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1.
Chem Senses ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010937

RESUMO

Neuropeptide S (NPS) is an endogenous peptide recently recognized to be presented in the brainstem, and believed to play an important role in maintaining memory. The deletion of NPS or NPS receptor (NPSR) in mice shows a deficit in memory formation. Our recent studies have demonstrated that central administration of NPS facilitates olfactory function and ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. However, it remains to be determined if endogenous NPS is an indispensable neuromodulator in the control of the olfactory spatial memory. In this study, we examined the effects of NPSR peptidergic antagonist [D-Val5]NPS (10 and 20 nmol, i.c.v.) and nonpeptidergic antagonist SHA 68 (10 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) on the olfactory spatial memory using computer-assisted 4-hole-board olfactory spatial memory test in mice. Furthermore, immunofluorescence was employed to identify the distributions of c-Fos and NPSR immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in olfactory system and hippocampal formation known to closely relate to the olfactory spatial memory. [D-Val5]NPS dosing at 20 nmol and SHA 68 dosing at 50 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of visits to the two odorants interchanged spatially, switched odorants, in recall trial, and simultaneously reduced the percentage of Fos-ir in NPSR-ir neurons which were densely distributed in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), piriform cortex (Pir), subiculum (S), presubiculum (PrS) and parasubiculum (PaS). These findings suggest that endogenous NPS is a key neuromodulator in olfactory spatial memory.

2.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 12: 64, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559896

RESUMO

Disturbed sleep is a common subjective complaint among individuals with anxiety disorders. Sleep deprivation increases general and specific anxiety symptoms among healthy individuals. The amygdala is critical for regulating anxiety and also involved in mediating the effects of emotions on sleep. Neuropeptide S (NPS) and NPS receptors (NPSR) are reported as a novel endogenous arousal and anxiolytic system, but it is unclear yet whether this system is involved in anxiety-like behavior and sleep caused by sleep deprivation, and how it plays anxiolytic effect underlying the comorbid condition. In the present study, we demonstrate that paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) induced by modified multiple platform method (MMPM) for 24 h caused anxiety-like behavior, a prolonged sleep latency and subsequent paradoxical sleep (PS) rebound accompanied by an increase in electroencephalogram (EEG) theta (4.5-8.5 Hz) activities across light and dark phase in rats. The increase of PS after PSD was due to an increase of episode number during light phase and both episode number and duration during dark phase. Central action of NPS (1 nmol) attenuated PSD-induced anxiety-like behavior, and altered PSD-induced sleep-wake disturbances through increasing wakefulness, and suppressing PS and EEG theta activities. The reduction in PS time following NPS administration during light phase was because of a decreased episode number. Furthermore, sleep amount in 24 h in PSD rats given NPS was lesser than that given saline. PSD significantly enhanced NPSR mRNA expression level in the amygdala. NPS remarkably increased the number of Fos-ir neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), the central amygdala (CeA) and medial amygdala (MeA). The majority of Fos-ir neurons induced by NPS also expressed NPSR. These results suggest that NPSR upregulation in the amygdala is presumably related to the PSD-induced anxiety-like behavior and sleep disturbances, and that NPS counteracts PSD-induced anxiety-like behavior and sleep disturbances possibly through activating the neurons bearing NPSR in the amygdala. In addition, the little sleep increase in PSD rats treated with NPS suggests that NPS can function as an anxiolytic without causing a subsequent sleep rebound.

