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1.
Haematologica ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732043

RESUMO

FMS-like Tyrosine Kinase 3 (FLT3) mutation is associated with poor survival in AML. The specific Anexelekto/MER Tyrosine Kinase (AXL) inhibitor ONO-7475 kills FLT3-mutant acute myeloid leukemia cells with targets including Extracellular-signal Regulated Kinase (ERK) and Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1 (MCL1). ERK and MCL1 are known resistance factors for Venetoclax (ABT-199), a popular drug for AML therapy, prompting the investigation of the efficacy of ONO-7475 in combination with ABT-199 in vitro and in vivo. ONO-7475 synergizes with ABT-199 to potently kill FLT3-mutant acute myeloid leukemia cell lines and primary cells. ONO-7475 is effective against ABT-199-resistant cells including cells that overexpress MCL1. Proteomic analyses revealed that ABT-199-resistant cells expressed elevated levels of pro-growth and anti-apoptotic proteins compared to parental cells, and that ONO-7475 reduced the expression of these proteins in both the parental and ABT-199-resistant cells. ONO-7475 treatment significantly extended survival as a single agent in vivo using acute myeloid leukemia cell lines and PDX models. Compared to ONO-7474 monotherapy, the combination of ONO- 7475/ABT-199 was even more potent in reducing leukemic burden and prolonging survival of mice in both model systems. These results suggest the ONO-7475/ABT-199 combination may be effective for acute myeloid leukemia therapy.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791957

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Venetoclax has transformed the treatment landscape in hematologic malignancies, especially in elderly population. With high rates of remission, deep and durable responses, and safe toxicity profile, venetoclax in combination therapy has been extremely effective, garnering accelerated approval and becoming standard of care in lymphoid and myeloid malignancies. AREAS COVERED: The role of venetoclax in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway is covered. This includes preclinical and clinical experience of venetoclax monotherapy and combination therapy in relapsed/refractory and frontline CLL, AML, ALL and high-risk MDS, with an emphasis on key clinical trials and efficacy of combination regimens in distinct mutational landscapes. Strategies to mitigate myelosuppression, manage dose adjustments and infectious complications are addressed. EXPERT OPINION: Targeting BCL-2 offers a safe and highly effective adjunct to available therapies in hematologic malignancies. Despite success and frequent utilization of venetoclax, several resistance mechanisms have been elucidated, prompting development of novel combinatorial strategies. Further, on-target myelosuppression of venetoclax is a key obstacle in clinical practice, requiring diligent monitoring and practice-based knowledge of dose modifications. Despite these limitations, venetoclax has gained tremendous popularity in hematologic-oncology, becoming an integral component of numerous combination regimes, with ongoing plethora of clinical trials encompassing standard chemotherapy, targeted agents and immune-based approaches.

3.
Blood ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724563

RESUMO

Measurable residual disease (MRD) is an important biomarker in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that is used for prognostic, predictive, monitoring, and efficacy-response assessments. The European LeukemiaNet (ELN) MRD working party evaluates standardization and harmonization of MRD in an ongoing manner and has updated the 2018 ELN MRD recommendations based on significant developments in the field. New and revised recommendations were established during in-person and online meetings, and a two-stage Delphi poll was conducted to optimize consensus. All recommendations are graded by levels of evidence and agreement. Major changes include technical specifications for next generation sequencing (NGS)-based MRD testing and integrative assessments of MRD irrespective of technology. Other topics include use of MRD as a prognostic and surrogate endpoint for drug testing; selection of the technique, material, and appropriate time points for MRD assessment; and clinical implications of MRD assessment. In addition to technical recommendations for flow- and molecular- MRD analysis, we provide MRD thresholds and define MRD response, and detail how MRD results should be reported and combined if several techniques are used. MRD assessment in AML is complex and clinically relevant, and standardized approaches to application, interpretation, technical conduct, and reporting are of critical importance.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6896, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824248

RESUMO

PROteolysis-TArgeting Chimeras (PROTACs) have emerged as an innovative drug development platform. However, most PROTACs have been generated empirically because many determinants of PROTAC specificity and activity remain elusive. Through computational modelling of the entire NEDD8-VHL Cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRLVHL)/PROTAC/BCL-xL/UbcH5B(E2)-Ub/RBX1 complex, we find that this complex can only ubiquitinate the lysines in a defined band region on BCL-xL. Using this approach to guide our development of a series of ABT263-derived and VHL-recruiting PROTACs, we generate a potent BCL-xL and BCL-2 (BCL-xL/2) dual degrader with significantly improved antitumor activity against BCL-xL/2-dependent leukemia cells. Our results provide experimental evidence that the accessibility of lysines on a target protein plays an important role in determining the selectivity and potency of a PROTAC in inducing protein degradation, which may serve as a conceptual framework to guide the future development of PROTACs.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602371

RESUMO

The treatment landscape for acute myeloid leukemia has expanded significantly in the past 5 years with the approval of several therapeutic small molecules. While agents such as FLT3 inhibitors and IDH inhibitors are restricted for patients with specific mutations, the selective BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax combined with a hypomethylating agent or low-dose cytarabine was approved after demonstrating frontline efficacy across a molecularly heterogenous group of patients. Currently, venetoclax is being investigated in combination with multiple other therapies as the role of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in acute myeloid leukemia continues to be explored.

