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1.
Inorg Chem ; 60(20): 15759-15767, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606253

RESUMO

The crown-shaped organotriphosphonate-modified 36-molybdenum cluster (NH4)18Na7H11[Zn(H2O)TeMo6O21{N(CH2PO3)3}]6·23H2O (1) has been synthesized, which is the largest zinc-containing organophosphonate-based polyoxometalate to date. Compound 1 was prepared in buffer solution (pH 5.5) with heptamolybdate and amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) as the organic ligand. The polyanion constructed from a hexmeric assembly of [Zn(H2O){TeMo6O21}{N(CH2PO3)3}]6- subunits has been fully investigated by a few characterization methods. In this work, we discovered that 1 exhibited reversible photochromism and it changed from white to reddish brown upon UV irradiation. In addition, compound 1, as a catalyst, can oxidize sulfides to sulfoxides, showing a high yield/conversion and a good selectivity.

2.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 556, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain metastasis is an important cause of increased mortality in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In brain metastasis, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is frequently impaired, forming blood-tumor barrier (BTB). The efficacy of chemotherapy is usually very poor. However, the characteristics of BTB and the impacts of BTB on chemotherapeutic drug delivery remain unclear. The present study investigated the structure of BTB, as well as the distribution of routine clinical chemotherapeutic drugs in both brain and peripheral tumors. METHODS: Bioluminescent image was used to monitor the tumor load after intracranial injection of lung cancer Lewis cells in mice. The permeability of BBB and BTB was measured by fluorescent tracers of evans blue and fluorescein sodium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were performed to analyze structural differences between BBB and BTB. The concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs (gemcitabine, paclitaxel and pemetrexed) in tissues were assayed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). RESULTS: Brain metastases exhibited increased BTB permeability compared with normal BBB detected by fluorescence tracers. TEM showed abnormal blood vessels, damaged endothelial cells, thick basement membranes, impaired intercellular endothelial tight junctions, as well as increased fenestrae and pinocytotic vesicles in metastatic lesions. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence revealed that astrocytes were distributed surrounded the blood vessels both in normal brain and the tumor border, but no astrocytes were found in the inner metastatic lesions. By LC-MS/MS analysis, gemcitabine showed higher permeability in brain metastases. CONCLUSIONS: Brain metastases of lung cancer disrupted the structure of BBB, and this disruption was heterogeneous. Chemotherapeutic drugs can cross the BTB of brain metastases of lung cancer but have difficulty crossing the normal BBB. Among the three commonly used chemotherapy drugs, gemcitabine has the highest distribution in brain metastases. The permeability of chemotherapeutic agents is related to their molecular weight and liposolubility.

3.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 130: 112461, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702536

RESUMO

Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing of pure tantalum and their graded lattice structures was systematically investigated, with emphasis on their microstructure evolution, phase formation, surface energy and biological properties in comparison with conventionally forged pure Ta. The LPBF fabricated Ta (LPBF-Ta) exhibited lower contact angles and higher surface energy than the forged-Ta which indicated the better wettability of the LPBF-Ta. The adhesion and proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) were also enhanced for the LPBF-Ta when compared to forged-Ta. Three different Ta graded gyroid lattice structures (i.e., uniform structure, Y-gradient structure, Z-gradient structure) were designed and fabricated using the same optimised LPBF parameters. Y-gradient structures exhibited the best plateau stress and compressive modulus among three different graded structures due to the maximum local volume fraction on the fracture plane. In fatigue response, Y-gradient outperformed the other two gyroid structures under varying stresses. In terms of cell culture response, the uniform structures performed the best biocompatibility due to its suitable pore size for cell adhesion and growth. This study provides new and in-depth insights into the LPBF additive manufacturing of pure Ta graded lattice structures with desired fatigue and biological properties for load-bearing orthopaedic applications.


