically presented by flavor category (e.g. menthol, mint, fruit, dessert). Cooling sensations produced by flavor additives such as menthol enhance appeal of e-cigarettes among youth, but not all e-liquids that produce cooling sensations are labeled as menthol. Sensory experiences produced by flavors may allow for a new way to capture e-cigarette flavor use. This study aims to examine use of flavors that produce cooling sensations among youth and its association with e-cigarette use behaviors. METHODS: A 2019 survey of high school students (n = 4875) examined use of e-cigarette flavors that produced cooling sensations (cooling flavors) among past 30-day e-cigarette users. E-cigarette use behaviors (flavor use, nicotine use, frequency of use) were examined between those who did and did not use cooling flavors. A binary logistic regression was used to examine associations between vaping frequency, nicotine (vs. non-nicotine) use, and vaping cooling flavors while controlling for demographics, number of flavors vaped in the past month, and vaping age of onset. RESULTS: 51.6% (n = 473/916) of the analytic sample endorsed vaping cooling flavors. There were no demographic differences by vaping cooling flavors. Vaping cooling flavors was associated with vaping more frequently (AOR:1.04,95% CI:1.03,1.05) and vaping nicotine (AOR:2.37,95% CI:1.53,3.67). CONCLUSION: Vaping cooling flavors was associated with greater nicotine vaping and frequency of e-cigarette use. Assessing sensory experience, such as cooling, in addition to flavor category may more fully capture e-cigarette flavor use and its impacts on youth e-cigarette use behaviors.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Aromatizantes/administração & dosagem , Mentol/administração & dosagem , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Prev Med ; 153: 106766, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418439

RESUMO

E-cigarette use among adolescents and young adults has been associated with adverse respiratory symptoms, including symptoms of asthma and bronchitis. This investigation examined whether such associations differ by primary type of e-cigarette device used. This cross-sectional study included data from four study populations in California and Connecticut, United States, ages 13-21 years (N = 10,483), who self-reported their tobacco use behaviors and health status from 2018 to 2020. Adverse respiratory symptoms were grouped as bronchitis, asthma exacerbation, and shortness of breath. Associations with e-cigarette use were examined by frequency of e-cigarette use (regardless of device type) and most-frequently use device type in the past 30 days (pod, pen/tank, disposable, or mod). Multivariable modeling accounted for demographic variables and use of other tobacco and cannabis. Results were pooled at the study level via random-effects meta-analysis. Across the four studies, e-cigarette use >5 days/month versus never use was associated with bronchitic symptoms (summary odds ratio, sOR: 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.37, 1.77) and shortness of breath (sOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.35, 2.08) but not statistically significantly with asthma exacerbations (sOR: 1.36; 95% CI; 0.95, 1.95). Among past 30-day e-cigarette users, associations with respiratory symptoms did not differ by device type. In these populations, e-cigarette use was positively associated with symptoms of bronchitis and shortness of breath, but adjusted odds of symptoms did not differ meaningfully by device type. These findings suggest that risk of these respiratory outcomes is elevated among more frequent e-cigarette users regardless of device type used.

6.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 226: 108905, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304122

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Marijuana vaping among adolescents is a growing public health concern. Marijuana vaping exposes youth to greater levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and may be related to e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). This study examined the risk factors for initiating marijuana vaping among US adolescents. METHODS: We analyzed Waves 3 (2015-2016) and 4 (2016-2018) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. We estimate a multivariable logistic regression to model marijuana vaping initiation at Wave 4 among those who never vaped marijuana at Wave 3 (N = 7,821) as a function of key risk factors associated with youth substance use. RESULTS: Marijuana vaping initiation is associated with current use of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) (aOR = 2.16, 95 % CI = 1.20, 3.89), cigarettes (aOR = 2.65, 95 % CI = 1.10, 6.35), other marijuana products (aOR = 7.78, 95 % CI = 3.74, 6.15), and alcohol (aOR = 1.98, 95 % CI = 1.35, 2.91). Other factors contributing to marijuana vaping initiation include being 15-17 years old (aOR = 1.51, 95 % CI = 1.19, 1.90) and Hispanic (aOR = 1.37, 95 % CI = 1.08, 1.76), as well as having less than college-level parental education (aOR = 1.35, 95 % CI = 1.07, 1.70), vaping peers (aOR = 2.31; 95 % CI = 1.81, 2.96), and a high internalizing (aOR = 1.49, 95 % CI = 1.10, 2.02) and externalizing tendency (aOR = 1.66, 95 % CI = 1.14, 2.41). CONCLUSIONS: Multi-level efforts are needed to target the varying risk factors leading to marijuana vaping initiation in adolescents. Knowledge of these risk factors can help policymakers and health program administrators to identify at-risk individuals and design interventions that can prevent marijuana vaping initiation at the individual, household, school, clinical and public health levels.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adolescente , Humanos , Tabaco
7.
J Nucl Med ; 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049983

