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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 236: 116067, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172882

RESUMO

Stimuli-responsive gel volume variation is reversible and has shown promising applications, which may be potential for contraction or expansion fabrication, generating shrinking or swelling volume of the original. In this study, a thermo/photo dual-crosslinking hydrogel is prepared with methacrylated hydroxylbutyl chitosan (MHBC) and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA). The M/G hydrogel undergoes sol-gel phase transition under room temperature and shrinking deformation upon elevating temperature. Besides nontoxicity and biodegradability, dual crosslink endowed the composite hydrogel with strengthened and tunable mechanical property, controlled and repeatable contraction property in response to temperature elevation from 25 ℃ to 37 ℃, and enhanced cell adhesion in 3D culture. These peculiarities of M/G hydrogel provide great potential for application in contraction fabrication to acquire high resolution or small scale features that may be limited by fabrications devices.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136959, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007869

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in aquatic environments are easily adsorbed onto colloidal particles, whereas the adsorption behavior as affected by molecular weight (MW) properties remained unknown till now. Herein, the bulk cyanobacterial EPS matrix (<0.45 µm) was fractionated into high MW (HMW-, 1 kDa~0.45 µm) and low MW (LMW-, <1 kDa) fractions, with MW-dependent adsorption heterogeneities onto TiO2 colloids exploring through batch experiment, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, and two dimensional Fourier transform infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-FTIR-COS). About two-thirds of total organic matters within bulk EPS matrix were distributed in the HMW fraction, leaving one-third in the LMW fraction. Compared to LMW-EPS, the HMW counterpart exhibited higher aromaticity and richness of autochthonous protein-like substances, showing evident MW-dependent differences in abundance and composition. The adsorption capacity based on the measurement of total abundance, UV-Vis and fluorescent spectra all decreased in sequence of HMW- > Bulk > LMW-EPS, demonstrating obvious MW-dependent adsorption heterogeneities. During adsorption, the values of SUVA254 in residual supernatants exhibited an initial decrease followed by gradual increase for all samples, suggesting that the preferentially adsorbed aromatic substances can be subsequently replaced by the non-aromatic moieties. 2D-FTIR-COS further revealed that the carboxylic groups of proteins were preferentially adsorbed onto colloidal surface, followed by the CC functional groups and then the CH groups of polysaccharides, which accounted for the variations of SUVA254 values in the supernatants. This study demonstrated that the adsorption behavior of EPS matrix was highly MW-dependent, and detailed characterization on size fractionation is thus needed in future studies.

3.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125272, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896182

RESUMO

Eutrophication pollution seriously threatens the sustainable development of Lake Taihu, China. In order to identify the primary parameters of water quality and the potential pollution sources, the water quality dataset of Lake Taihu (2010-2014) was analyzed with the water quality index (WQI) and multivariate statistical analysis methods. Principle component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) and correlation analysis screened out five significant water quality indicators, i.e. potassium permanganate index (CODMn), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chloride ion (Cl-) and dissolved oxygen (DO), to represent the whole datasets and evaluate the water quality with WQI. Since northwestern of Lake Taihu was the most heavily polluted area, the parameters of the water quality were analyzed to further explore the potential sources and their contributions. Five potential pollution sources of northwestern lake were identified, and the contribution rate of each pollution source was calculated by the absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models. In brief, the PMF model was more suitable for pollution source apportionment of the northwestern lake, and the contribution rate was ranked as agricultural non-point source pollution (26.6%) > domestic sewage discharge (23.5%) > industrial wastewater discharge and atmospheric deposition (20.6%) > phytoplankton growth (16.0%) > rainfall or wind disturbance (13.4%). This study might provide useful information for the optimization of water quality management and pollution control strategies of Lake Taihu.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos/química , Modelos Estatísticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , China , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Eutrofização , Análise Fatorial , Modelos Lineares , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal
4.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899494