Assuntos
Ortopedia , Tantálio , Animais , Teste de Materiais , Porosidade , Ratos , Suporte de Carga
4.
Inorg Chem ; 60(19): 14872-14879, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533941

RESUMO

A novel organodiphosphonate-based telluromolybdate cluster, (NH4)6Na3H13[TeMo10O37(CoMo2O6L)4]·11H2O [1; L = (O3P)2C(O)(CH2)3NH2], has been successfully synthesized by a simple one-pot aqueous reaction. Intriguingly, the [TeMo10O37]10- subunit with tetrahedral geometry of TeO4 is observed in the organophosphonate-functionalized polyoxometalates for the first time. Compound 1 was prepared in a buffer solution (pH = 5.5) with alendronic acid (Ale) and (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O as raw materials. The polyanion [TeMo10O37(CoMo2O6L)4]22- was constructed from four {Mo2O6L} subunits encapsulating an interesting Te-Mo heterometal subunit [TeMo10O37]10- through four CoO6 octahedra and has been fully characterized by routine techniques. In addition, compound 1, as a heterogeneous catalyst, shows good conversion (92%) and high selectivity (99%) for Knoevenagel condensation reaction.

5.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 179: 109025, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454003

RESUMO

AIMS: Hair cell reduction was related to diabetes-induced hearing loss. Oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autophagy participate in this process. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a protein with many biological functions which can regulate them. In this study, aiming to clarify protective effect of Trx on diabetic hearing loss and to identify an early potential therapeutic target for diabetic hearing impairment in the future. METHODS: Trx transgenic (Tg) mice were used to establish a diabetic model by intraperitoneally injecting streptozotocin (STZ) and with/without SF or PX12 treatment. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) staining was used to evaluate the loss of hair cells. The relative expression of related proteins and genes was detected using western blotting and qRT-PCR. RESULTS: In vivo, loss of outer hair cells was observed. However, it can be delayed Trx overexpression. Moreover, the expression of PGC-1α, bcl-2 and LC3 was increased in Tg(+)-DM mice compared with Tg(-)-DM mice. The expression of ASK1, Txnip, GRP78, CHOP and p62 was decreased in Tg(+)-DM mice compared with Tg(-)-DM mice. CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of Trx protects diabetes-induced cochlear hair cells reduction. The underlying mechanisms were related to the regulation of ER stress through ASK1 and the mitochondrial pathway or autophagy via Txnip.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Perda Auditiva , Animais , Apoptose , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Perda Auditiva/genética , Perda Auditiva/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
6.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 257, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage, also known as "stroke", is one of the leading cause of death. At present, there is no real specific medicine for stroke. Crinis Carbonisatus (named Xue-yu-tan in Chinese), produced from carbonized hair of healthy human, and has been widely applied to relieve pain and treat epilepsy, stroke and other diseases in China for thousands of years. RESULTS: In this work, a new species of carbon dots derived from Crinis Carbonisatus (CrCi-CDs) were separated and identified. And the neuroprotective effect of carbon dots from CrCi were evaluated using the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Neurological deficit score and infarction volume was assessed, evans blue content of ischemic hemispheres was measured, the concentrations of inflammatory factors, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the cortex were measured, and the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain were determined. Preconditioning of CrCi-CDs significantly reduced ischemic lesion volume and blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability, improved neurologic deficits, decreased the level of TNF-α and IL-6 in MCAO rats, inhibited excitatory neurotransmitters aspartate (Asp) and glutamate (Glu), and increased the level of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The RNA-Sequencing results reveal that further potential mechanisms behind the activities may be related to the anti-inflammation effects and inhibition of neuroexcitatory toxicity. CONCLUSION: CrCi-CDs performs neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury, and the mechanisms may correlate with its anti-inflammatory action, which suggested that CrCi-CDs have potential value in clinical therapy on the acute apoplexy cases in combination with thrombolytic drugs.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 638194, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222271