RESUMO

To assess the efficacy and safety of 177Lu-DOTATATE in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSR) positive lung neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Methods: This is a retrospective review of the outcome of patients with typical carcinoid (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), treated with 177Lu-DOTATATE at two ENETS Centres of Excellence. Morphological imaging (RECIST 1.1) and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT responses were assessed at 3 months after completion of 177Lu-DOTATATE. Concordance between two response assessment methods was evaluated by Kappa statistics. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared by Log-rank test. Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were graded based on CTCAE version 5. Results: Of 48 patients (median age, 63 years, 13 female), 43 (90%) had AC and 5 (10%) TC. Almost all patients (47, 98%) were treated due to progression. Majority (40, 83%) received somatostatin analogs and 10 patients (20%) had prior everolimus, chemotherapy or both. All patients had high SSR expression (≥ modified Krenning score 3) on pre-treatment 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT. Patients received a median 4 (range 1-4) cycles of 177Lu-DOTATATE (33% with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy) to a median cumulative activity of 27GBq (range 6-43GBq). At median follow-up of 42 months, the median PFS and OS were 23 months (95% CI 18-28 months) and 59 months (95% CI 50-not reached [NR]), respectively. Of 40 patients with RECIST-measurable disease and 39 patients with available 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT response categories were: partial response, 20% (95% CI 10-35%) and 44% (95% CI 30-59%); stable disease, 68% (95% CI 52-80%) and 44% (95% CI 30-59%) and progressive disease 12% (95% CI 5-27%) by both, respectively. There was a moderate concordance between response categories by RECIST and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, weighted Kappa of 0.51 (95% CI 0.21-0.68). Of patients with stable disease by RECIST, those with partial response on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT had longer OS compared to those with no response, NR vs 52 months (95% CI 28-64), HR 0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.6), p 0.001. Most grade 3/4 AEs were reversible and the most common was lymphopenia (14%) with no incidence of myelodysplasia/leukemia. Conclusion: In patients with advanced progressive lung NET and satisfactory SSR expression, 177Lu-DOTATATE is effective and safe with a high disease control rate and encouraging PFS and OS.

8.
Subst Use Misuse ; 56(4): 442-448, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596764

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: E-cigarettes are marketed on brand-sponsored Facebook profile pages despite Facebook's policy to prohibit e-cigarette marketing on their platform. We aimed to identify e-cigarette marketing strategies used and products marketed on brand-sponsored Facebook profiles and assess whether these strategies and featured products differ by user engagement. METHODS: We examined up to 10 recent Facebook posts on 26 e-cigarette brand-sponsored profile pages uploaded between August 1 and November 31, 2016. We identified positive engagement (i.e. "like," "love"), negative engagement (i.e. "sad," "angry"), post type (e.g. link, photo), type of sales promotion (e.g. giveaways, discounts), non-sales promotion (e.g. event promotion without product marketing), and marketed products (e.g. e-cigarettes, e-liquids). RESULTS: We examined 225 Facebook posts. Engagement was modest (e.g. Median "likes" = 8 [Min = 0, Max = 591]). The most common post types were photos (52.6%) and links (35.5%). Of all links, 83.7% were links to online shops. Of all posts, 35.0% had overt sales promotional content, 32.0% featured non-sales promotional content, and 68.0% featured an e-cigarette product. The most commonly featured product was an e-cigarette device (50.6%). Posts with more positive engagement included giveaways (versus sales [p = 0.009]) and posts marketing vaping devices (versus e-liquids [p = 0.004)]). Negative engagement was not associated with marketing strategies or products. Of the brand-sponsored profile pages, 42.3% could be accessed by underage users. DISCUSSION: E-cigarettes are marketed on Facebook using a variety of promotional strategies. Importantly, underage youth often can access this marketing content. Comprehensive tobacco control policies that restrict e-cigarette marketing on social media are needed urgently.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Mídias Sociais , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adolescente , Humanos , Marketing
9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108497, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent e-cigarette use has increased recently; however, little is known about trends in use of specific devices by youth. This study aims to 1) compare rates of e-cigarette device use over time, 2) examine changes in frequency of device use, and 3) identify predictors of device use. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were distributed school-wide across 4 diverse Connecticut high-schools in 2017, 2018, 2019 and assessed current (i.e., past-30-day) use of various e-cigarette devices: disposables/cig-a-likes, vape pens, mods, JUULs, and other rechargeable pod devices (added in 2018 and 2019). Analyses compared rates of device use and frequency (i.e., number of days used in past 30) over time. Multivariable logistic regression models examined demographic and tobacco use characteristics (e.g., age first trying e-cigarettes) as predictors of current use of each device type in 2019. RESULTS: From 2017-2019, rates of using JUUL, disposables/cig-a-likes, and vape pens increased significantly, while use of mods and other pod devices decreased (ps<.001). Over 59 % of youth reported using more than one e-cigarette device in 2019. Over time, more youth were frequent users (using ≥20 out of 30 days) of disposable/cig-a-likes (32 % to >46 %) and JUUL (28 % to >35 %) devices. In multivariable models, first trying e-cigarettes at a younger age was associated with current use of disposable/cig-a-like, vape pens, mods, and other rechargeable pod devices. CONCLUSIONS: From 2017-2019, JUUL, disposable/cig-a-like, and vape pens increased in popularity and were used frequently. Tobacco regulations designed to reduce youth use should consider various device types.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Vaping/tendências , Adolescente , Connecticut , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco
10.
Addict Behav ; 114: 106720, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162230

