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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835790

RESUMO

The nitroheterocyclic 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) is an ingredient of insensitive explosives increasingly used by the military, becoming an emergent environmental pollutant. Cometabolic biotransformation of NTO occurs in mixed microbial cultures in soils and sludges with excess electron-donating substrates. Herein, we present the unusual energy-yielding metabolic process of NTO respiration, in which the NTO reduction to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO) is linked to the anoxic acetate oxidation to CO2 by a culture enriched from municipal anaerobic digester sludge. Cell growth was observed simultaneously with NTO reduction, whereas the culture was unable to grow in the presence of acetate only. Extremely low concentrations (0.06 mg L-1) of the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone inhibited NTO reduction, indicating that the process was linked to respiration. The ultimate evidence of NTO respiration was adenosine triphosphate production due to simultaneous exposure to NTO and acetate. Metagenome sequencing revealed that the main microorganisms (and relative abundances) were Geobacter anodireducens (89.3%) and Thauera sp. (5.5%). This study is the first description of a nitroheterocyclic compound being reduced by anaerobic respiration, shedding light on creative microbial processes that enable bacteria to make a living reducing NTO.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837013

RESUMO

The phylogenetic and functional diversity of microbial communities in tropical rainforests, and how these differ from temperate communities remain poorly described but are directly related to the increased fluxes of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the tropics. Towards closing these knowledge gaps, we analyzed replicated shotgun metagenomes representing distinct life zones and an elevation gradient from four locations in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico. These soils had a distinct microbial community composition and lower species diversity when compared to temperate grasslands or agricultural soils. In contrast to the overall distinct community composition, the relative abundances and nucleotide sequences of N2O reductases (nosZ) were highly similar between tropical forest and temperate soils. However, respiratory NO reductase (norB) was 2-fold more abundant in the tropical soils, which might be relatable to their greater N2O emissions. Nitrogen fixation (nifH) also showed higher relative abundance in rainforest compared to temperate soils, i.e., 20% vs. 0.1-0.3% of bacterial genomes in each soil type harbored the gene, respectively. Finally, unlike temperate soils, LEF soils showed little stratification with depth in the first 0-30cm, with ∼45% of community composition differences explained solely by location. Collectively, these results advance our understanding of spatial diversity and metabolic repertoire of tropical rainforest soil communities, and should facilitate future ecological studies of these ecosystems.Importance:Tropical rainforests are the largest terrestrial sinks of atmospheric CO2 and the largest natural source of N2O emissions, two critical greenhouse gases for the climate. The microbial communities of rainforest soils that directly or indirectly, through affecting plant growth, contribute to these fluxes remain poorly described by cultured-independent methods. To close this knowledge gap, the present study applied shotgun metagenomics to samples selected from three distinct life zones within the Puerto Rico rainforest. The results advance our understanding of microbial community diversity in rainforest soils and should facilitate future studies of natural or manipulated perturbations of these critical ecosystems.

3.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 44(2): 126185, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676264

RESUMO

The diverse and ubiquitous members of the SAR11 lineage (Alphaproteobacteria) represent up to 30-40% of the surface and mesopelagic oceanic microbial communities. However, the molecular and ecological mechanisms that differentiate closely related, yet distinct, SAR11 members that often co-occur under similar environmental conditions remain speculative. Recently, two mesopelagic and oxygen minimum zone (OMZ)-associated subclades of SAR11 (Ic and IIa.A) were described using single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) linked to nitrate reduction in OMZs. In this current study, the collection of genomes belonging to these two subclades was expanded with thirteen new metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), thus providing a more detailed phylogenetic and functional characterization of these subclades. Gene content-based predictions of metabolic functions revealed similarities in central carbon metabolism between subclades Ic and IIa.A and surface SAR11 clades, with small variations in central pathways. These variations included more versatile sulfur assimilation pathways, as well as a previously predicted capacity for nitrate reduction that conferred unique versatility on mesopelagic-adapted clades compared to their surface counterparts. Finally, consistent with previously reported abundances of carbon monoxide (CO) in surface and mesopelagic waters, subclades Ia (surface) and Ic (mesopelagic) have the genetic potential to oxidize carbon monoxide (CO), presumably taking advantage of this abundant compound as an electron donor. Based on genomic analyses, environmental distribution and metabolic reconstruction, we propose two new SAR11 genera, Ca. Mesopelagibacter carboxydoxydans (subclade Ic) and Ca. Anoxipelagibacter denitrificans (subclade IIa.A), which represent members of the mesopelagic and OMZ-adapted SAR11 clades.

