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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(14): 5551-5556, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793169

RESUMO

Nitrogen-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (aza-PAHs) have found broad applications in material sciences. Herein, a modular electrochemical synthesis of aza-PAHs was developed via a rhodium-catalyzed cascade C-H activation and alkyne annulation. A multifunctional O-methylamidoxime enabled the high chemo- and regioselectivity. The isolation of two key rhodacyclic intermediates made it possible to delineate the exact order of three C-H activation steps. In addition, the metalla-electrocatalyzed multiple C-H transformation is characterized by unique functional group tolerance, including highly reactive iodo and azido groups.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(43): 17198-17206, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549815

RESUMO

A flow-metallaelectro-catalyzed C-H activation was realized in terms of robust rhodaelectro-catalyzed alkyne annulations. To this end, a modular electro-flow cell with a porous graphite felt anode was designed to ensure efficient turnover. Thereby, a variety of C-H/N-H functionalizations proved amenable for alkyne annulations with high levels of regioselectivity and functional group tolerance, viable in both an inter- or intramolecular manner. The electro-flow C-H activation allowed easy scale up, while in-operando kinetic analysis was accomplished by online flow-NMR spectroscopy. Mechanistic studies suggest an oxidatively induced reductive elimination pathway on rhodium(III) in an electrocatalytic regime.

3.
World Neurosurg ; 132: 47-52, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the continuous advancement of the spinal endoscopic technique in recent years, full-endoscopic operations provide a new approach for the treatment of migrated cervical disk herniation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 42-year-old man presented with nuchal pain and limb numbness for 2 months, with recently developed symptoms of unstable walking. Physical examination revealed a diminished skin sensitivity to pain and temperature, beginning at the C4 dermatome. The muscle strength of both upper limbs decreased to grade 4, and the muscle strength was grade 4 on both sides of the lower limbs. Hoffmann sign and ankle clonus were positive. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated that a large piece of a segmental disk had migrated to the rear area of the C4 vertebral body and seriously compressed the spinal cord. A percutaneous full-endoscopic anterior transcorporeal cervical diskectomy was performed on the patient. CONCLUSIONS: The postoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score increased from 8 to 11 points. At 2-year follow-up, the JOA score was 16 points, the improvement rate was 88.9%, and cervical vertebrae MRI, cervical CT scan, and 3-dimensional reconstruction showed that the cervical vertebrae channel healed without vertebral fractures, bony channel collapse, adjacent segment degeneration, or intervertebral space height.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia Percutânea/métodos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Neuroendoscopia/métodos , Compressão da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Adulto , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/complicações , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Compressão da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Compressão da Medula Espinal/etiologia
4.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 280, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), cervical motion segment and disc was retained through anterior transcorporeal herniotomy (ATH). But surgical field and manipulation in traditional ATH was restricted by the narrow channel. Percutaneous full-endoscopic transdiscal cervical discectomy is a minimally invasive and functional spine surgery. However, significant loss of intervertebral disc height was inevitable. This study was done to illustrate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy and present our surgical experience of percutaneous full-endoscopic anterior transcorporeal cervical discectomy (PEATCD) and channel repair (CR) for the treatment of cervical disc herniation (CDH). METHODS: Four patients with CDH were chosen to undergo PEATCD and CR with a follow-up care for at least 22 months. The visual analogue score (VAS), Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA), and modified Macnab criteria were recorded during the postoperative periods. CT images were obtained to observe the healing of the channel at 1 week and 3 months after the operation. RESULTS: The average operating time was 83.75 min. Drainage tubes were unnecessary. No procedure-related complications occurred. The postoperative VAS and JOA scores were improved compared to those of the preoperative assessment. The clinical efficacy was excellent in 3 patients and good in 1 patient at final follow up stage according to the modified Macnab criteria. The hernia was removed completely in all patients according to postoperative MRI. Migration of the repair implementation and collapse of the drilled vertebrae were not observed during the postoperative periods. The bony channel was nearly absent on CT images obtained at 3 months postoperative. CONCLUSION: This is the first time that the anterior transcorporeal cervical discectomy and CR have been performed simultaneously under endoscopy. Less damage to disc and the retained cervical motion segment were achieved through this method. This is a feasible, safe, and minimally invasive procedure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Numbers: ChiCTR1800016383 . Registered 29 may 2018. Retrospectively registered. TRIAL REGISTRY: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Discotomia Percutânea/métodos , Endoscopia/métodos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Cervicalgia/cirurgia , Adulto , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Discotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/complicações , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cervicalgia/diagnóstico , Cervicalgia/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(19): 6342-6346, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835907