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are using e-cigarettes at high rates and there is limited information on how to help them quit. We aimed to inform e-cigarette cessation interventions by understanding why adolescents use and dislike e-cigarettes and their quit experiences. METHODS: Six focus groups with current users (i.e., past-month use) and 2 focus groups with past users (i.e., no past-month use) were conducted in Fall 2019 in Connecticut (N = 62). We used a focus group guide and an iterative approach to identify themes. RESULTS: Adolescents used e-cigarettes because of social reasons and to relieve stress and reported disliking e-cigarettes due to the cost, negative health effects, and addiction. They reported both intentional and unintentional experiences with quitting e-cigarettes. Reasons for unintentional quitting included lack of access to e-cigarettes. Reasons for intentional quitting included short-term "tolerance breaks" and health concerns. Of those who tried to quit, common quitting methods were "cold turkey," giving away their device, and limiting interactions with peer users. The most common withdrawal symptom was negative mood. Notable barriers to quitting included exposure to social influences at school, easy access to e-cigarettes, and lack of motivation to quit. DISCUSSION: Our qualitative evidence suggests that e-cigarette cessation interventions need to motivate youth to quit, and teach them to manage social influences, stress and other negative mood, and withdrawal symptoms. Interventions that address social norms related to use of e-cigarettes in school and reduce cues related to e-cigarette use may also be beneficial.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Connecticut , Humanos , Motivação , Fumar
12.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 29(4): 355-365, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297782

RESUMO

E-cigarettes are popular among adolescents. Given that flavors enhance e-cigarette appeal, this study examined the influence of flavors on nicotine in e-cigarettes. Youth e-cigarette users (average 26.2 days [SD = 3.6] in past 28 days) were randomized to use e-cigarettes containing 6 or 12 mg/mL of freebase nicotine and completed 4 test sessions. During the first 3 test sessions, participants completed 3 fixed puffing bouts (1 puffing bout = 10 puffs, 3 s each, 30-s interval), using menthol, green-apple, and unflavored e-liquids (50 propylene glycol [PG]/50 vegetable glycerin [VG]) with their assigned nicotine concentration in a random order using a ∼5.5-W V2 e-cigarette device. After each puffing bout, participants assessed subjective effects of nicotine and flavor. In the 4th test session, participants used any of the e-liquids they had tried in the earlier sessions, ad libitum for 60 min and the amount of e-liquid used for each flavor and the number of puffs was assessed. Participants (n = 49; 6 mg/mL [n = 24]; 12 mg/mL [n = 25]) were 63.3% male, 65.3% non-Hispanic White with an average age of 18.7 (SD = 0.9). Mixed models analysis revealed that green apple and 6 mg/mL of nicotine independently increased liking of e-cigarette taste. In addition, green apple produced higher ratings of fruitiness, sourness, sweetness, and menthol produced higher ratings of coolness. We did not observe any interactions between nicotine and flavor. Youth liked the taste of e-liquids containing green-apple flavor or low nicotine concentration which highlights the appeal of fruit flavors in e-cigarettes to adolescents. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

