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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(1): 33-42, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE)-related mortality is decreasing in Europe. However, time trends in the USA and Canada remain uncertain because the most recent analyses of PE-related mortality were published in the early 2000s. METHODS: For this retrospective epidemiological study, we accessed medically certified vital registration data from the WHO Mortality Database (USA and Canada, 2000-17) and the Multiple Cause of Death database produced by the Division of Vital Statistics of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; US, 2000-18). We investigated contemporary time trends in PE-related mortality in the USA and Canada and the prevalence of conditions contributing to PE-related mortality reported on the death certificates. We also estimated PE-related mortality by age group and sex. A subgroup analysis by race was performed for the USA. FINDINGS: In the USA, the age-standardised annual mortality rate (PE as the underlying cause) decreased from 6·0 deaths per 100 000 population (95% CI 5·9-6·1) in 2000 to 4·4 deaths per 100 000 population (4·3-4·5) in 2006. Thereafter, it continued to decrease to 4·1 deaths per 100 000 population (4·0-4·2) in women in 2017 and plateaued at 4·5 deaths per 100 000 population (4·4-4·7) in men in 2017. Among adults aged 25-64 years, it increased after 2006. The median age at death from PE decreased from 73 years to 68 years (2000-18). The prevalence of cancer, respiratory diseases, and infections as a contributing cause of PE-related death increased in all age categories from 2000 to 2018. The annual age-standardised PE-related mortality was consistently higher by up to 50% in Black individuals than in White individuals; these rates were approximately 50% higher in White individuals than in those of other races. In Canada, the annual age-standardised mortality rate from PE as the underlying cause of death decreased from 4·7 deaths per 100 000 population (4·4-5·0) in 2000 to 2·6 deaths per 100 000 population (2·4-2·8) in 2017; this decline slowed after 2006 across age groups and sexes. INTERPRETATION: After 2006, the initially decreasing PE-related mortality rates in North America progressively reached a plateau in Canada, while a rebound increase was observed among young and middle-aged adults in the USA. These findings parallel recent upward trends in mortality from other cardiovascular diseases and might reflect increasing inequalities in the exposure to risk factors and access to health care. FUNDING: None.

5.
Eur J Intern Med ; 82: 29-37, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) has been described as a frequent and prognostically relevant complication of COVID-19 infection. AIM: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the in-hospital incidence of acute PE among COVID-19 patients based on studies published within four months of COVID-19 outbreak. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed in abstracting data and assessing validity. We searched Medline, Scopus and Web of Science to locate all articles published up to August 1, 2020 reporting the incidence of acute PE (or lung thrombosis) in COVID-19 patients. The pooled in-hospital incidence of acute PE among COVID-19 patients was calculated using a random effects model and presenting the related 95% confidence interval (CI). Statistical heterogeneity was measured using the Higgins I2 statistic. RESULTS: We analysed data from 7178 COVID-19 patients [mean age 60.4 years] included in twenty-three studies. Among patients hospitalized in general wards and intensive care unit (ICU), the pooled in-hospital incidence of PE (or lung thrombosis) was 14.7% of cases (95% CI: 9.9-21.3%, I2=95.0%, p<0.0001) and 23.4% (95% CI:16.7-31.8%, I2=88.7%, p<0.0001), respectively. Segmental/sub-segmental pulmonary arteries were more frequently involved compared to main/lobar arteries (6.8% vs18.8%, p<0.001). Computer tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) was used only in 35.3% of patients with COVID-19 infection across six studies. CONCLUSIONS: The in-hospital incidence of acute PE among COVID-19 patients is higher in ICU patients compared to those hospitalized in general wards. CTPA was rarely used suggesting a potential underestimation of PE cases.