7.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615655

RESUMO

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive leukemia of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). BPDCN occurs at least three times more frequently in men than women, but the reasons for this sex bias are unknown. Here, studying genomics of primary BPDCN and modeling disease-associated mutations, we link acquired alterations in RNA splicing to abnormal pDC development and inflammatory response through Toll-like receptors. Loss-of-function mutations in ZRSR2, an X chromosome gene encoding a splicing factor, are enriched in BPDCN and nearly all mutations occur in males. ZRSR2 mutation impairs pDC activation and apoptosis after inflammatory stimuli, associated with intron retention and inability to upregulate the transcription factor IRF7. In vivo, BPDCN-associated mutations promote pDC expansion and signatures of decreased activation. These data support a model in which male-biased mutations in hematopoietic progenitors alter pDC function and confer protection from apoptosis, which may impair immunity and predispose to leukemic transformation.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629467

RESUMO

Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm (BPDCN) is an aggressive hematological malignancy; however, some patients achieve durable remission with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We report on all 17 patients with BPDCN who underwent allo-HCT at our center between 2000 and 2020. The median age was 39 (18-67) years. All (n = 16, 94%), except one patient, had systemic disease involving bone marrow and/or other organs. Ten patients (59%) were in first complete remission (CR1) at allo-HCT. The donor source was matched related or unrelated in ten (59%) and alternate donor in seven (41%) patients. Five (31%) patients developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), all grade I-II. The cumulative incidence (CI) of chronic GVHD at five-year was 34%. The CI of non-relapse mortality at one-year was 29%. Progression-free survival (PFS) rates at two-year and five-year were 49% (95% CI = 22-71%) and 39% (95% CI = 14-64%), respectively. The two-year and five-year overall survival (OS) rates were 65% (95% CI = 38-82%) and 40% (95% CI = 12-68%), respectively. The five-year rate for both PFS and OS was 80% in CR1 patients versus 0% in patients not in CR1. In conclusion, allo-HCT provides long-lasting remissions in BPDCN patients, particularly when performed in CR1.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638998

RESUMO

During transformation, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by reducing apoptosis of bone marrow (BM) precursors. Mouse models of high risk (HR)-MDS and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) post-MDS using mutant NRAS and overexpression of human BCL-2, known to be poor prognostic indicators of the human diseases, were created. We have reported the efficacy of the BCL-2 inhibitor, ABT-737, on the AML post-MDS model; here, we report that this BCL-2 inhibitor also significantly extended survival of the HR-MDS mouse model, with reductions of BM blasts and lineage negative/Sca1+/KIT+ (LSK) cells. Secondary transplants showed increased survival in treated compared to untreated mice. Unlike the AML model, BCL-2 expression and RAS activity decreased following treatment and the RAS:BCL-2 complex remained in the plasma membrane. Exon-specific gene expression profiling (GEP) of HR-MDS mice showed 1952 differentially regulated genes upon treatment, including genes important for the regulation of stem cells, differentiation, proliferation, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis; relevant in human disease. Spliceosome genes, found to be abnormal in MDS patients and downregulated in our HR-MDS model, such as Rsrc1 and Wbp4, were upregulated by the treatment, as were genes involved in epigenetic regulation, such as DNMT3A and B, upregulated upon disease progression and downregulated upon treatment.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/administração & dosagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/metabolismo , Nitrofenóis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Am J Hematol ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716921

RESUMO

The progress with intensive chemotherapy and supportive care measures has improved survival in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Given the recent development of effective low intensity therapies, an optimal decision on the therapy intensity may improve survival through the avoidance of early mortality. We reviewed the outcome of 3728 patients with newly diagnosed AML who received intensive chemotherapy between August 1980 and May 2020. Intensive chemotherapy was defined as a cumulative cytarabine dose ≥ 700 mg/m2 during induction therapy. We divided the whole cohort into a training and validation group at a 3:1 ratio. The population was divided into a training (2790 patients) and a validation cohort (938 patients). The median age was 55 years (range, 15-99). Among them, 442 patients (12%) had core-binding factor AML. Binary logistic regression identified older age, worse performance status, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated creatinine, hyperuricemia, cytogenetic abnormalities other than CBF and -Y, and pneumonia as adverse prognostic factors for an early 4-week mortality. This risk classification for early mortality was verified in the validation cohort of patients. In the validation cohort of more recently treated patients from 2000 to 2017, the 4-week mortality rates with intensive chemotherapy were 2%, 14%, and 50% in the low-, high-, and very high-risk group, respectively. The mortality rates with low intensity therapies were 3%, 9%, and 20%, respectively. The risk classification guides treatment intensity by the assessment of age, frailty, organ dysfunction, cytogenetic abnormality, and infection to avoid early mortality.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6071, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663807