RESUMO

Rapid access to structurally diversified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a controlled manner is of key significance in materials sciences. Herein, we describe a strategy featuring two distinct electrocatalytic C-H transformations for the synthesis of novel nonplanar PAHs. The combination of rhodaelectrooxidative C-H activation/[2+2+2] alkyne annulation of easily accessible boronic acids with electrocatalytic cyclodehydrogenation provided modular access to diversely substituted PAHs with electricity as a sustainable oxidant. The unique molecular topology as well as the photophysical and electronic properties of the thus obtained PAHs were fully analyzed. The unique power of this metallaelectrocatalysis method was demonstrated by the chemoselective assembly of synthetically useful iodo-substituted PAHs.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(17): 3431-3443, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347909

RESUMO

In the processes of planting, harvest, transport and storage, improper treatment of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and foodstuffs and agricultural products will result in fungal growth and mycotoxins contamination, which will not only directly affect the quality, safety and efficacy of these complex matrices, but also seriously threaten the consumers' health and lives. Therefore, the establishment of high-throughout analytical methods with high sensitivity for the determination of mycotoxins in CMM and foodstuffs and agricultural products at trace levels will provide reliable references for reducing the risk of mycotoxin exposure in humans. Due to the matrix complexity of CMM and foodstuffs and agricultural products, highly-effective pretreatment technologies are necessary for the establishment of such analytical techniques. In this review, the current extraction and purification methods commonly used for the detection of mycotoxins were summarized, the importance of pretreatment techniques for the precise quantification of mycotoxins in complex matrices such as Chinese herbal medicines was highlighted, as well as the development tendency about the pretreatment techniques for mycotoxins in complex matrices in the future was proposed.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Materia Medica/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pesquisa
8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(20): 5828-5832, 2018 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633454

RESUMO

Rhodium(III) catalysis has enabled a plethora of oxidative C-H functionalizations, which predominantly employ stoichiometric amounts of toxic and/or expensive metal oxidants. In contrast, we herein describe the first electrochemical rhodium-catalyzed C-H activation that avoids hazardous chemical oxidants. Environmentally benign twofold C-H/C-H functionalizations were accomplished with weakly coordinating benzoic acids and benzamides, employing electricity as the terminal oxidant and generating H2 as the sole byproduct.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(4): 665-671, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29600638

RESUMO

As an important part of traditional medicine in China, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) plays a significant role because of its unique medical efficiency, less adverse reactions and extensive resources. However, in recent years, the aflatoxins in medicinal herbs have been detected excessive both at home and abroad, seriously affecting the reputation and credibility of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the current status of aflatoxins contamination in medicinal herbs was analyzed, and the internal and external factors of aflatoxins contamination in traditional Chinese medicine were also summarized. In view of the high toxicity of aflatoxins, it is proposed to strengthen the mildew prevention and control from the early planting to storage stage, and the reasonable detoxification mode should also be considered. This review aims to provide a reference in guaranteeing the clinical safe administration of medicinal herbs and reducing the risk of being poisoned by aflatoxins.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Plantas Medicinais , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
10.
World Neurosurg ; 112: e23-e30, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgical technique of percutaneous full-endoscopic anterior transcorporeal cervical discectomy (PEATCD) in detail and report the clinical outcomes and radiologic changes in patients with cervical intervertebral disc herniation (CIVDH). METHODS: A novel procedure, PEATCD, was performed on 36 patients with CIVDH between June 2015 and June 2016. A retrospective study of these patients was carried out over a follow-up period of 12-24 months. The visual analog scale scores, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, and improvement rates (IRs) of the JOA scores were used to evaluate neurologic symptoms. Radiologic follow-up included magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan, and standard radiographs. RESULTS: All patients reported immediate postoperative relief of neck and arm pain compared with the recorded preoperative levels of discomfort, and the JOA scores improved gradually during the follow-up period. The IRs of the neurologic evaluations ranged from 60% to 100%, the average being 85.47% ± 9.32%. The decrease in the intervertebral disc height was statistically significant (P < 0.0001), and there were no adverse clinically related symptoms. No collapse of the drilled vertebrae was recorded, and the bone defects showed significant decreases within 3 months after the operation. There were no surgery-related complications. CONCLUSIONS: PEATCD combines the benefits of an anterior transcorporeal approach with endoscopy, preserves the cervical motion segment and causes less damage to the disc, and significantly decreases surgical trauma. Therefore, PEATCD is a safe, effective, minimally invasive, alternative procedure for patients with CIVDH.