4.
Trends Microbiol ; 29(5): 394-404, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546975

RESUMO

DNA sequencing has led to an explosion in discovery of microbial phylogenetic novelty, especially that represented by uncultivated taxa, to which the traditional system of prokaryotic taxonomy has not adapted. A lack of expansion of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP, 'the Code') to effectively capture this information has created a 'wild west' situation where names are published or appear in popular reference databases without further verification or validation. The rapid propagation of variant and questionable naming methods has led to widespread confusion and undermines prior accomplishments. We exemplify inconsistencies that have arisen from this practice and endanger the interoperability of scientific findings. The immediate solution to this problem is to develop and adopt universal best practices that are accepted by expert researchers, major publishers, the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP), and international microbiological societies.

5.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547715

RESUMO

Many biotic and abiotic processes contribute to nitrous oxide (N2 O) production in the biosphere, but N2 O consumption in the environment has heretofore been attributed primarily to canonical denitrifying microorganisms. The nosZ genes encoding the N2 O reductase enzyme, NosZ, responsible for N2 O reduction to dinitrogen are now known to include two distinct groups: the well-studied Clade I which denitrifiers typically possess, and the novel Clade II possessed by diverse groups of microorganisms, most of which are non-denitrifiers. Clade II N2 O reducers could play an important, previously unrecognized role in controlling N2 O emissions for several reasons, including: (1) the consumption of N2 O produced by processes other than denitrification, (2) hypothesized non-respiratory functions of NosZ as an electron sink or for N2 O detoxification, (3) possible differing enzyme kinetics of Clade II NosZ compared to Clade I NosZ, and (4) greater nosZ gene abundance for Clade II compared to Clade I in soils of many ecosystems. Despite the potential ecological significance of Clade II NosZ, a census of 800 peer-reviewed original research articles discussing nosZ and published from 2013 to 2019 showed that the percentage of articles evaluating or mentioning Clade II nosZ increased from 5% in 2013 to only 22% in 2019. The census revealed that the slowly spreading awareness of Clade II nosZ may result in part from disciplinary silos, with the percentage of nosZ articles mentioning Clade II nosZ ranging from 0% in Agriculture and Agronomy journals to 32% in Multidisciplinary Sciences journals. In addition, inconsistent nomenclature for Clade I nosZ and Clade II nosZ, with 17 different terminologies used in the literature, may have created confusion about the two distinct groups of N2 O reducers. We provide recommendations to accelerate advances in understanding the role of the diversity of N2 O reducers in regulating soil N2 O emissions.

6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(5): 2181-2193, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555362

RESUMO

Excess phosphorus in water supplies causes eutrophication, which degrades water quality. Hence, the efficient removal of phosphorus from wastewater represents a highly desirable process. Here, we evaluated the effect of sulfate concentration on enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), in which phosphorus is typically removed under anaerobic-oxic cycles, with sulfate reduction the predominant process in the anaerobic phase. Two sequencing batch EBPR reactors operated under high- (SBR-H) vs. low-sulfate (SBR-L) concentrations for 189 days and under three periods, i.e., start-up, sufficient acetate, and limited acetate. Under acetate-rich conditions, phosphorus removal efficiency was > 90% for both reactors; however, under acetate-limited conditions, only 34% and 91.3% of the phosphorus were removed for the SBR-L and the SBR-H, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of the reactors showed that the relative abundance of the polyphosphate-accumulating and sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) was higher in the SBR-H, consistent with its higher phosphorus removal activity. Ten high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes, including one closely related to the genus Thiothrix disciformis (99.81% average amino acid identity), were recovered and predicted to simultaneously metabolize phosphorus and sulfur by the presence of phosphorus (ppk, ppx, pst, and pit) and sulfur (sul, sox, dsr, sqr, apr, cys, and sat) metabolism marker genes. The omics-based analysis provided a holistic view of the microbial ecosystem in the EBPR process and revealed that SRB and Thiothrix play key roles in the presence of high sulfate.Key points• We observed high phosphorus-removal efficiency in high-sulfate EBPR.• Metagenome-based analysis revealed sulfate-related metabolic mechanisms in EBPR.• SRB and PAOs showed interrelationships in the EBPR-sulfur systems.