RESUMO

In contrast to the curative effect of allogenic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia via T cell activity, only modest responses are achieved with checkpoint-blockade therapy, which might be explained by T cell phenotypes and T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires. Here, we show by paired single-cell RNA analysis and TCR repertoire profiling of bone marrow cells in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia patients pre/post azacytidine+nivolumab treatment that the disease-related T cell subsets are highly heterogeneous, and their abundance changes following PD-1 blockade-based treatment. TCR repertoires expand and primarily emerge from CD8+ cells in patients responding to treatment or having a stable disease, while TCR repertoires contract in therapy-resistant patients. Trajectory analysis reveals a continuum of CD8+ T cell phenotypes, characterized by differential expression of granzyme B and a bone marrow-residing memory CD8+ T cell subset, in which a population with stem-like properties expressing granzyme K is enriched in responders. Chromosome 7/7q loss, on the other hand, is a cancer-intrinsic genomic marker of PD-1 blockade resistance in AML. In summary, our study reveals that adaptive T cell plasticity and genomic alterations determine responses to PD-1 blockade in acute myeloid leukemia.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-4, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668451

RESUMO

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(15;17) and the resulting gene PML-RARA, used for measurable residual disease (MRD) monitoring. Despite highly effective therapy for APL, MRD monitoring practices are not fully established. We aimed to assess the value of MRD monitoring by RT-qPCR in patients with APL treated with ATRA and arsenic trioxide +/- GO. We reviewed 223 patients with APL treated with this regimen. RT-qPCR for PML-RARA was measured every 3 months, and at 12, 18, and 24 months after therapy. Seven patients relapsed. Time to relapse was 7.9-12.4 months in 6 patients, and one patient relapsed after 79.5 months. These data show that MRD monitoring may be important for the detection of relapse in patients treated with this regimen within one year after completing therapy, however, since late molecular relapse is rare, our data suggest a low value of MRD monitoring beyond that first year.

13.
Front Oncol ; 11: 686765, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490088

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with a high mortality rate and relapse risk. Although progress on the genetic and molecular understanding of this disease has been made, the standard of care has changed minimally for the past 40 years and the five-year survival rate remains poor, warranting new treatment strategies. Here, we applied a two-step screening platform consisting of a primary cell viability screening and a secondary metabolomics-based phenotypic screening to find synergistic drug combinations to treat AML. A novel synergy between the oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor IACS-010759 and the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor AC220 (quizartinib) was discovered in AML and then validated by ATP bioluminescence and apoptosis assays. In-depth stable isotope tracer metabolic flux analysis revealed that IACS-010759 and AC220 synergistically reduced glucose and glutamine enrichment in glycolysis and the TCA cycle, leading to impaired energy production and de novo nucleotide biosynthesis. In summary, we identified a novel drug combination, AC220 and IACS-010759, which synergistically inhibits cell growth in AML cells due to a major disruption of cell metabolism, regardless of FLT3 mutation status.

14.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-12, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486917

RESUMO

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) serve as immunoregulatory antigen-presenting cells that play a role in various inflammatory, viral, and malignant conditions. Malignant proliferation of pDCs is implicated in the pathogenesis of certain hematologic cancers, specifically blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) and acute myelogenous leukemia with clonal expansion of pDC (pDC-AML). In recent years, BPDCN and pDC-AML have been successfully treated with targeted therapy of pDC-specific surface marker, CD123. However, relapsed and refractory BPDCN remains an elusive cancer, with limited therapeutic options. CD303 is another specific surface marker of human pDCs, centrally involved in antigen presentation and immune tolerance. Monoclonal antibodies directed against CD303 have been studied in preclinical models and have achieved disease control in patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus. We performed a comprehensive review of benign and malignant disorders in which CD303 have been studied, as there may be a potential future CD303-directed therapy for many of these conditions.