Assuntos
Discotomia Percutânea/métodos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Org Lett ; 20(1): 284-287, 2018 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256621

RESUMO

Here we report an aerobic Pd(0) catalyzed C2-H functionalization of indoles and pyrroles with tethered N-methoxylamide as the directing group. A Pd(0)-initiated mechanism overcomes the directing or poisoning effect from a wide range of heterocycles including pyridine, pyrimidine, and thiazole. The imidazo[1,5-a]indole products are transformed to bioactive analogs after one-step manipulations, demonstrating the potential utility of this reaction in drug discovery.

12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(7): 1251-1257, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052382

RESUMO

Owing to the intrinsic factors and some extrinsic environmental conditions, many foods, agricultural products and Chinese materia medicas (CMMs), if not handled properly in the processes of growth, harvesting, processing and storage, can be easily contaminated by all kinds of molds to produce mycotoxins of serious toxicity, which will not only affect the quality, safety and effectiveness of CMMs, but also result in potential threatens to human and animal's health and life. Therefore, in recent decades, it has become the focus on how to prevent and control the foods, agricultural products and CMMs from being moldy and producing toxicity for scientific preservation. Many Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) especially those with high content of volatile oils with strong antifungal activities have been applied for the scientific preservation of foods, agricultural products and CMMs. Based on these situations, natural anti-mildew agents have been further developed and made into some useful dosage forms, such as tablets, aerosol, liposomes and inclusion, which will not only greatly expand the application scope of CHMs to make the use of anti-mildew agents more convenient, but also achieve the sustained or controlled release of the antifungal effect for scientific preservation of foods, agricultural products and CMMs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Conservação de Alimentos , Micotoxinas , Fungos , Pesquisa
13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8112, 2017 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28808259