RESUMO

Mamestra brassicae L. is an important, regionally migratory pest of vegetable crops in Europe and Asia. Its migratory activity contributes significantly to population outbreaks, causing severe crop yield losses. Because an in-depth understanding of flight performance is key to revealing migratory patterns, here we used a computer-linked flight mill and stroboscope to study the flight ability and wingbeat frequency (WBF) of M. brassicae in relation to sex, age, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The results showed that age significantly affected the flight ability and WBF of M. brassicae, and 3-d-old individuals performed the strongest performance (total flight distance: 45.6 ± 2.5 km; total flight duration: 9.3 ± 0.3 h; WBF: 44.0 ± 0.5 Hz at 24°C and 75% RH). The age for optimal flight was considered to be 2-3 d old. Temperature and RH also significantly affected flight ability and WBF; flight was optimal from 23°C to 25°C and 64-75% RH. Because M. brassicae thus has great potential to undertake long-distance migration, better knowledge of its flight behavior and migration will help establish a pest forecasting and early-warning system.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Mariposas/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Umidade , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 179: 112974, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767224

RESUMO

Cicadae Periostracum, which is derived from the slough of Cicadidae insects, is a commonly used crude drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As specified in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Cryptotympana atrata (CA) is the only official species of this crude drug. However, the slough of other three species, i.e., Auritibicen flammatus (AF), Cryptotympana mandrina (CM) and Platypleura kaempferi (PK), have been also used as the origins of Cicadae Periostracum in Chinese herbal market, although whether the quality of these four origins is consistent or not is still unknown. In present study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) was employed to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the chemical profiles of the four origins. Totally, 34 N-acetyldopamine polymers were identified from the four origins, including 4 N-acetyldopamine dimers, 11 N-acetyldopamine trimers, 10 N-acetyldopamine tetramers, and 9 N-acetyldopamine pentamers. AF, CM and PK had similar chemical profiles with that of CA. The contents and compositional ratio of the four types of polymers in CA, AF and CM were consistent with each other, but significantly lower or different in PK. All these results suggested that AF and CM might be considered as the potential resources of Cicadae Periostracum concerning their consistent holistic quality, whereas whether PK could be used as potential origin of Cicadae Periostracum or not need further evaluation for their different compositional ratios and contents of the four types of N-acetyldopamine polymers. This is the first study on chemical profiling and comparison of N-acetyldopamine polymers in four origins of Cicadae Periostracum, which is beneficial for potential resources utilization and quality standard improvement of Cicadae Periostracum.

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 387: 121704, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780294

RESUMO

A series of nitrogen-doped MnOx/semi-coke catalysts were studied for low-temperature (LT) de-NOx performance in the NH3-SCR reaction. Changes in morphology, structure, and surface chemistry of the semi-coke catalysts were systematically investigated to analyze the promotional effects of nitrogen doping on catalytic performance. The catalytic activity of ASC-10U10 Mn was found to be enhanced significantly in a broad temperature range of 100-300 °C, improving 44.2 % at 150 °C-the largest jump in this temperature range-and reaching 94.5 % at 275 °C. Nitrogen doping results in aromatic pyridinic-N, pyrrolic-N, and quaternary-N; the unpaired electrons on these groups play a critical role in enhancing the adsorption and oxidation of NO. NH3 adsorption is enhanced due to numerous diverse Lewis acid sites on ASC-10U10 Mn. The electron distribution of MnOx/semi-coke catalysts and the electron mobility between manganese and oxygen species are improved by nitrogen doping. The resulting nitrate intermediates, especially bridging nitrates, can be reduced by NH3 species at low temperatures. The increase in the number of oxygen vacancies improves oxidation of coordinated NH3. In addition, DRIFTS results suggest that coordinated NH3 and intermediate -NH2 are much more active and make a considerable positive contribution to the LT SCR reaction.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 705: 135993, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841908

RESUMO

In this study, the generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze seasonal monitoring data from Lake Taihu, collected from 2010 to 2014, with the aim to explore the correlation between chlorophyll a (Chla) and other water quality parameters. The selected optimal multivariable GAM could effectively explain the concentration variation of Chla occurring during each season, and the interpretation degree followed the order: summer > autumn > spring > winter. The fitting results indicated that the concentration variation of Chla could reflect that of biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in all seasons. In addition, the total phosphorus showed strong ability to explain the concentration change of Chla in spring and summer, as the growth of algae would be affected when the concentration of phosphorus shifted high or low. Nitrogen showed strong ability to explain the variations in Chla concentration in autumn. The conclusions of the optimal multivariable GAM could provide decision basis for the eutrophication control. In other words, the prevention of eutrophication outbreaks could be carried out via the targeted control of key water pollutants. According to these results, the concentration of Chla was higher in northern and western lake during summer and autumn, the management should focus on nutrient input of adjacent rivers.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134369, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677464