RESUMO

This study aimed to detect, analyze, and correlate the clinical characteristics, blood coagulation functions, blood calcium levels, and inflammatory factors in patients with mild and severe COVID-19 infections. The enrolled COVID-19 infected patients were from Wuhan Jin Yin-tan Hospital (17 cases, Wuhan, China), Suzhou Infectious Disease Hospital (87 cases, Suzhou, China), and Xuzhou Infectious Disease Hospital (14 cases, Xuzhou, China). After admission, basic information was collected; X-ray and chest CT images were obtained; and data from routine blood tests, liver and kidney function, myocardial enzymes, electrolytes, blood coagulation function, (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, procalcitonin (PCT), calcitonin, and other laboratory tests were obtained. The patients were grouped according to the clinical classification method based on the pneumonia diagnosis and treatment plan for new coronavirus infection (trial version 7) in China. The measurements from mild (56 cases) and severe cases (51 cases) were compared and analyzed. Most COVID-19 patients presented with fever. Chest X-ray and CT images showed multiple patchy and ground glass opacities in the lungs of COVID 19 infected patients, especially in patients with severe cases. Compared with patients with mild infection, patients with severe infection were older (p = 0.023) and had a significant increase in AST and BUN. The levels of CK, LDH, CK-MB, proBNP, and Myo in patients with severe COVID-19 infection were also increased significantly compared to those in patients with mild cases. Patients with severe COVID-19 infections presented coagulation dysfunction and increased D-dimer and fibrin degradation product (FDP) levels. Severe COVID-19 patients had low serum calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations and high calcitonin and PCT levels and exhibited serious systemic inflammation. Ca2+ in COVID-19 patients was significantly negatively correlated with PCT, calcitonin, D-dimer, PFDP, ESR, CRP and IL-6. D-dimer in COVID-19 patients was a significantly positively correlated with CRP and IL-6. In conclusion, patients with severe COVID-19 infection presented significant metabolic dysfunction and abnormal blood coagulation, a sharp increase in inflammatory factors and calcitonin and procalcitonin levels, and a significant decrease in Ca2+. Decreased Ca2+ and coagulation dysfunction in COVID-19 patients were significantly correlated with each other and with inflammatory factors.

8.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(6): 7276-7281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk factors and clinical outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (CRKP) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was performed from January 2017 to September 2017. The risk factors and clinical outcomes of CRKP cases (n = 91) were compared with those of the controls infected with carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae (CSKP) (n = 91). Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using Etest while the type of bacteria was identified by Vitek 2. RESULTS: CRKP infection was associated with prior use of carbapenems, ß-lactam antibiotics, tigecycline, and hormones; complications with cerebrovascular lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; as well as prolonged hospitalization. Multivariable analysis showed that the use of carbapenem independently correlates with carbapenem resistance in the multivariable analysis. Carbapenem resistance, mechanical ventilation, tracheotomy, deep vein cannulation, indwelling urinary tract catheter, ICU treatment, and high Acute Physiology, Age, Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were related to in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: CRKP is a widely spread pathogen associated with high in-hospital mortality. Minimizing the use of antimicrobials, specifically the carbapenems, may be effective to reduce CRKP infection.

9.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 16(19): 1657-1671, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261362

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the gastroprotective effects of Nelumbinis Rhizomatis Nodus carbon dots (NRN-CDs) on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Materials & methods: NRN-CDs synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet, fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and zeta potential analyzer. Their gastroprotective effects toward ethanol-induced gastric ulcers were evaluated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Results: NRN-CDs showed an average diameter of 2.33 ± 0.42 nm and a lattice spacing of 0.29 nm. Pretreatment with NRN-CDs significantly decreased the ulcer index and attenuated the severity of gastric mucosal damage, indicating that NRN-CDs exerted potent gastric protective effect. Moreover, the gastroprotection effect was related to the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. Conclusion: NRN-CDs could be developed as a potential drug for the treatment of gastric ulcers.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Úlcera Gástrica , Animais , Carbono , Etanol/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 4299-4307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103985

RESUMO

Background: A growing interest exists in identifying reliable and low-cost biomarkers or factors that could predict the therapeutic response, prognosis, recurrence, and survival in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). This study aimed to investigate the better predictors of chemotherapy efficacy and prognosis in patients with SCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively retrieved the medical records of patients with SCLC treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy from January 2016 to June 2019 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Plasma biochemical parameters, clinical features, and overall survival (OS) time were collected. The independent effects of plasma parameters on patient survival were assessed by conducting univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. The optimal cut-off values of independent risk factors in the ROC curve and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were determined using MedCalc software. Results: Statistically significant differences in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and fibrinogen (Fbg) were found between the complete remission + partial remission group and the non-responders, which consisted of stable-disease and progressive-disease groups, after first-line chemotherapy. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that LDH and Fbg were independent risk factors in predicting PFS (LDH HR: 1.013, 95% CI: 1.002-1.030, P = 0.037; Fbg HR: 1.622, 95% CI: 1.094-2.526, P = 0.017) and OS (LDH HR: 1.021, 95% CI: 1.008-1.034, P = 0.001; Fbg HR: 2.168, 95% CI: 1.324-3.550, P = 0.002). The AUC of LDH and Fbg was 0.77 and 0.745, respectively. The cut-off value of LDH and Fbg in predicting OS was 263 U/L and 4.03 g/L. When these two data were combined, the AUC reached 0.832, better than that of LDH and Fbg alone. The objective response rate (ORR) and OS were significantly different among these three different groups according to the addition of the assigned value (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Combined retreatment serum LDH and Fbg levels may be a better potential biomarker for predicting the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy and the prognosis of individuals with SCLC. Combining these two parameters could improve prediction efficacy.