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the possible antibacterial components of Salvia miltiorrhizae on Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a combination of chemical fingerprint and bioactivity evaluation. The chemical fingerprints of 32 batches of S. miltiorrhizae samples from different sources were developed using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection, and then were evaluated by similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. Anti-P. aeruginosa activity was determined by microcalorimetry. Some crucial thermokinetic parameters obtained from the heat-flow power-time curves of P. aeruginosa growth in the absence or presence of these S. miltiorrhizae samples were evaluated using principal component analysis. Thereafter, multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the fingerprint-activity relationship between the chemical fingerprints and anti-P. aeruginosa activity. This established the related equation between the inhibition ratio (I, %) of S. miltiorrhizae samples on P. aeruginosa and the peak areas of the common peaks. The results showed that the 32S. miltiorrhizae samples could be grouped into three clusters according to their chemical fingerprints and anti-P. aeruginosa activities. Protocatechualdehyde, salvianolic acid B, together with three unidentified compounds might be the major components that contributed largely to the antibacterial properties of S. miltiorrhizae and should be the focus of S. miltiorrhizae quality control. Thus, this study provided a preferred way for exploring the bioactive components of medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Benzaldeídos/química , Benzaldeídos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/química , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Catecóis/química , Catecóis/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Análise Multivariada , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Análise de Componente Principal/métodos
14.
World Neurosurg ; 106: 945-952, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effects of posterior percutaneous full-endoscopic cervical foraminotomy in patients with osseous foraminal stenosis. METHODS: Nine patients with osseous foraminal stenosis underwent surgery using the posterior percutaneous full-endoscopic cervical foraminotomy technique and received follow-up care for 1 year. The visual analog scale score, neck disability index, and modified Macnab criteria were recorded at the last follow-up. All patients underwent three-dimensional computed tomography of the cervical spine, which was reviewed within 1 week postoperatively. RESULTS: All operations were successful, and all patients received follow-up care. The mean operation time was 80 minutes. Surgical bleeding was not observed, and no related complications occurred. Postoperative visual analog scale and neck disability index scores were significantly reduced compared with the preoperative assessment. In addition, imaging showed that the osteophytes in the intervertebral foramen were adequately resected. According to modified Macnab criteria, 6 cases showed excellent results, 3 cases showed good results, and no fine or bad results were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Posterior percutaneous full-endoscopic cervical foraminotomy can accomplish full nerve root decompression and is a safe, feasible procedure. Therefore, it can be a treatment option for patients with osseous foraminal stenosis.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Foraminotomia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Estenose Espinal/cirurgia , Adulto , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Discotomia/métodos , Feminino , Foraminotomia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroendoscopia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Yao Xue Xue Bao ; 51(1): 110-5, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27405171

RESUMO

A suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of 11 mycotoxins with isotope internal standard in malt. The mycotoxins in malt were extracted and purified by one-step ultrasonic extraction procedure using acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80 : 19 : 1), and then detected and confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS, and quantified by isotope labeled AFB1 ([13C17]-AFB1) and ZEN ([13C18]-ZEN) internal standards. Rapid separation of the 11 mycotoxins was successfully achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 µm) with gradient elution using the mobile phase of methanol containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate in water. Simultaneous acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. The established method provided a good linearity for the 11 mycotoxins within their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients all higher than 0.999 1. The average recoveries ranged from 75.0% to 117.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.1%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 30 µg x kg(-1) and 0.15 to 87.5 µg x kg(-1), respectively, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set by the European Union. Twenty malt samples were analyzed and nine samples were detected with mycotoxins, which were confirmed according to the same fragment ions found in positive samples and the standards at the same retention time. This study has demonstrated that the one-step extraction procedure of mycotoxins from complex matrices coupled to UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, quick, accurate and sensitive for quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple mycotoxins in malt.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Hordeum/química , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fermentação , Limite de Detecção , Micotoxinas/análise
16.
Phytochem Anal ; 27(3-4): 168-73, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27313153

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (CRP) is a commonly-used traditional Chinese medicine with flavonoids as the major bioactive components. Nevertheless, the contents of the flavonoids in CRP of different sources may significantly vary affecting their therapeutic effects. Thus, the setting up of a reliable and comprehensive quality assessment method for flavonoids in CRP is necessary. OBJECTIVE: To set up a rapid and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of seven bioactive flavonoids in CRP. METHODS: A UFLC-MS/MS method coupled to ultrasound-assisted extraction was developed for simultaneous separation and quantification of seven flavonoids including hesperidin, neohesperidin, naringin, narirutin, tangeretin, nobiletin and sinensetin in 16 batches of CRP samples from different sources in China. RESULTS: The established method showed good linearity for all analytes with correlation coefficient (R) over 0.9980, together with satisfactory accuracy, precision and reproducibility. Furthermore, the recoveries at the three spiked levels were higher than 89.71% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 5.19%. The results indicated that the contents of seven bioactive flavonoids in CRP varied significantly among different sources. Among the samples under study, hesperidin showed the highest contents in 16 samples ranged from 27.50 to 86.30 mg/g, the contents of hesperidin in CRP-15 and CRP-9 were 27.50 and 86.30 mg/g, respectively, while, the amount of narirutin was too low to be measured in some samples. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the developed UFLC-MS/MS method was simple, sensitive and reliable for simultaneous quantification of multi-components in CRP with potential perspective for quality control of complex matrices. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Citrus/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Estrutura Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 21558, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26883080