3.
Neuropeptides ; 63: 59-66, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28228241

RESUMO

Intracerebroventricular injection of NPS reduces the duration of the ketamine- or thiopental-induced loss of the righting reflex in rats. But the specific EEG activities are unknown. We therefore sought to examine the effects of the NPS-NPSR system on anesthetic-induced characteristics of EEG power spectra and sleep-wake profiles. NPS alone or together with an NPSR antagonist was injected intracerebroventricularly, whereas the propofol (50mg/kg) or ketamine (100mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally. NPS (1 or 2nmol) significantly reduced the amount of propofol-induced EEG delta activity and slow wave states (SWS). NPS (1 or 5nmol) significantly reduced the amount of ketamine-induced SWS and EEG delta activity. Cortical EEG power spectral analysis showed that, in saline-pretreated rats, propofol induced a marked increase in delta (0.5-4Hz) activity, decrease in theta (4.5-8.5Hz) activity, and decrease in high frequency activity (14.5-60Hz), while, in rats pretreated with 1nmol of NPS, the duration of delta activity was reduced, while its spectral pattern was not changed. Whereas injection of ketamine into saline-pretreated rats induced a marked increase in delta (0.5-4Hz) activity, a moderate increase in theta (4.5-8.5Hz) activity, and a marked decrease in high frequency (14.5-60Hz) activity. However, delta activity was reduced while theta activity increased under pretreatment with 1nmol of NPS. The inhibitory effect of NPS on anesthetic-induced SWS was characterized by a reduced SWS episode duration with no significant change in either episode number or latency to SWS. [D-Val5]NPS, an NPSR antagonist (20nmol), significantly attenuated the arousal-promoting effect of 1nmol of NPS, but had no effect on SWS when injected alone. We speculate that NPS significantly reduces anesthetic-induced SWS and EEG slow activity by selective activation of the NPSR, which, in turn, would trigger subsequent arousal pathways.


Assuntos
Ritmo Delta/efeitos dos fármacos , Ketamina/farmacologia , Neuropeptídeos/farmacologia , Propofol/farmacologia , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Eletroencefalografia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores
4.
Brain Struct Funct ; 221(6): 3327-36, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26323488

RESUMO

Our previous studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide S (NPS), via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPS receptor (NPSR) in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function. High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the subiculum complex of hippocampal formation suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory spatial memory. The present study was undertaken to investigate effects of NPS on the scopolamine- or MK801-induced impairment of olfactory spatial memory using computer-assisted 4-hole-board spatial memory test, and by monitoring Fos expression in the subiculum complex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence microscopy was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos-immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPS (0.5 nmol) significantly increased the number of visits to switched odorants in recall trial in mice suffering from odor-discriminating inability induced by scopolamine, a selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, or MK801, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, after training trials. The improvement of olfactory spatial memory by NPS was abolished by the NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS (40 nmol). Ex vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced Fos expression in the subiculum complex encompassing the subiculum (S), presubiculum (PrS) and parasubiculum (PaS). The percentages of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 91.3, 86.5 and 90.0 % in the S, PrS and PaS, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the subiculum complex, ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 in mice.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Animais , Maleato de Dizocilpina/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Odorantes , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Escopolamina/administração & dosagem , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Toxins (Basel) ; 7(11): 4442-54, 2015 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26529014

RESUMO

Onabotulinumtoxin A (BoNTA) has been reported to be effective in the therapy for migraines. Acupuncture has been used worldwide for the treatment of migraine attacks. Injection of a small amount of drug at acupuncture points is an innovation as compared to traditional acupuncture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle)-site and acupoint-site injections of BoNTA for migraine therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial extending over four months. Subjects with both episodic and chronic migraines respectively received a placebo (n = 19) or BoNTA (2.5 U each site, 25 U per subject) injection at fixed-sites (n = 41) including occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercilii, temporalis and trapeziue, or at acupoint-sites (n = 42) including Yintang (EX-HN3), Taiyang (EX-HN5), Baihui (GV20), Shuaigu (GB8), Fengchi (GB20) and Tianzhu (BL10). The variations between baseline and BoNTA post-injection for four months were calculated monthly as outcome measures. BoNTA injections at fixed-sites and acupoint-sites significantly reduced the migraine attack frequency, intensity, duration and associated symptoms for four months compared with placebo (p < 0.01). The efficacy of BoNTA for migraines in the acupoint-site group (93% improvement) was more significant than that in the fixed-site group (85% improvement) (p < 0.01). BoNTA administration for migraines is effective, and at acupoint-sites shows more efficacy than at fixed-sites. Further blinded studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of a low dose toxin (25 U) introduced with this methodology in chronic and episodic migraines.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuromusculares/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Músculos Faciais , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/psicologia , Fármacos Neuromusculares/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 7(10): 4143-56, 2015 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26501321