RESUMO

Reuse of pulp-and-paper industry wastewater as reclaimed water is an effective way to mitigate water resource shortage. In this study, the feasibility and safety of papermaking wastewater for the use as ecological water supplement after the treatment by fluidized-bed Fenton (FBF) coupled with constructed wetland (CW), were investigated from laboratory-scale to large-scale field. The optimum pH, H2O2, H2O2/Fe2+ ratio and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of FBF were 3.5, 0.93 mL/L, 4 and 60 min, respectively, based on reduction of both total organic carbon (TOC) and genotoxicity. Furthermore, the safety of effluent was evaluated using SOS/umu assay and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in zebrafish. Results showed FBF followed by CW improved the conventional water quality indicators and reduced the toxicity. Average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and colority were 87.3%, 93.59%, 51.73%, 84.75% and 95.86%, respectively. The equivalent concentration of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO-EQ) decreased from 30.6 ±â€¯1.6 µg/L in influent to 12.4 ±â€¯1.0 µg/L after treated by FBF, then decreased to 5.9 ±â€¯0.4 µg/L after treated by CW and to 3.2 ±â€¯0.3 µg/L after 12-km downstream self-purification. The chronic survival rates of 21-d zebrafish significantly increased from 0.0% in influent to 58.8 ±â€¯4.0% in effluent of CW and gradually increased to 68.8 ±â€¯2.6% after 12-km downstream self-purification. Similarly, 8-OHdG level in zebrafish decreased from 120.0 ±â€¯19.3 ng/L in effluent of ecological oxidation pond to 94.0 ±â€¯7.5 ng/L in effluent of CW and gradually decreased to 42.0 ±â€¯3.0 ng/L after 12-km downstream self-purification. The study concluded that FBF-CW is an efficient detoxication and water quality improvement technology for papermaking wastewater to be used as an ecological water supplement.

9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 229: 115557, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826433

RESUMO

Chitosan (CS) based self-assembled nanohydrogels are considered as promising platform for biomedicine, petrochemical, agricultural and food applications due to their unique biodegradability, nano-interface effect, and intelligent responsiveness. However, the most CS derivatives are prepared in heterogeneous system, which is unstable and environmentally unfriendly. In this work, a series of hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC) was synthesized based on a green and homogeneous system (potassium hydroxide (KOH)/urea), which given this derivative interesting temperature responsive phase transformation behavior. HBC could change from dissolved state into nanohydrogel state in deionized water, when the temperature exceed its critical phase change temperature, and this process could be repeated more than 50 cycles (one cycle/day) without coagulation. The nanohydrogels solution exhibited concentration and temperature-dependent ultraviolet absorption and visible light regulation, which had great application potential in smart windows. This study provided a novel preparation method and extended the application of chitosan-based temperature responsive self-assembled nanohydrogels.

10.
Opt Express ; 27(23): 34312-34322, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878481

RESUMO

The measuring probe integrated with multiple fiber point-diffraction sources can be applied to measure both the three-dimensional coordinates and highly accurate point-diffraction wavefront. The probe determines the achievable measurement accuracy of fiber point-diffraction interferometer (PDI), in which the fiber exit end plane is required to be parallel with the detector plane. The probe misalignment due to fabrication error could introduce significant measurement error. A high-precision method is proposed to calibrate the probe misalignment in fiber PDI, including the central positioning based on phase difference and tilt adjustment based on Zernike polynomials fitting. Both numerical simulation and experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed probe misalignment calibration method. The proposed method provides a feasible way to address the processing uncertainty on measuring probe in fiber PDI, and enables high-precision geometry alignment and misalignment calibration in the interferometric testing systems with case of no imaging lens.