Assuntos
/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935475

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite the existence of many studies, there are still limited data about the characteristics of myocarditis in Greece. This led to the creation of the Greek Myocarditis Registry aiming to document the different symptoms and treatment of myocarditis, assess possible prognostic factors, and find similarities and differences to what is already published in literature. This paper is a preliminary descriptive analysis of this Registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed data for the hospitalization period of all patients included in the Registry from December 2015 until November 2017. Statistics are reported as frequency (%) or median and inter-quartile range (IQR) as appropriate. In total, 146 patients were included; 83.3% of the patients reported an infection during the last 3 months. The most common symptom, regardless of the underlying infection, was chest pain (82.2%) followed by dyspnoea (18.5%), while the most common finding in clinical examination was tachycardia (26.7%). Presentation was more frequent in the winter months. ECG findings were not specific, with the repolarization abnormalities being the most frequent (60.3%). Atrial fibrillation was observed in two patients, both of whom presented with a reduced ventricular systolic function. Left ventricular ejection fraction changed significantly during the hospitalization [55% (IQR: 50-60%) on admission vs. 60% (IQR: 55-60%) on discharge, P = 0.0026]. Cardiac magnetic resonance was performed in 88 patients (61%), revealing mainly subepicardial and midcardial involvement of the lateral wall. Late gadolinium enhancement was present in all patients, while oedema was found in 39 of them. Only 11 patients underwent endomyocardial biopsy. Discharge medication consisted mainly of beta-blockers (71.9%) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (41.8%), while 39.7% of the patients were prescribed both. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary analysis describes the typical presentation of myocarditis patients in Greece. It is a first step in developing a better prognostic model for the course of the disease, which will be completed after the incorporation of the patients' follow-up data.

7.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early discharge of patients with acute low-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) requires validation by prospective trials with clinical and quality of life outcomes. METHODS: The multinational Home Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism (HoT-PE) single-arm management trial investigated early discharge followed by ambulatory treatment with rivaroxaban. The study was stopped for efficacy after the positive results of the predefined interim analysis at 50% of the planned population. The present analysis includes the entire trial population (576 patients). In addition to three-month recurrence (primary outcome) and one-year overall mortality, we analysed self-reported disease-specific (Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life [PEmb-QoL] questionnaire) and generic (five-level five-dimension EuroQoL [EQ-5D-5L] scale) quality of life as well as treatment satisfaction (Anti-Clot Treatment Scale [ACTS]) after PE. RESULTS: The primary efficacy outcome occurred in three (0.5%; upper 95.0% CI 1.3%) patients. One-year mortality was 2.4%. The mean PEmb-QoL decreased from 28.9±20.6% at 3 weeks to 19.9±15.4% at 3 months, a mean change (improvement) of -9.1% (p<0.0001). Improvement was consistent across all PEmb-QoL dimensions. EQ-5D-5L was 0.89±0.12 3 weeks after enrolment and improved to 0.91±0.12 at 3 months (p<0.0001). Female sex and cardiopulmonary disease were associated with poorer disease-specific and generic quality of life; older age, with faster worsening of generic quality of life. The ACTS burden score improved from 40.5±6.6 points at 3 weeks to 42.5±5.9 at 3 months (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results further support early discharge and ambulatory oral anticoagulation for selected patients with low-risk PE. Targeted strategies may be necessary to further improve quality of life in specific patient subgroups.

8.
Eur J Intern Med ; 82: 76-82, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tachycardia is a reliable predictor of adverse outcomes in normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). However, different prognostic relevant heart rate thresholds have been proposed. The aim of the study was to investigate the prognostic performance of different thresholds used for defining tachycardia in normotensive PE patients. METHODS: We performed a post-hoc analysis of normotensive patients with confirmed PE consecutively included in a single-centre and a multi-centre registry. An adverse outcome was defined as PE-related death, need for mechanical ventilation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation or administration of catecholamines. RESULTS: Of 1567 patients (median age: 72 [IQR, 59-79] years; females: 46.1%) included in the analysis, 78 patients (5.0%) had an in-hospital adverse outcome. The rate of an adverse outcome was higher in patients with a heart rate ≥100 bpm (7.6%) and ≥110 bpm (8.3%) compared to patients with a heart rate <100 bpm (3.0%). A heart rate ≥100 bpm and ≥110 bpm was associated with a 2.7 (95% CI 1.7-4.3) and 2.4-fold (95% CI 1.5-3.7) increased risk for an adverse outcome, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed a similar area under the curve with regard to an adverse outcome for all scores and algorithm (ESC 2019 algorithm, modified FAST and Bova score) if calculated with a heart rate threshold of ≥100 bpm or of ≥110 bpm. CONCLUSIONS: Defining tachycardia by a heart rate ≥100 bpm is sufficient for risk stratification of normotensive patients with acute PE. The use of different heart rate thresholds for calculation of scores and algorithm does not appear necessary.