13.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(1): 204-216, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572559

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyse the molecular imaging (MI) phenotype of typical carcinoid (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC) by 68Ga-DOTATATE (GaTATE) and 18F-FDG (FDG) PET/CT with the emphasis on its potential theranostic implications for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with biopsy-proven TC or AC undergoing both GaTATE and FDG PET/CT at presentation. Based on correlative CT or MRI, positive lesions on either scan were defined by uptake above liver parenchyma. Per patient MI phenotypic pattern was classified as score 1, if all lesions were negative on both scans; score 2, if all were GaTATE positive/FDG negative; score 3, if all lesions were GaTATE positive but some or all were also FDG positive and score 4, if there were any GaTATE negative/FDG positive lesions. Scores 1 and 4 were deemed unsuitable for PRRT. RESULTS: Of 56 patients (median age 66.5 years, 32 female), 22 had TC, and 34 had AC. Distant metastases were seen in 32% of TC and 94% of AC. At a median follow-up of 37 months for TC and 38 months for AC, 100% and 63% were alive, respectively. Median OS for AC was 56 months (95% CI 43, not reached [NR]), and TC was NR. On inter-patient dual-tracer analysis, scores 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 23%, 18%, 36% and 23% in TC and 3%, 15%, 32% and 50% in AC, respectively. In 16 patients (score 2, N = 3; score 3, N = 12; score 4, N = 1) who were treated with PRRT, disease control rate at 3 months and OS were, 85% and 54.6 months (95% CI 44-70), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: TC and AC showed a wide inter-patient phenotypic heterogeneity on GaTATE and FDG with around half of patients (46% TC and 53% AC) having an unsuitable phenotype for PRRT. Dual-tracer MI phenotype can be used to select the most suitable patients for PRRT.


Assuntos
Tumor Carcinoide , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Compostos Organometálicos , Idoso , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Radioisótopos de Gálio , Humanos , Imagem Molecular , Fenótipo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Medicina de Precisão , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(5): 807-814, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247938

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: JUUL, a closed system e-cigarette with disposable pods, is popular among youth, with positive attributes of this product linked to current use by youth. However, many youth try JUUL and do not continue using; understanding differences in the appeal of this device between current users and those who chose not to continue use can inform regulation and prevention efforts. The aim of the current study is to compare JUUL appeal in youth among past users (ie, used, but not in past month) and current users (ie, used in past month). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four Connecticut high schools in Spring 2018. This survey assessed JUUL use and reasons for liking/disliking JUUL, including its' pharmacological effects (eg, nicotine "buzz"), product characteristics (eg, flavors), peer influence, appeal compared to other e-cigarettes, and concealability. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine differences in liking/disliking JUUL by use status (past vs. current). RESULTS: Among JUUL users (N = 1374; 43% of total sample), 30.4% were past users and 69.6% were current users. Compared to current users, past users were less likely to like JUUL for positive pharmacological effects (eg, nicotine "buzz"), product characteristics (eg, flavors), and peer use and more likely to dislike JUUL for the adverse pharmacological effects (eg, headache), product characteristics (eg, flavors), and for "other" reasons (open-ended response; eg, perceived harm). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that altering JUUL appeal through regulating nicotine content and flavors may be key in policy aimed at shifting youth to become past JUUL users. IMPLICATIONS: This study investigates how current and past youth JUUL users differ in their report of the appeal of JUUL. Past users are less likely to report experiencing positive pharmacological effects and product characteristics of JUUL and are less likely to report appeal due to peer use. Understanding how appeal of JUUL may differ among past and current users can aid in our understanding of how to regulate these products so that they are less appealing to current youth users.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Aromatizantes , Nicotina , Paladar , Vaping , Adolescente , Connecticut , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fumantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping/efeitos adversos
15.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 47(2): 238-246, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use among adolescents is increasingly popular and a growing public health concern. OBJECTIVES: To examine how individual e-cigarette use perceptions differ between adolescents based on e-cigarette use status and susceptibility to future use of e-cigarettes. METHODS: Data were collected using surveys administered across eight Connecticut high schools (grades 9-12), Spring 2015. N = 2592 students (Mage = 16.01, SD = 1.28, Female = 51.7%) reported e-cigarette use and susceptibility and were categorized into non-susceptible never-users (57.8%), susceptible never-users (16.9%) and ever-users (25.4%). Youth also responded to 12 e-cigarette use perceptions describing perceived benefits and risks of e-cigarette use. RESULTS: A multinomial logistic regression model was used. Eight use perceptions were related to susceptibility or use of e-cigarettes. The benefit-related use perception "feel relaxed" was the only item associated with greater odds of being both susceptible (vs. non-susceptible, p <.001) and an ever-user (vs. susceptible; p <.05). Two other benefit-related use perceptions were related to higher odds of being susceptible to e-cigarette use ("control your weight"; AOR = 1.82, p <.05; "look cool"; AOR = 3.13, p <.05). Results also identified key risk-related use perceptions that related to lower odds of either being susceptible to e-cigarette use ("have a heart attack"; AOR =.43, p <.001) or of ever-use ("have bad breath"; AOR =.28, p <.001; "get lung cancer"; AOR =.58, p <.05). CONCLUSION: E-cigarette use perceptions among youth differ by e-cigarette use and susceptibility status. Findings could help identify youth who are vulnerable to e-cigarette use and inform prevention, for example by developing counter-messaging for benefit perceptions associated with susceptibility and ever-use.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Addict Behav ; 113: 106666, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130462