11.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 7: 243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681772

RESUMO

Trans-differentiation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSC) to myofibroblasts is a hallmark event in liver fibrosis. Previous studies have led to the discovery that myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) is a key regulator of HSC trans-differentiation or, activation. In the present study we investigated the interplay between MRTF-A and c-Abl (encoded by Abl1), a tyrosine kinase, in this process. We report that hepatic expression levels of c-Abl were down-regulated in MRTF-A knockout (KO) mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates in several different models of liver fibrosis. MRTF-A deficiency also resulted in c-Abl down-regulation in freshly isolated HSCs from the fibrotic livers of mice. MRTF-A knockdown or inhibition repressed c-Abl in cultured HSCs in vitro. Further analyses revealed that MRTF-A directly bound to the Abl1 promoter to activate transcription by interacting with Sp1. Reciprocally, pharmaceutical inhibition of c-Abl suppressed MRTF-A activity. Mechanistically, c-Abl activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which in turn phosphorylated MRTF-A and promoted MRTF-A nuclear trans-localization. In conclusion, our data suggest that a c-Abl-MRTF-A positive feedback loop contributes to HSC activation and liver fibrosis.

12.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(12): 899, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776330

RESUMO

Excessive fibrogenic response in the liver disrupts normal hepatic anatomy and function heralding such end-stage liver diseases as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Sinusoidal endothelial cells contribute to myofibroblast activation and liver fibrosis by undergoing endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). The underlying mechanism remains poorly defined. Here we report that inhibition or endothelial-specific deletion of MKL1, a transcriptional modulator, attenuated liver fibrosis in mice. MKL1 inhibition or deletion suppressed EndMT induced by TGF-ß. Mechanistically, MKL1 was recruited to the promoter region of TWIST1, a master regulator of EndMT, and activated TWIST1 transcription in a STAT3-dependent manner. A small-molecule STAT3 inhibitor (C188-9) alleviated EndMT in cultured cells and bile duct ligation (BDL) induced liver fibrosis in mice. Finally, direct inhibition of TWIST1 by a small-molecule compound harmine was paralleled by blockade of EndMT in cultured cells and liver fibrosis in mice. In conclusion, our data unveil a novel mechanism underlying EndMT and liver fibrosis and highlight the possibility of targeting the STAT3-MKL1-TWIST1 axis in the intervention of aberrant liver fibrogenesis.

13.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 7: 245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750301

RESUMO

Trans-differentiation of endothelial cells to myofibroblast contributes to liver fibrosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) although the underlying epigenetic mechanism is unclear. Here we report that endothelial conditional knockout of Brg1, a chromatin remodeling protein, attenuated liver fibrosis in mice. Brg1 deficiency in endothelial cells was paralleled by a decrease in ROS production and blockade of EndMT both in vivo and in vitro. The ability of BRG1 to regulate ROS production and EndMT was abolished by NOX4 depletion or inhibition. Further analysis revealed that BRG1 interacted with SMAD3 and AP-1 to mediate TGF-ß induced NOX4 transcription in endothelial cells. Mechanistically, BRG1 recruited various histone modifying enzymes to alter the chromatin structure surrounding the NOX4 locus thereby activating its transcription. In conclusion, our data uncover a novel epigenetic mechanism that links NOX4-dependent ROS production to EndMT and liver fibrosis. Targeting the BRG1-NOX4 axis may yield novel therapeutics against liver fibrosis.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 58(21): 14440-14448, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626540

RESUMO

The magnetic properties of single-molecule magnets can be controlled by external conditions such as light, pressure, and temperature. Among these conditions, photochemical control is the best approach due to the accessibility and rapid conduction of light. In this work, an Er(III)-based complex with photoactive ligand bpe, [Er(nat)3·MeOH·bpe] (1, bpe = 1,2-bis(2-pyridyl)ethylene, nat = 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-naphthyl)-1,3-butanedione), was synthesized. The auxiliary ligand nat and cyclized ligand bpe stacked reasonably in the crystal structure. Two molecules of 1 experienced the [2, 2]-cycloaddition reaction under the UV irradiation in the solid state and [{Er(nat)3MeOH}2(tpcb)] (2, tpcb = tetrakis(4-pyridyl)cyclobutane) was produced. The slight change in the structure around Er(III) ions leads to the different magnetic properties, which illustrates the photochemical control of the magnetic properties of single-molecule magnets.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(85): 12873-12876, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599287