9.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 17(8): 739-749, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700589

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies performed in the past decade suggested that evolving reperfusion strategies may improve early outcomes of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and hemodynamic decompensation. In this regard, catheter-directed treatment (CDT) options are receiving increasing attention. AREAS COVERED: A broad spectrum of CDT options exists for the treatment of patients with acute PE. Procedures include catheter-directed local thrombolysis with or without ultrasound assistance, catheter-directed mechanical or suction embolectomy, and combined pharmaco-mechanical approaches. We present here an overview of the available CDT techniques, focusing on the EkoSonic® endovascular system. EXPERT COMMENTARY: CDT, particularly local ultrasound accelerated thrombolysis, continues to evolve. Its increasing popularity is the result of accumulating promising results, which suggest a relief of right ventricular (RV) pressure overload and improvement of RV function. These favorable effects on surrogate endpoints were accompanied by a low rate of procedure-related adverse events, notably intracranial hemorrhage. Although the overall risk of serious bleeding appears to be low in CDT, the lack of direct comparisons with other reperfusion options does not allow definitive conclusions. Prospective controlled trials with robust clinical outcomes are urgently needed to establish the postulated benefits of CDT in selected patients with acute PE.


Assuntos
Cateteres , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Reperfusão , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Terapia Trombolítica , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2365-2372, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567197

RESUMO

AIMS: Data on the early course and use of systemic thrombolysis in pregnant women with pulmonary embolism associated or not with haemodynamic failure are scarce. We investigated these aspects using the information from the German Nationwide Inpatient Registry (years 2005-2016). METHODS AND RESULTS: In Germany, all diagnoses referring to hospitalized patients are coded according to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision with German Modification. We analysed data of pregnant women aged 18-50 years for whom the following diagnoses were recorded during hospitalization: (i) pulmonary embolism (I26) during pregnancy or peripartum (O09) or (ii) obstetric thromboembolism (O88.2). Haemodynamic failure at any time during the in-hospital stay was defined as need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (OPS code 8-77) or the presence of shock (International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision with German Modification code R57). The primary study outcome was in-hospital death. A total of 8 271 327 births were registered in Germany from 2005 to 2016. During this 12 year time period, there were 1846 hospitalizations for pregnancy-associated pulmonary embolism in patients aged 18-50, corresponding to 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-2.3] cases every 10 000 births and 0.2% of all hospitalizations for pulmonary embolism in Germany. The median age was 31 years, and the median length of hospitalization was 8 days. A total of 63 deaths were reported, corresponding to an overall in-hospital fatality rate of 3.4% (95% CI: 2.7-4.4) and a pulmonary embolism-related mortality rate of 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6-1.0) per 100 000 (live) births per year. Pulmonary embolism-related deaths in hospitalized pregnant women represented 14% of all maternal deaths recorded in Germany between 2005 and 2016. A total of 135 (7.3%) women had haemodynamic failure, of whom 51 (37.8%) received systemic thrombolysis and 50 (37.0%) died. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary embolism-related fatality remains substantial in pregnant women with pulmonary embolism and represents a frequent cause of maternal mortality. The use of systemic thrombolysis was reported in one third of pregnant women with pulmonary embolism and haemodynamic failure. Better preventive and management strategies should be urgently implemented in this vulnerable patient group.

12.
J Intern Med ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lemierre syndrome is characterized by head/neck vein thrombosis and septic embolism usually complicating an acute oropharyngeal bacterial infection in adolescents and young adults. We described the course of Lemierre syndrome in the contemporary era. METHODS: In our individual-level analysis of 712 patients (2000-2017), we included cases described as Lemierre syndrome if these criteria were met: (i) primary site of bacterial infection in the head/neck; (ii) objectively confirmed local thrombotic complications or septic embolism. The study outcomes were new or recurrent venous thromboembolism or peripheral septic lesions, major bleeding, all-cause death and clinical sequelae. RESULTS: The median age was 21 (Q1-Q3: 17-33) years, and 295 (41%) were female. At diagnosis, acute thrombosis of head/neck veins was detected in 597 (84%) patients, septic embolism in 582 (82%) and both in 468 (80%). After diagnosis and during in-hospital follow-up, new venous thromboembolism occurred in 34 (5.2%, 95% CI 3.8-7.2%) patients, new peripheral septic lesions became evident in 76 (11.7%; 9.4-14.3%). The rate of either was lower in patients who received anticoagulation (OR: 0.59; 0.36-0.94), higher in those with initial intracranial involvement (OR: 2.35; 1.45-3.80). Major bleeding occurred in 19 patients (2.9%; 1.9-4.5%), and 26 died (4.0%; 2.7-5.8%). Clinical sequelae were reported in 65 (10.4%, 8.2-13.0%) individuals, often consisting of cranial nerve palsy (n = 24) and orthopaedic limitations (n = 19). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Lemierre syndrome were characterized by a substantial risk of new thromboembolic complications and death. This risk was higher in the presence of initial intracranial involvement. One-tenth of survivors suffered major clinical sequelae.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(23): 2950-2973, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-547082