RESUMO

In recent years, the tobacco use landscape among youth has changed greatly, underscoring a need to understand current tobacco product initiation patterns. This study aimed to examine if adolescents' first tobacco product tried differs by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 6 Connecticut high schools in Spring 2019 (N = 4875). The analytic sample comprised ever users of tobacco products who reported on the first tobacco product they tried (N = 2530; 53.6% female). Of ever tobacco product users, 64.6% reported that their first tobacco product tried was an e-cigarette, 24.4% reported blunts, 6.5% reported another tobacco product, and 4.5% reported cigarettes. A multinomial logistic regression model examined race/ethnicity and SES as predictors of the first tobacco product tried with cigarettes as the reference group. Compared to Non-Hispanic (NH) White students, NH Black students (OR = 0.38, 95%CI = 0.17-0.82), Hispanic students (OR = 0.44, 95%CI = 0.27-0.71), and students of other NH races (OR = 0.30, 95%CI = 0.18-0.52) were less likely to report initiating tobacco product use with e-cigarettes. Additionally, compared to NH White students, NH Black students were more likely to report using blunts as their first tobacco product (OR = 3.01, 95%CI = 1.38-6.56). Compared to low SES, middle SES (OR = 1.62, 95%CI = 1.04-2.52) was associated with greater odds of reporting e-cigarettes as the first tobacco product. These findings suggest that youth of different backgrounds initiate tobacco use with different tobacco products and tailored prevention strategies are needed.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243368, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In November 2018, JUUL, Inc. restricted sales of mango, fruit medley, crème brûlée, and cucumber pods to its website. Physical/online sales of tobacco, menthol, and mint pods continued. We examined rates of adolescent JUUL device and flavored pod use before and after restrictions were implemented to examine their potential impact. METHODS: Students from 4 Connecticut high schools completed cross-sectional surveys in 2018 (N = 3170) and 2019 (N = 3074). RESULTS: Compared to 2018, current (past-month) JUUL use decreased in 2019 (30.2-25.6%). Among current JUUL users, restricted flavor use (mango [62.8-36.9%]; cucumber [27.7-11.9%]; fruit [23.5-11.4%]; crème brûlée [12.3-5.0%]) and the total number of flavors used (2.09[SD = 1.71]-1.51[SD = 1.33]) decreased (p-values < .001), while mint pod use increased (62.0-68.6%, p < .01). Tobacco and menthol pod use remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: Following voluntary sales restrictions implemented by JUUL, Inc., restricted flavor use and the total number of flavors used decreased among JUUL users while mint use increased. Results suggest flavor restrictions may impact adolescents' e-cigarette use. While 2020 Food and Drug Administration restrictions on mint pods may further limit youth JUUL use, research is needed to determine where youth acquire restricted flavors and if restrictions prompt increased popularity of unrestricted devices/e-liquids.