RESUMO

A brand new europium(iii) ß-diketonate complex undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation via [2+2] cycloaddition after UV irradiation, triggering strong Eu(iii) red emission turn-on, which is highly photostable even after 50 hours of irradiation. A photo-patterning process is successfully conducted for security printing application in materials science.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 1201-1208, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539951

RESUMO

Colloidal particles in lake waters interact inevitably with cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), which will change their behavior and fate. Quantitative prediction of the effects of cyanobacterial EPS on colloidal behavior is difficult due to its variability and heterogeneity. To explore the effects of molecular weight (MW) fractions and chemical properties of cyanobacterial EPS on aggregation kinetics of colloidal particles, time-series cyanobacterial samples were collected in Lake Taihu, China, from April to November (during blooming and maintenance period), with the bulk EPS matrix fractionating into low MW (LMW-, <1 nm) and high MW (HMW-, 1 nm-0.45 µm) fractions. HMW-EPS was generally characterized with higher absorbance and predominant distribution of protein-like substances, while LMW-EPS contained mainly the humic- and fulvic-like substances. The absorbance, molecular size, and humification degree for each MW fraction consistently increased from April to November, showing obvious temporal variations from blooming period to maintenance period. As for the MW-dependent aggregation behaviors, the HMW-EPS provided better stability against aggregation than the LMW-EPS, and the bulk EPS matrix that consisted of HMW- and LMW-fractions exhibited the effects intermediate between that of each fraction alone. Regardless of MW fractions, the effects of EPS-induced stability enhancement were more evident in maintenance period than in blooming period. Further analysis showed that the colloidal stability was correlated positively with SUVA254 (R2 = 0.82-0.93) but negatively with Slope275-295 (R2 = 0.53-0.91) of UV-Vis absorption spectra, indicating that aromaticity and MWs were two critical parameters controlling colloidal aggregation. Therefore, cyanobacterial EPS can exhibit variable effects on colloidal stability, and characterization of MW distribution is strongly required in predicating the behavior and fate of colloidal particles in water environments.


Assuntos
Coloides/química , Cianobactérias , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , China , Eutrofização , Cinética , Lagos/química , Peso Molecular , Polímeros
17.
Insects ; 10(9)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540256

RESUMO

The fall armyworm (FAW), native to the Americas, has rapidly invaded the whole of Southern China since January 2019. In addition, it can survive and breed in the key maize- and rice- growing area of the Yangtze River Valley. Furthermore, this pest is also likely to continue infiltrating other cropping regions in China, where food security is facing a severe threat. To understand the potential infestation area of newly-invaded FAW from the Yangtze River Valley, we simulated and predicted the possible flight pathways and range of the populations using a numerical trajectory modelling method combining meteorological data and self-powered flight behavior parameters of FAW. Our results indicate that the emigration of the first and second generations of newly-invaded FAW initiating from the Yangtze River Valley started on 20 May 2019 and ended on 30 July 2019. The spread of migratory FAW benefitted from transport on the southerly summer monsoon so that FAW emigrants from the Yangtze River Valley can reach northern China. The maize-cropping areas of Northeastern China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan are at a high risk. This study provides a basis for early warning and a broad picture of FAW migration from the Yangtze River Valley.