11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(38): 53847-53856, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036512

RESUMO

This study investigated the combined effects of seawater acidification and hypoxia on the antioxidant response in gonads of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus. Mussels were collected along the Shengsi Island, East China Sea, where oxygen and pH fluctuations frequently occur in summer. Mussels were exposed to three pH (8.1, 7.7, and 7.3) and two dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (6 and 2 mg L-1) for 21 days followed by a 10-day recovery period (pH 8.1 and DO 6 mg L-1). Gonad surface area (GSA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in gonad were measured at days 21 and 31. Complex and enzyme-specific responses were observed after the 21-day exposure period. Overall, PCA analysis revealed a stronger effect of pH than DO. Integrated biomarker response (IBR) analysis demonstrated that low pH and DO decreased mussel's antioxidant system and increased oxidative damage with potential consequences for gonad development. Mussels exposed to low pH and DO were only partly able to recover a normal enzymatic activity after 10-day recovery period. This suggests that mussels exposed to short-term pH and DO fluctuations event in the field may suffer lasting negative impacts.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antioxidantes , Gônadas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipóxia , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 1653-1666, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935492

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an incurable disease that urgently needs therapeutic approaches. Based on the therapeutic effects of fasudil and dichloroacetate (DCA) on PAH, we aimed to explore the effects and potential mechanism of a new salt, fasudil dichloroacetate (FDCA), in a SU5416 plus hypoxia (SuHx)-induced rat model of PAH. Methods: The rat model of PAH was established by a single subcutaneous injection of SU5416 (20 mg/kg) followed by hypoxia (10% O2) exposure for 3 weeks. FDCA (15, 45, or 135 mg/kg i.g. daily) or the positive control, bosentan (100 mg/kg i.g. daily), were administered from the first day after SU5416 injection. After 3-week hypoxia, hemodynamic parameters, and histological changes of the pulmonary arterial vessels and right ventricle (RV) were assessed. Additionally, in vitro, the effects of FDCA (50 µM), compared with equimolar doses of fasudil, DCA, or fasudil+DCA, on the proliferation, migration, and contraction of human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) under hypoxia (1% O2) were evaluated. Results: FDCA dose-dependently attenuated SuHx-induced PAH, with significant reductions in RV systolic pressure, pulmonary artery wall thickness, pulmonary vessel muscularization, perivascular fibrosis, as well as RV hypertrophy and fibrosis. In vitro, FDCA inhibited hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation, migration, and contraction to a greater degree than fasudil or DCA alone by restoring mitochondrial function, reducing intracellular Ca2+, and inhibiting calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (Ca2+/CaMK) activity as well as Rho-kinase activity. Conclusion: FDCA ameliorates hypoxia-induced PASMC dysfunction by inhibiting both Ca2+/CaMK and Rho-kinase signaling pathways, as well as maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, thus alleviating SuHx-induced PAH.


Assuntos
1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , Ácido Dicloroacético/farmacologia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Indóis , Masculino , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Pirróis , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211017050, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is an important complication of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). Whether the risk of lung cancer is higher in CPFE patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) than those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) alone, remains controversial. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of lung cancer in CPFE patients with UIP compared with IPF patients. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases for studies that focused on the incidence of lung cancer in CPFE/UIP and IPF groups. We used a fixed-effects model to analyze the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to data heterogeneity. The cumulative effects based on the publication year and sample size were assessed by cumulative meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of nine studies with 933 patients, including 374 CPFE patients with UIP, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Overall, CPFE patients with UIP have a higher risk of lung cancer than those with IPF alone (OR = 2.69; 95% CI: 1.78-4.05). There were increased risks of lung cancer in CPFE/UIP patients with the presence of emphysema (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.79-4.79) or emphysema in ⩾10% of the lung volume (OR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.06-4.68). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review and meta-analysis indicated a significantly higher prevalence of lung cancer in CPFE patients with UIP than in patients with IPF alone.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.