7.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-throughput sequencing has increased the number of available microbial genomes recovered from isolates, single cells, and metagenomes. Accordingly, fast and comprehensive functional gene annotation pipelines are needed to analyze and compare these genomes. Although several approaches exist for genome annotation, these are typically not designed for easy incorporation into analysis pipelines, do not combine results from different annotation databases or offer easy-to-use summaries of metabolic reconstructions, and typically require large amounts of computing power for high-throughput analysis not available to the average user. RESULTS: Here, we introduce MicrobeAnnotator, a fully automated, easy-to-use pipeline for the comprehensive functional annotation of microbial genomes that combines results from several reference protein databases and returns the matching annotations together with key metadata such as the interlinked identifiers of matching reference proteins from multiple databases [KEGG Orthology (KO), Enzyme Commission (E.C.), Gene Ontology (GO), Pfam, and InterPro]. Further, the functional annotations are summarized into Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) modules as part of a graphical output (heatmap) that allows the user to quickly detect differences among (multiple) query genomes and cluster the genomes based on their metabolic similarity. MicrobeAnnotator is implemented in Python 3 and is freely available under an open-source Artistic License 2.0 from https://github.com/cruizperez/MicrobeAnnotator . CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the capabilities of MicrobeAnnotator by annotating 100 Escherichia coli and 78 environmental Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) bacterial genomes and comparing the results to those of other popular tools. We showed that the use of multiple annotation databases allows MicrobeAnnotator to recover more annotations per genome compared to faster tools that use reduced databases and is computationally efficient for use in personal computers. The output of MicrobeAnnotator can be easily incorporated into other analysis pipelines while the results of other annotation tools can be seemingly incorporated into MicrobeAnnotator to generate summary plots.


Assuntos
Genoma Microbiano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Software , Escherichia coli/genética
8.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(6)2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397705

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is the causative agent of giardiasis, one of the most common diarrheal infections in humans. Evolutionary relationships among G. duodenalis genotypes (or subtypes) of assemblage B, one of two genetic assemblages causing the majority of human infections, remain unclear due to poor phylogenetic resolution of current typing methods. In this study, we devised a methodology to identify new markers for a streamlined multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme based on comparisons of all core genes against the phylogeny of whole-genome sequences (WGS). Our analysis identified three markers with resolution comparable to that of WGS data. Using newly designed PCR primers for our novel MLST loci, we typed an additional 68 strains of assemblage B. Analyses of these strains and previously determined genome sequences showed that genomes of this assemblage can be assigned to 16 clonal complexes, each with unique gene content that is apparently tuned to differential virulence and ecology. Obtaining new genomes of Giardia spp. and other eukaryotic microbial pathogens remains challenging due to difficulties in culturing the parasites in the laboratory. Hence, the methods described here are expected to be widely applicable to other pathogens of interest and advance our understanding of their ecology and evolution.IMPORTANCE Giardia duodenalis assemblage B is a major waterborne pathogen and the most commonly identified genotype causing human giardiasis worldwide. The lack of morphological characters for classification requires the use of molecular techniques for strain differentiation; however, the absence of scalable and affordable next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based typing methods has prevented meaningful advancements in high-resolution molecular typing for further understanding of the evolution and epidemiology of assemblage B. Prior studies have reported high sequence diversity but low phylogenetic resolution at standard loci in assemblage B, highlighting the necessity of identifying new markers for accurate and robust molecular typing. Data from comparative analyses of available genomes in this study identified three loci that together form a novel high-resolution typing scheme with high concordance to whole-genome-based phylogenomics and which should aid in future public health endeavors related to this parasite. In addition, data from newly characterized strains suggest evidence of biogeographic and ecologic endemism.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/genética , Genoma de Protozoário , Genômica , Genótipo , Filogenia , Poluentes da Água , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(6)2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452027