18.
Redox Biol ; 26: 101302, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442911

RESUMO

Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is a hallmark event in liver fibrosis. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) serves as a driving force for HSC activation. The regulatory subunits of the NOX complex, NCF1 (p47phox) and NCF2 (p67phox), are up-regulated during HSC activation contributing to ROS production and liver fibrosis. The transcriptional mechanism underlying NCF1/2 up-regulation is not clear. In the present study we investigated the role of serum response factor (SRF) in HSC activation focusing on the transcriptional regulation of NCF1/2. We report that compared to wild type littermates HSC-conditional SRF knockout (CKO) mice exhibited a mortified phenotype of liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) injection or feeding with a methionine-and-choline deficient diet (MCD). More importantly, SRF deletion attenuated ROS levels in HSCs in vivo. Similarly, SRF knockdown in cultured HSCs suppressed ROS production in vitro. Further analysis revealed that SRF deficiency resulted in repression of NCF1/NCF2 expression. Mechanistically, SRF regulated epigenetic transcriptional activation of NCF1/NCF2 by interacting with and recruiting the histone acetyltransferase KAT8 during HSC activation. In conclusion, we propose that SRF integrates transcriptional activation of NCF1/NCF2 and ROS production to promote liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Fator de Resposta Sérica/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Biológicos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Resposta Sérica/genética
19.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 97(11): 1521-1533, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435710

RESUMO

Trans-differentiation, or activation, of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a hallmark event in liver fibrosis although the underlying mechanism is not fully appreciated. Serum response factor (SRF) is a pleiotropic sequence-specific transcription factor with a ubiquitous expression pattern. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HSC-specific ablation of SRF on liver fibrosis in vivo and the underlying mechanism. We report that SRF bound to the promoter regions of pro-fibrogenic genes, including collagen type I (Col1a1/Col1a2) and alpha smooth muscle actin (Acta2), with greater affinity in activated HSCs compared to quiescent HSCs. Ablation of SRF in HSCs in vitro downregulated the expression of fibrogenic genes by dampening the accumulation of active histone marks. SRF also interacted with MRTF-A, a well-documented co-factor involved in liver fibrosis, on the pro-fibrogenic gene promoters during HSC activation. In addition, SRF directly regulated MRTF-A transcription in activated HSCs. More importantly, HSC conditional SRF knockout (CKO) mice developed a less robust pro-fibrogenic response in the liver in response to CCl4 injection and BDL compared to wild-type littermates. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that SRF may play an essential role in HSC activation and liver fibrosis. KEY MESSAGES: • SRF deficiency decelerates activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro. • SRF epigenetically activates pro-fibrogenic transcription to promote HSC maturation. • SRF interacts with MRTF-A and contributes to MRTF-A transcription. • Conditional SRF deletion in HSCs attenuates BDL-induced liver fibrosis in mice. • Conditional SRF ablation in HSCs attenuates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1608: 460418, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420179

RESUMO

High performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS) is widely used to qualitatively characterize the chemical profiles of herbal medicines, in which the generated adducts and fragments are crucial for confirming molecular ion (deprotonated/protonated ion) and deducing structure of detected components. However, how chromatographic and mass spectrometric (LC-MS) conditions/parameters affect the quantity and intensity of adducts and fragments of detected components is scarcely concerned. In present study, three types of triterpene saponins from the root of Ilex asprella (RIA) were selected as a case study to systematically investigate the effects of LC/MS conditions/parameters on their ionization and fragmentation, so as to obtain higher intensity (higher detection sensitivity) and quantity (rich information) of adducts and fragments for the characterization of components in RIA. It was found that for LC conditions, methanol as organic phase was more benefit for generating more adducts with higher intensity; formic acid as a modifier suppressed the formation of [M-2H]2-, thus promoted the generation of other types of adducts at lower concentration but inhibited the generation when the concentration exceeded 0.1%. MS parameters affect scarcely the quantity but mainly intensity of adducts, cone voltage, source temperature and desolvation gas flow have relatively higher impacts when compared with other parameters. Collision energy affected both quantity and intensity of fragments. MS parameters at the medium value largely increased the quantity and intensity of adducts and fragments. Three-types of triterpene saponins presented structurally specific ionization and fragmentation due to their amounts of acidic substitutes. A total of 55 components were detected and definitely or tentatively identified in RIA under the optimized LC-MS conditions, among which 35 triterpene saponins were firstly discovered. This is the first report that proposes and validates a systematic approach for assessing the effects of LC/MS conditions/parameters on the ionization and fragmentation of analytes, which could be helpful for the optimization of LC-MS conditions for effective chemical profiling analysis of herbal medicines.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ilex/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Triterpenos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Plantas Medicinais/química
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