RESUMO

A decrease in pyloric myoelectrical activity and pyloric substance P (SP) content following intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in free move rats have been demonstrated in our previous studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of BTX-A on rat pyloric muscle contractile response to SP in vitro and the distributions of SP and neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) immunoreactive (IR) cells and fibers within pylorus. After treatment with atropine, BTX-A (10 U/mL), similar to [D-Arg¹, D-Phe5, D-Trp(7,9), Leu(11)]-SP (APTL-SP, 1 µmol/L) which is an NK1R antagonist, decreased electric field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractile tension and frequency, whereas, subsequent administration of APTL-SP did not act on contractility. Incubation with BTX-A at 4 and 10 U/mL for 4 h respectively decreased SP (1 µmol/L)-induced contractions by 26.64% ± 5.12% and 74.92% ± 3.62%. SP-IR fibers and NK1R-IR cells both located within pylorus including mucosa and circular muscle layer. However, fewer SP-fibers were observed in pylorus treated with BTX-A (10 U/mL). In conclusion, BTX-A inhibits SP release from enteric terminals in pylorus and EFS-induced contractile responses when muscarinic cholinergic receptors are blocked by atropine. In addition, BTX-A concentration- and time-dependently directly inhibits SP-induced pyloric smooth muscle contractility.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/farmacologia , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Piloro/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância P/análogos & derivados , Substância P/metabolismo , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica , Técnicas In Vitro , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Músculo Liso/fisiopatologia , Complexo Mioelétrico Migratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Piloro/metabolismo , Piloro/fisiopatologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Substância P/farmacologia
7.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 27(5): 573-80, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25736395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: To compare blood and salivary levels of lipofuscin in healthy adults and to analyze the relationship between the lipofuscin level and the healthy adults' age. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-two healthy volunteers were recruited and divided into three groups according to their age: young (n = 42, 20-44 years old), middle-aged (n = 51, 45-59 years old), and elderly (n = 29, 60-74 years old). One ml saliva and 5 ml whole blood were collected from each person. An ELISA kit was used to measure both the plasma and salivary lipofuscin levels. The differences between the groups were compared with independent-sample t test, and the relationship between the salivary lipofuscin level and the age was assessed with linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The mean ± SD of the lipofuscin level in the saliva and plasma of 122 subjects was 68.93 ± 1.32 and 78.05 ± 1.75 µmol/l, respectively. No gender-dependent differences were observed in either the salivary or the plasma lipofuscin level (saliva: p = 0.443, plasma: p = 0.459). The salivary and plasma lipofuscin levels of the elderly subjects were significantly higher than those of the young (saliva: 80.72 ± 13.53 mmol/l versus 59.12 ± 1.92 mmol/l, p = 0.0003; plasma: 93.31 ± 3.14 mmol/l versus 67.43 ± 2.54 mmol/l, p = 0.0002) and middle-aged (saliva: 80.72 ± 13.53 mmol/l versus 70.31 ± 11.17 mmol/l, p = 0.0004; plasma: 93.31 ± 3.14 mmol/l versus 78.12 ± 2.40 mmol/l, p = 0.0002) subjects. Similarly, the salivary and plasma lipofuscin levels of the middle-aged subjects were significantly higher than those of the young subjects (saliva: 70.31 ± 11.17 mmol/l versus 59.12 ± 1.92 mmol/l, p < 0.0001; plasma: 78.12 ± 2.40 mmol/l versus 67.43 ± 2.54 mmol/l, p = 0.0019). The lipofuscin levels in the saliva and plasma were significantly positively correlated with the subject age (r = 0.551, p = 0.0001; r = 0.528, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the salivary lipofuscin level and plasma lipofuscin level also were found to have a positive correlation (r = 0.621, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: No gender-dependent differences were observed in either the salivary or plasma lipofuscin levels. The salivary and plasma lipofuscin levels were positively correlated, and the age is positively correlated with lipofuscin content in saliva.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Lipofuscina , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipofuscina/sangue , Lipofuscina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estatística como Assunto
8.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 394(1-2): 177-86, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24889262