RESUMO

A method is described for multi-residue, high-throughput determination of trace levels of 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 5 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Chinese medicinal (CM) health wines using a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) based extraction method and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Several parameters were optimized to improve preparation and separation time while still maintaining high sensitivity. Validation tests of spiked samples showed good linearities for 27 pesticides (R = 0.9909-0.9996) over wide concentration ranges. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were measured at ng/L levels, 0.06-2 ng/L and 0.2-6 ng/L for OCPs and 0.02-3 ng/L and 0.06-7 ng/L for PYPs, respectively. Inter- and intra-day precision tests showed variations of 0.65-9.89% for OCPs and 0.98-13.99% for PYPs, respectively. Average recoveries were in the range of 47.74-120.31%, with relative standard deviations below 20%. The developed method was then applied to analyze 80 CM wine samples. Beta-BHC (Benzene hexachloride) was the most frequently detected pesticide at concentration levels of 5.67-31.55 mg/L, followed by delta-BHC, trans-chlordane, gamma-BHC, and alpha-BHC. The validated method is simple and economical, with adequate sensitivity for trace levels of multi-class pesticides. It could be adopted by laboratories for this and other types of complex matrices analysis.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Vinho/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(7): 2146-9, 2016 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26855140

RESUMO

Pd-catalyzed α-olefinic C-H activation of simple α,ß-unsaturated olefins has been developed. 4-imino-ß-lactam derivatives were readily synthesized via activation of α-olefinic C-H bonds with excellent cis stereoselectivity. A wide range of heterocycles at the ß-position are compatible with this reaction. The product of 4-imino-ß-lactam derivatives can be readily converted to 2-aminoquinoline which exists extensively in pharmaceutical drugs and natural products.

19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(15): 2768-2773, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28914014

RESUMO

Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) are easily to be contaminated by all kinds of molds to produce various mycotoxins due to their internal factors and the external environmental conditions during the growth, harvesting, processing, and especially storage processes. This will not only affect the quality of CMMs, resulting in enormous financial loss, but also influence the safety and effectiveness of CMMs, posing potential threats to human health. With the increase in awareness of "traditional Chinese medicine health" idea, more and more attention has been paid on how to prevent and control these CMMs from being mouldy to guarantee their safety. Some physical and chemical techniques have been restricted for protecting CMMs due to their own disadvantages. As a green, safe and economic strategy for the preservation of CMMs, "couplet medicine" technique based on the principle of "protecting CMM with another CMM" has been developed: two kinds of CMMs are stored together and fight against each other to prevent mildew metamorphism, exhibiting no obvious changes in color, smell and quality. Nowadays, certain application results have been obtained for the "antagonistic storage" method based on the above mode and principle. In this paper, we would review and discuss the mechanism, practical application and the problems of "couplet medicine" technique, and provide scientific evidences for developing safe and effective tools to protect CMMs from being mouldy.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Preservação Biológica , Fungos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Micotoxinas
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(15): 2945-51, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26677691

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite mainly produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, existing in a variety of foodstuffs and Chinese medicines. OTA is difficult to be detected in practice because of the characteristics such as trace amounts, toxicity, existing in complex matrices. In the numerous detection technologies, colloidal gold chromatographic techniques are highly sensitive, specific, cost-effective and user-friendly, and are being used increasingly for OTA screening. Recently, with the development of aptamer technology and its application in chromatographic technique, a newly colloidal gold aptamer chromatographic technique has been developed. This review elaborates the structures and principles of both traditional and newly colloidal gold chromatographic techniques, focuses on newly colloidal gold aptamer chromatographic technique, summarizes and compares their use in rapid detection of OTA. Finally, in order to provide a reference for better research of related work, the development trends of this novel technique are prospected.


Assuntos
Cromatografia/métodos , Coloide de Ouro/química , Ocratoxinas/análise , Sequência de Bases , Dados de Sequência Molecular
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