RESUMO

The recovery of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from metagenomic data has recently become a common task for microbial studies. The strengths and limitations of the underlying bioinformatics algorithms are well appreciated by now based on performance tests with mock data sets of known composition. However, these mock data sets do not capture the complexity and diversity often observed within natural populations, since their construction typically relies on only a single genome of a given organism. Further, it remains unclear if MAGs can recover population-variable genes (those shared by >10% but <90% of the members of the population) as efficiently as core genes (those shared by >90% of the members). To address these issues, we compared the gene variabilities of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from eight diarrheal samples, for which the isolate was the causative agent, against their corresponding MAGs recovered from the companion metagenomic data set. Our analysis revealed that MAGs with completeness estimates near 95% captured only 77% of the population core genes and 50% of the variable genes, on average. Further, about 5% of the genes of these MAGs were conservatively identified as missing in the isolate and were of different (non-Enterobacteriaceae) taxonomic origin, suggesting errors at the genome-binning step, even though contamination estimates based on commonly used pipelines were only 1.5%. Therefore, the quality of MAGs may often be worse than estimated, and we offer examples of how to recognize and improve such MAGs to sufficient quality by (for instance) employing only contigs longer than 1,000 bp for binning.IMPORTANCE Metagenome assembly and the recovery of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) have recently become common tasks for microbiome studies across environmental and clinical settings. However, the extent to which MAGs can capture the genes of the population they represent remains speculative. Current approaches to evaluating MAG quality are limited to the recovery and copy number of universal housekeeping genes, which represent a small fraction of the total genome, leaving the majority of the genome essentially inaccessible. If MAG quality in reality is lower than these approaches would estimate, this could have dramatic consequences for all downstream analyses and interpretations. In this study, we evaluated this issue using an approach that employed comparisons of the gene contents of MAGs to the gene contents of isolate genomes derived from the same sample. Further, our samples originated from a diarrhea case-control study, and thus, our results are relevant for recovering the virulence factors of pathogens from metagenomic data sets.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Metagenoma
10.
ISME J ; 15(4): 1178-1191, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342997

RESUMO

Microbial communities thriving in hypersaline brines of solar salterns are highly resistant and resilient to environmental changes, and salinity is a major factor that deterministically influences community structure. Here, we demonstrate that this resilience occurs even after rapid osmotic shocks caused by a threefold change in salinity (a reduction from 34 to 12% salts) leading to massive amounts of archaeal cell lysis. Specifically, our temporal metagenomic datasets identified two co-occurring ecotypes within the most dominant archaeal population of the brines Haloquadratum walsbyi that exhibited different salt concentration preferences. The dominant ecotype was generally more abundant and occurred in high-salt conditions (34%); the low abundance ecotype always co-occurred but was enriched at salinities around 20% or lower and carried unique gene content related to solute transport and gene regulation. Despite their apparent distinct ecological preferences, the ecotypes did not outcompete each other presumably due to weak functional differentiation between them. Further, the osmotic shock selected for a temporal increase in taxonomic and functional diversity at both the Hqr. walsbyi population and whole-community levels supporting the specialization-disturbance hypothesis, that is, the expectation that disturbance favors generalists. Altogether, our results provide new insights into how intraspecies diversity is maintained in light of substantial gene-content differences and major environmental perturbations.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4897, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994415

RESUMO

Soil microbial respiration is an important source of uncertainty in projecting future climate and carbon (C) cycle feedbacks. However, its feedbacks to climate warming and underlying microbial mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we show that the temperature sensitivity of soil microbial respiration (Q10) in a temperate grassland ecosystem persistently decreases by 12.0 ± 3.7% across 7 years of warming. Also, the shifts of microbial communities play critical roles in regulating thermal adaptation of soil respiration. Incorporating microbial functional gene abundance data into a microbially-enabled ecosystem model significantly improves the modeling performance of soil microbial respiration by 5-19%, and reduces model parametric uncertainty by 55-71%. In addition, modeling analyses show that the microbial thermal adaptation can lead to considerably less heterotrophic respiration (11.6 ± 7.5%), and hence less soil C loss. If such microbially mediated dampening effects occur generally across different spatial and temporal scales, the potential positive feedback of soil microbial respiration in response to climate warming may be less than previously predicted.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Aclimatação/genética , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Celulose/metabolismo , DNA Ambiental/genética , DNA Ambiental/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Aquecimento Global , Pradaria , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Metagenômica , Modelos Genéticos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poaceae/química
13.
ISME J ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887943