RESUMO

The Fork head box C1 (FOXC1) gene is overexpressed in multiple malignant tumors and is functionally correlated with tumor progression. However, its' role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still unclear. Recent studies have revealed that many long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) cooperate with adjacent coding genes and form a functional "lncRNA-mRNA pair". In this study, we report a new lncRNA FOXC1 upstream transcript (FOXCUT) that was remarkably overexpressed in 23 OSCC patients, as was the adjacent FOXC1 gene. The expressions of FOXC1 and FOXCUT were positively correlated. When the expression of FOXCUT was down-regulated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), the expression of FOXC1 was also decreased. Moreover, in OSCC cells Tca8113 and SCC-9, down-regulation of either FOXC1 or FOXCUT by siRNA could inhibit cell proliferation and cell migration in vitro and was accompanied with a reduction of MMP2, MMP7, MMP9, and VEGF-A. In conclusion, FOXC1 may be co-amplified with FOXCUT in OSCC, and both of them may be functionally involved in the tumor progression of OSCC. This provides evidence that both FOXC1 and FOXCUT may serve as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in OSCC patients who overexpress this "lncRNA-mRNA pair".


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 7 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Interferência de RNA , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção , Regulação para Cima , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e62089, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23614017

RESUMO

Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a newly identified neuromodulator located in the brainstem and regulates various biological functions by selectively activating the NPS receptors (NPSR). High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the olfactory cortex suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPS or co-injection of NPSR antagonist on the olfactory behaviors, food intake, and c-Fos expression in olfactory cortex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. NPS (0.1-1 nmol) i.c.v. injection significantly reduced the latency to find the buried food, and increased olfactory differentiation of different odors and the total sniffing time spent in olfactory habituation/dishabituation tasks. NPS facilitated olfactory ability most at the dose of 0.5 nmol, which could be blocked by co-injection of 40 nmol NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS. NPS administration dose-dependently inhibited food intake in fasted mice. Ex-vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry in the olfactory cortex revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced c-Fos expression in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), piriform cortex (Pir), ventral tenia tecta (VTT), the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (ACo) and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEnt). The percentage of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 88.5% and 98.1% in the AON and Pir, respectively. The present findings demonstrated that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function in mice.


Assuntos
Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/farmacologia , Condutos Olfatórios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Animais , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Condutos Olfatórios/citologia , Condutos Olfatórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo
10.
Iran Red Crescent Med J ; 15(10): e7704, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24693369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been reported to be effective for the therapy for migraine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of BTX-A on the immunoreactive levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) in the jugular plasma and medulla oblongata of migraine in rats induced by nitroglycerin (NTG), and then to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle)-sites and acupoint-sites injection of BTX-A for migraine therapy of patients in a randomly controlled trial extending over four months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats with NTG-induced migraine were subcutaneously injected with vehicle or BTX-A (5 U/kg or 10 U/kg bodyweight). CGRP- and SP-like immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI and SP-LI) were determined by radioimmunoassay. In clinical trials, sixty patients respectively received BTX-A (2.5 U each site, 25 U per patient) at fixed-sites (group F, n = 30) including occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercili, temporalis and trapezius or at acupoint-sites (group A, n = 30) including EX-HN3, EX-HN5, GV20, GB8, GB20 and BL10. RESULTS: Local BTX-A injection suppressed NTG-induced CGRP-LI and SP-LI levels in jugular plasma and oblongata. BTX-A injection for both groups with migraine significantly reduced the attack frequency, intensity, duration and associated symptoms. The efficacy of BTX-A for migraine in group A (93% improvement) was more significant than that in group F (83% improvement) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The evidence that BTX-A decreases NTG-induced CGRP-LI and SP-LI levels in trigeminovascular system suggests that BTX-A attenuates migraine by suppression of neuropeptide release. BTX-A injections for migraine at acupoint-sites and fixed-sites are effective. Acupoint-sites BTX-A administration shows more efficacy for migraine than fixed-sites application.

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