14.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 105, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon dots (CDs) with multifaceted advantages have provided hope for development brand-new nanodrug for treating thorny diseases. This study developed a green and simple calcination method to prepare novel CDs as promising drug for psoriasis treatment. The as-prepared CDs using Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex (PCC) as sole precursor were characterized by a series of methods, mainly including electron microscopy, optical technology and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). RESULTS: Results displayed that fluorescence (Quantum yield = 5.63%) and nontoxic PCC-based CDs (PCC-CDs) with abundant chemical groups exhibited solubility and tiny sizes at average of (1.93 ± 0.53) nm, which may be beneficial for its inherent biological activity. Moreover, by using the typical imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like skin mouse model, we firstly demonstrated the pronounced anti-psoriasis activity of as-prepared PCC-CDs on ameliorating the appearance, psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) scores as well as histopathological morphology of both back skin tissues and right ears in IMQ-induced mouse. Further potential mechanisms behind the anti-psoriasis activities may be related to suppress M1 polarization and relatively promote M2 polarization of macrophage both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that PCC-CDs have potential to be an anti-psoriasis candidate for clinical applications to treat psoriasis, which not only provided an evidence for further broadening the biological application of CDs, but also provided a potential hope for application nanodrugs to treat thorny diseases.


Assuntos
Carbono/uso terapêutico , Imiquimode/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Carbono/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imiquimode/química , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/patologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Pele/patologia
15.
Nanoscale ; 13(14): 6809-6818, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885482

RESUMO

The incidence rate of stress ulcers has increased in recent years, with an increase in life pressure, unavoidable trauma and other factors. The therapy of acute stress ulcers has always been an important challenge. Carbon dots (CDs) have been reported to show excellent biological activities, but research on the stress ulcer curative effect of CDs is unprecedented. Here, we prepared a series of semi-carbonized nanodots (SCNDs) from natural plants or herbs as precursors and the as prepared SCNDs were later proved to be effective in the treatment and inhibition of stress gastric ulcers in a rat model. One kind of SCND from edible and medicinal plants, charred Atractylodes macrocephala (SCNDs-1), is demonstrated in detail for its strong anti-stress gastric ulcer effect with inhibition up to 90% and shows extremely high biocompatibility and ultra-low toxicity. These SCNDs lead to the reduction of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress, and the protection of the gastric mucosa. The SCNDs also reduce the excessive neuroendocrine response caused by stress, regulate the energy metabolism and the structure of intestinal flora, improve the damage to the body caused by the stress state, thus alleviating the occurrence of stress-induced gastric ulcers. This work provides new insights into the preparation of carbon nanomaterials from natural plants through a semi-carbonization process and opens new ways to apply bio-active and bio-safe SCNDs in the modern pharmaceutical field.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Úlcera Gástrica , Animais , Mucosa Gástrica , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802020

RESUMO

Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GRR) is one of the commonly used traditional Chinese medicines in clinical practice, which has been applied to treat digestive system diseases for hundreds of years. GRR is preferred for anti-gastric ulcer, however, the main active compounds are still unknown. In this study, GRR was used as precursor to synthesize carbon dots (CDs) by a environment-friendly one-step pyrolysis process. GRR-CDs were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution TEM, fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, cellular toxicity of GRR-CDs was studied by using CCK-8 in RAW264.7 cells, and the anti-gastric ulcer activity was evaluated and confirmed using mice model of acute alcoholic gastric ulcer. The experiment confirmed that GRR-CDs were the spherical structure with a large number of active groups on the surface and their particle size ranged from 2 to 10 nm. GRR-CDs had no toxicity to RAW264.7 cells at concentration of 19.5 to 5000 µg/mL and could reduce the oxidative damage of gastric mucosa and tissues caused by alcohol, as demonstrated by restoring expression of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide in serum and tissue of mice. The results indicated the explicit anti-ulcer activity of GRR-CDs, which provided a new insights for the research on effective material basis of GRR.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Pontos Quânticos/química , Animais , Carbono/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glycyrrhiza/química , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Camundongos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica/métodos , Pirólise , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2461-2475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814910