RESUMO

Ambient conditions shape microbiome responses to both short- and long-duration environment changes through processes including physiological acclimation, compositional shifts, and evolution. Thus, we predict that microbial communities inhabiting locations with larger diel, episodic, and annual variability in temperature and pH should be less sensitive to shifts in these climate-change factors. To test this hypothesis, we compared responses of surface ocean microbes from more variable (nearshore) and more constant (offshore) sites to short-term factorial warming (+3 °C) and/or acidification (pH -0.3). In all cases, warming alone significantly altered microbial community composition, while acidification had a minor influence. Compared with nearshore microbes, warmed offshore microbiomes exhibited larger changes in community composition, phylotype abundances, respiration rates, and metatranscriptomes, suggesting increased sensitivity of microbes from the less-variable environment. Moreover, while warming increased respiration rates, offshore metatranscriptomes yielded evidence of thermal stress responses in protein synthesis, heat shock proteins, and regulation. Future oceans with warmer waters may enhance overall metabolic and biogeochemical rates, but they will host altered microbial communities, especially in relatively thermally stable regions of the oceans.

14.
Water Res ; 183: 116085, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750535

RESUMO

Human mitochondrial DNA provides a promising target for fecal source tracking because it is unique and intrinsic to humans. We developed a TaqMan chemistry assay, hCYTB484, targeting the cytochrome b gene of the human mitochondrial genome on a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) platform and compared the performance of hCYTB484 with the HF183/BacR287 assay, a widely used assay targeting human-associated Bacteroides. For both assays, we defined the analytical limit of detection and analytical lower limit of quantification using frequency of detection and imprecision goals, respectively. We then established these analytical limits using empirical ddPCR data, presenting a novel approach to determining the analytical lower limit of quantification. We evaluated assay sensitivity using individual human feces from US, Bangladesh, and Mozambique and evaluated assay specificity using cow, pig, chicken, and goat samples collected from the US. To compare assay performance across a range of thresholds, we utilized receiver operating characteristic curves. The hCYTB484 marker was detected and quantifiable in 100% of the human feces from the 3 geographical distant regions whereas the HF183/BacR287 marker was detectable and quantifiable in 51% and 31% (respectively) of human feces samples. The hCYTB484 marker also was more specific (97%), having fewer detections in pig, chicken, and goat samples than the HF183/BacR287 marker (80%). The higher performance of the hCYTB484 marker in individual feces from geographically distant regions is desirable in the detection of fecal pollution from sources to which fewer individuals contribute, such as the non-sewered forms of sanitation (e.g. pit latrines and septic tanks) that serve most of Earth's population and carry the highest risk of exposure to fecal-oral pathogens.


Assuntos
Bacteroides/genética , DNA Mitocondrial , Animais , Bangladesh , Bovinos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Suínos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(16): 10088-10099, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667785

RESUMO

Crude oil buried in intertidal sands may be exposed to alternating oxic and anoxic conditions but the effect of this tidally induced biogeochemical oscillation remains poorly understood, limiting the effectiveness of remediation and managing efforts after oil spills. Here, we used a combination of metatranscriptomics and genome-resolved metagenomics to study microbial activities in oil-contaminated sediments during oxic-anoxic cycles in laboratory chambers that closely emulated in situ conditions. Approximately 5-fold higher reductions in the total petroleum hydrocarbons were observed in the oxic as compared to the anoxic phases with a relatively constant ratio between aerobic and anaerobic oil decomposition rates even after prolonged anoxic conditions. Metatranscriptomics analysis indicated that the oxic phases promoted oil biodegradation in subsequent anoxic phases by microbially mediated reoxidation of alternative electron acceptors like sulfide and by providing degradation-limiting nitrogen through biological nitrogen fixation. Most population genomes reconstructed from the mesocosm samples represented uncultured taxa and were present typically as members of the rare biosphere in metagenomic data from uncontaminated field samples, implying that the intertidal communities are adapted to changes in redox conditions. Collectively, these results have important implications for enhancing oil spill remediation efforts in beach sands and coastal sediments and underscore the role of uncultured taxa in such efforts.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hidrocarbonetos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise
16.
Environ Microbiol ; 22(8): 3394-3412, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495495