Assuntos
Comércio , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Aromatizantes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Vaping , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Addict Behav ; 110: 106516, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622027

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preliminary evidence suggests adolescents use e-cigarettes in school. However, little is known about the types of devices that are used in schools, where they are used, and who uses them. Knowledge about these issues is critical to inform school regulations. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 6 Connecticut high schools in 2019. Adolescents reported on current use (past 30-day use) of the following e-cigarette devices inschool: JUUL, any pod system other than JUUL, vape pens, disposables, mods, and on deviceuse in different locations: class, bathroom, hallways, outside on school grounds, and other school locations. Separate binary logistic regressions investigated predictors of use (demographics and past month use frequency of each device) in school for each device. RESULTS: Overall, 45.0% of current users (N = 1447) used e-cigarettes at school. Among users of each device, prevalence of current use at school varied by device with 45.7% reporting JUUL use, 41.3% other pod use, 34.6% vape pen use, 38.3% disposables use and 27.3% mod use. Current users used devices in bathrooms (75.1%), followed by outside on school grounds (52.2%), classrooms (45.7%), hallways (38.8%) and other school locations (11.7%). Greater e-cigarette past month use frequency for each device was associated with device use in school. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine use of specific e-cigarette devices in schools and demonstrates that e-cigarette use frequency predicts school use. Despite rules against vaping, e-cigarette use remains prevalent in many school locations, suggesting alternative strategies such as prevention and e-cigarette education are needed.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Connecticut , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Med Phys ; 47(9): 4332-4339, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dosimetry in nuclear medicine often relies on estimating pharmacokinetics based on sparse temporal data. As analysis methods move toward image-based three-dimensional computation, it becomes important to interpolate and extrapolate these data without requiring manual intervention; that is, in a manner that is highly efficient and reproducible. Iterative least-squares solvers are poorly suited to this task because of the computational overhead and potential to optimize to local minima without applying tight constraints at the outset. METHODOLOGY: This work describes a fully analytical method for solving three-phase exponential time-activity curves based on three measured time points in a manner that may be readily employed by image-based dosimetry tools. The methodology uses a series of conditional statements and a piecewise approach for solving exponential slope directly through measured values in most instances. The proposed algorithm is tested against a purpose-designed iterative fitting technique and linear piecewise method followed by single exponential in a cohort of ten patients receiving 177 Lu-DOTA-Octreotate therapy. RESULTS: Tri-exponential time-integrated values are shown to be comparable to previously published methods with an average difference between organs when computed at the voxel level of 9.8 ± 14.2% and -3.6 ± 10.4% compared to iterative and interpolated methods, respectively. Of the three methods, the proposed tri-exponential algorithm was most consistent when regional time-integrated activity was evaluated at both voxel- and whole-organ levels. For whole-body SPECT imaging, it is possible to compute 3D time-integrated activity maps in <5 min processing time. Furthermore, the technique is able to predictably and reproducibly handle artefactual measurements due to noise or spatial misalignment over multiple image times. CONCLUSIONS: An efficient, analytical algorithm for solving multiphase exponential pharmacokinetics is reported. The method may be readily incorporated into voxel-dose routines by combining with widely available image registration and radiation transport tools.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos , Radiometria , Algoritmos , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
20.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(10): 2322-2327, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140802

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We analysed quantitative biomarkers derived from both baseline whole-body imaging and blood serum to identify prognostic markers in patients treated within the lutetium-177 prostate-specific membrane antigen (LuPSMA) phase 2 trial. METHODS: PET image analysis was carried out using whole-body segmentation quantifying molecular tumour volume (SUV > 3 threshold for PSMA, SUV > liver+2sd for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) including SUVmax and SUVmean. For baseline bone scans, EXINI bone scan index (BSI) was used to calculate the percentage of involved bone. Baseline alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prostate specific antigen (PSA) and PSA doubling time were also used in this analysis. We used univariate cox regression analysis and log-rank comparison with optimised cut-offs to find suitable biomarkers prognostic of overall survival from time of enrolment. RESULTS: This analysis identified FDG-positive tumour volume (FDGvol; HR 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-4.8), mean intensity of PSMA-avid tumour uptake (PSMAmean; HR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.8-0.98), bone scan index (BSI; HR 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.4), ALP (HR 1.1; 95% CI, 1-1.2) and LDH (HR 1.2; 95% CI, 1-1.5) as biomarkers prognostic of overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to established biomarkers, both FDG and PSMA PET/CT parameters have prognostic significance for survival in men undergoing LuPSMA therapy.


Assuntos
Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Dipeptídeos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 1 Anel , Humanos , Lutécio , Masculino , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
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