16.
Blood Adv ; 5(20): 4233-4255, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507353

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are highly dependent on oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) for survival, and they continually adapt to fluctuations in nutrient and oxygen availability in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. We investigated how the BM microenvironment affects the response to OxPhos inhibition in AML by using a novel complex I OxPhos inhibitor, IACS-010759. Cellular adhesion, growth, and apoptosis assays, along with measurements of expression of mitochondrial DNA and generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species indicated that direct interactions with BM stromal cells triggered compensatory activation of mitochondrial respiration and resistance to OxPhos inhibition in AML cells. Mechanistically, inhibition of OxPhos induced transfer of mitochondria derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to AML cells via tunneling nanotubes under direct-contact coculture conditions. Inhibition of OxPhos also induced mitochondrial fission and increased functional mitochondria and mitophagy in AML cells. Mitochondrial fission is known to enhance cell migration, so we used electron microscopy to observe mitochondrial transport to the leading edge of protrusions of AML cells migrating toward MSCs. We further demonstrated that cytarabine, a commonly used antileukemia agent, increased mitochondrial transfer of MSCs to AML cells triggered by OxPhos inhibition. Our findings indicate an important role of exogenous mitochondrial trafficking from BM stromal cells to AML cells as well as endogenous mitochondrial fission and mitophagy in the compensatory adaptation of leukemia cells to energetic stress in the BM microenvironment.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Oxidiazóis , Piperidinas , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525185

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with t(4;11)(q21;q23) - KMT2A-AFF1 is associated with a poor prognosis. The impact of KMT2A rearrangements other than t(4;11) is uncertain and the benefit of allogeneic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is unclear. We reviewed adult patients with ALL treated at our institution from 1984 to 2019 and identified 50/1102 (5%) with KMT2A rearrangement: 42 (84%) with t(4;11)/KMT2A-AFF1 and 8 (16%) with other gene partners. The median age was 45 years old (range, 18 - 78 years); median white blood cell count was 109.0 x 109/L (range, 0.5 - 1573.0). The complete remission (CR) rate was 88% and the rate of measurable residual disease negativity by flow cytometry at CR was 41% (76% overall during follow-up). At the last follow-up, 14 patients were alive. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 18% (95% CI, 9 - 35%) with no difference between t(4;11) and other KMT2A rearrangements (p=0.87). In a 4-month landmark analysis, the 5-year OS rate was 32% (95% CI, 14 - 70%) in patients who underwent HSCT versus 11% (95% CI, 3 - 39) in others (p=0.10). Our study confirms the poor prognosis of ALL with any KMT2A rearrangement and the role of HSCT in these patients.

19.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(9): 162, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588432

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with rearrangement of the lysine methyltransferase 2a gene (KMT2Ar) has adverse outcomes. However, reports on the prognostic impact of various translocations causing KMT2Ar are conflicting. Less is known about associated mutations and their prognostic impact. In a retrospective analysis, we identified 172 adult patients with KMT2Ar AML and compared them to 522 age-matched patients with diploid AML. KMT2Ar AML had fewer mutations, most commonly affecting RAS and FLT3 without significant impact on prognosis, except for patients with ≥2 mutations with lower overall survival (OS). KMT2Ar AML had worse outcomes compared with diploid AML when newly diagnosed and at relapse, especially following second salvage (median OS of 2.4 vs 4.8 months, P < 0.0001). Therapy-related KMT2Ar AML (t-AML) had worse outcomes compared with de novo KMT2Ar AML (median OS of 0.7 years vs 1.4 years, P < 0.0001). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) in first remission was associated with improved OS (5-year, 52 vs 14% for no allo-HSCT, P < 0.0001). In a multivariate analysis, translocation subtypes causing KMT2Ar did not predict survival, unlike age and allo-HSCT. In conclusion, KMT2Ar was associated with adverse outcomes regardless of translocation subtype. Therefore, AML risk stratification guidelines should include all KMT2Ar as adverse.

20.
Blood Adv ; 5(22): 4569-4574, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555853

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a difficult disease to treat disease. In a phase 2 clinical trial in patients with relapsed/refractory AML, combining the hypomethylating agent, azacitidine, with the PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab, demonstrated encouraging response rates (33%), median event-free, and overall survival, compared with a historical cohort of contemporary patients treated with azacitidine-based therapies, with an acceptable safety profile. Biomarkers of response are yet to be determined. In this study, we leveraged a multiplexed immune assay to assess the functional states of CD4+ and CD8+ cells at a single-cell level in pretherapy bone marrows in 16 patients with relapsed/refractory AML treated with azacitidine/nivolumab. Effector CD4+ but not CD8+ cells had distinct polyfunctional groups and were associated with responses and better outcomes. Further evaluation of the polyfunctional strength index composition across cell types revealed that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were the major drivers of enhanced polyfunctionality index of pretherapy CD4+ subset, whereas Granzyme B, IFN-γ, MIP-1b, and TNF-α drove the nonsignificantly enhanced pretreatment Polyfunctional Strength Index of CD8+ subset in the responders. Single-cell polyfunctional assays were predictive of response in AML and may have a potential role as a biomarker in the wider sphere of immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Proteômica , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico
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