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a viral respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), may predispose patients to thrombotic disease, both in the venous and arterial circulations, because of excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. In addition, many patients receiving antithrombotic therapy for thrombotic disease may develop COVID-19, which can have implications for choice, dosing, and laboratory monitoring of antithrombotic therapy. Moreover, during a time with much focus on COVID-19, it is critical to consider how to optimize the available technology to care for patients without COVID-19 who have thrombotic disease. Herein, the authors review the current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who develop venous or arterial thrombosis, of those with pre-existing thrombotic disease who develop COVID-19, or those who need prevention or care for their thrombotic disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Pandemias , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral , Tromboembolia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(23): 2950-2973, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72088

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a viral respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), may predispose patients to thrombotic disease, both in the venous and arterial circulations, because of excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. In addition, many patients receiving antithrombotic therapy for thrombotic disease may develop COVID-19, which can have implications for choice, dosing, and laboratory monitoring of antithrombotic therapy. Moreover, during a time with much focus on COVID-19, it is critical to consider how to optimize the available technology to care for patients without COVID-19 who have thrombotic disease. Herein, the authors review the current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who develop venous or arterial thrombosis, of those with pre-existing thrombotic disease who develop COVID-19, or those who need prevention or care for their thrombotic disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Pandemias , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral , Tromboembolia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Thromb Res ; 190: 1-7, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially life-threatening disease. Major transient risk factors include trauma, surgery, and immobilization. Patients undergoing hip joint replacement (HJR) are characterized by a high risk of postoperative VTE, but data on the time trends of VTE rates in this population are sparse. METHODS: In an analysis of the German nationwide inpatient sample, we included all hospitalizations for elective primary HJR in Germany from 2005 to 2016. Time trends of the surgical procedure, overall death rates, and VTE rates were analysed, and predictors of VTE identified. RESULTS: Overall, 1,885,839 inpatients with elective primary HJR (59.1% women, 51.4% ≥70 years) were included in the analysis. During hospitalization, VTE was documented in 11,554 (0.6%) patients. While total numbers of primary HJR increased from 145,223 in 2005 to 171,421 in 2016 (ß-(slope)-estimate 1818 [95%CI 1083 to 2553], P < 0.001), in-hospital VTE decreased from 1288 (0.9%) to 843 (0.5%) cases (ß-estimate -0.71 [95%CI -0.77 to -0.65], P < 0.001), and in-hospital death rate from 0.33% (476 deaths) to 0.29% (498 deaths) (ß-estimate -0.11 [95%CI -0.20 to -0.02], P = 0.018). Infections during hospitalization were associated with higher VTE risk than cancer and cardiovascular events. VTE events were independently associated with an increased death risk (OR 15.19 [95%CI 14.19-16.86], P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: While total numbers of HJR increased significantly in Germany between 2005 and 2016, in-hospital rates of VTE decreased from 0.9% to 0.5%. Patients with perioperative VTE had a 15-fold increase of in-hospital death. Cancer, cardiovascular disease and perioperative infections were associated with higher risk for VTE.

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(23): 2950-2973, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311448

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a viral respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), may predispose patients to thrombotic disease, both in the venous and arterial circulations, because of excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. In addition, many patients receiving antithrombotic therapy for thrombotic disease may develop COVID-19, which can have implications for choice, dosing, and laboratory monitoring of antithrombotic therapy. Moreover, during a time with much focus on COVID-19, it is critical to consider how to optimize the available technology to care for patients without COVID-19 who have thrombotic disease. Herein, the authors review the current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who develop venous or arterial thrombosis, of those with pre-existing thrombotic disease who develop COVID-19, or those who need prevention or care for their thrombotic disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Pandemias , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral , Tromboembolia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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