RESUMO

Aim: To explore the effects of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis carbonisata-based carbon dots (RSFC-CDs) on an ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer rat model. Methods: The structure, optical properties, functional groups and elemental composition of RSFC-CDs synthesized by one-step pyrolysis were characterized. The gastric protective effects of RSFC-CDs were evaluated and confirmed by applying a rat model of ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcers. The underlying mechanisms were investigated through the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway and oxidative stress. Results: RSFC-CDs with a diameter ranging from 2-3 nm mainly showed gastric protective effects by reducing the levels of NF-κB, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) to inhibit ethanol-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. Conclusion: RSFC-CDs have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, making them promising for application in ethanol-induced gastric injury.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carbono/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2203-2217, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762821

RESUMO

Background: It is well known that smoking is harmful to health; however, it can also ameliorate anxiety. To date, it is unclear whether any nanoparticles found in cigarette mainstream smoke (CS) contribute to this effect. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the particle composition of CS to identify novel anti-anxiety components. Methods: Carbon dots (CDs) from CS (CS-CDs) were characterised using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, ultraviolet, fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-anxiety effects of CS-CDs in mouse models were evaluated and confirmed with the elevated plus maze and open-field tests. Results: The quantum yield of CS-CDs was 13.74%, with a composition of C, O, and N. In addition, the surface groups contained O-H, C-H, C=O, C-N, N-H, C-O-C, and COO- bonds. Acute toxicity testing revealed that CS-CDs had low in vitro and in vivo toxicity within a certain concentration range. The results of the elevated plus maze and open-field tests showed that CS-CDs had a significant anti-anxiety effect and a certain sedative effect in mice. The mechanism of these effects may be related to the decrease in glutamate levels and promotion of norepinephrine production in the mouse brain, and the decrease in dopamine in mouse serum due to CS-CDs. Conclusion: CS-CDs may have anti-anxiety and certain sedative effects. This study provides a new perspective for a more comprehensive understanding of the components, properties, and functions of CS. Furthermore, it offers a novel target for the development of smoking cessation treatments, such as nicotine replacement therapy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Carbono/química , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Pontos Quânticos/química , Água/química , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Animais , Ansiedade/sangue , Ansiedade/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Corticosterona/sangue , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/sangue , Dopamina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Pontos Quânticos/ultraestrutura , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise Espectral Raman , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Difração de Raios X
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112282, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780757

RESUMO

Ocean acidification and hypoxia have become increasingly severe in coastal areas, and their co-occurrence poses emerging threats to coastal ecosystems. Here, we investigated the combined effects of ocean acidification and hypoxia on the reproductive capacity of the thick-shelled mussel Mytilus coruscus. Our results demonstrated low pH but not low oxygen induced decreased gonadosomatic index (GSI) in mussels. Male mussels had a lower level of sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone) when kept at low pH. Expression of genes related to reproduction were also impacted by low pH with a downregulation of genes involved in gonad development in males (ß-catenin and Wnt-7b involved in males) and an upregulation of testosterone synthesis inhibition-related gene (Wnt-4) in females. Overall, our results suggest that ocean acidification has an impact on the gonadal development through an alternation of gene expression and level of steroids while hypoxia had no significant effect.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Animais , Ecossistema , Gônadas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipóxia , Masculino , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar
20.
Exp Ther Med ; 21(4): 295, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717238

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to explore the etiology of subconjunctival fibrosis (SCF) induced by ethylparaben, the most prevalent preservative in Chinese eye drops. Ethylparaben was administered to the left eyes of male Sprague-Dawley rats in the experimental group twice daily for 1 month, whereas the control group received PBS. Experimental group rats displayed a mild promotion in density of fibroblasts and a tighter deposition of collagen in the bulbar subepithelial connective tissue compared with the control group. Furthermore, the present findings revealed that extracellular matrix expression was promoted in murine bulbar conjunctival tissues in the experimental group. In primary conjunctival fibroblasts, expression of ECM triggered by ethylparaben was suppressed by XAV-939. Furthermore, stimulation of the Wnt/ß-catenin axis triggered by ethylparaben was impaired by XAV-939. In conclusion, SCF triggered by ethylparaben results from extra ECM generation of conjunctival fibroblasts via the Wnt/ß-catenin axis.

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