RESUMO

Recent advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatic pipelines have allowed unprecedented access to the genomes of yet-uncultivated microorganisms from diverse environments. However, the catalogue of freshwater genomes remains limited, and most genome recovery attempts in freshwater ecosystems have only targeted specific taxa. Here, we present a genome recovery pipeline incorporating iterative subtractive binning, and apply it to a time series of 100 metagenomic datasets from seven connected lakes and estuaries along the Chattahoochee River (Southeastern USA). Our set of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) represents >400 yet-unnamed genomospecies, substantially increasing the number of high-quality MAGs from freshwater lakes. We propose names for two novel species: 'Candidatus Elulimicrobium humile' ('Ca. Elulimicrobiota', 'Patescibacteria') and 'Candidatus Aquidulcis frankliniae' ('Chloroflexi'). Collectively, our MAGs represented about half of the total microbial community at any sampling point. To evaluate the prevalence of these genomospecies in the chronoseries, we introduce methodologies to estimate relative abundance and habitat preference that control for uneven genome quality and sample representation. We demonstrate high degrees of habitat-specialization and endemicity for most genomospecies in the Chattahoochee lakes. Wider ecological ranges characterized smaller genomes with higher coding densities, indicating an overall advantage of smaller, more compact genomes for cosmopolitan distributions.

17.
Nat Microbiol ; 5(8): 987-994, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514073

RESUMO

The assembly of single-amplified genomes (SAGs) and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) has led to a surge in genome-based discoveries of members affiliated with Archaea and Bacteria, bringing with it a need to develop guidelines for nomenclature of uncultivated microorganisms. The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) only recognizes cultures as 'type material', thereby preventing the naming of uncultivated organisms. In this Consensus Statement, we propose two potential paths to solve this nomenclatural conundrum. One option is the adoption of previously proposed modifications to the ICNP to recognize DNA sequences as acceptable type material; the other option creates a nomenclatural code for uncultivated Archaea and Bacteria that could eventually be merged with the ICNP in the future. Regardless of the path taken, we believe that action is needed now within the scientific community to develop consistent rules for nomenclature of uncultivated taxa in order to provide clarity and stability, and to effectively communicate microbial diversity.


Assuntos
Archaea/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano , Metagenoma , Filogenia , Células Procarióticas/classificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Terminologia como Assunto
18.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 84, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a warmer world, microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic carbon (C) is one of the most likely positive climate feedbacks of permafrost regions to the atmosphere. However, mechanistic understanding of microbial mediation on chemically recalcitrant C instability is limited; thus, it is crucial to identify and evaluate active decomposers of chemically recalcitrant C, which is essential for predicting C-cycle feedbacks and their relative strength of influence on climate change. Using stable isotope probing of the active layer of Arctic tundra soils after depleting soil labile C through a 975-day laboratory incubation, the identity of microbial decomposers of lignin and, their responses to warming were revealed. RESULTS: The ß-Proteobacteria genus Burkholderia accounted for 95.1% of total abundance of potential lignin decomposers. Consistently, Burkholderia isolated from our tundra soils could grow with lignin as the sole C source. A 2.2 °C increase of warming considerably increased total abundance and functional capacities of all potential lignin decomposers. In addition to Burkholderia, α-Proteobacteria capable of lignin decomposition (e.g. Bradyrhizobium and Methylobacterium genera) were stimulated by warming by 82-fold. Those community changes collectively doubled the priming effect, i.e., decomposition of existing C after fresh C input to soil. Consequently, warming aggravates soil C instability, as verified by microbially enabled climate-C modeling. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are alarming, which demonstrate that accelerated C decomposition under warming conditions will make tundra soils a larger biospheric C source than anticipated. Video Abstract.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(19): 10414-10421, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350143

RESUMO

The rise of oxygen on the early Earth about 2.4 billion years ago reorganized the redox cycle of harmful metal(loids), including that of arsenic, which doubtlessly imposed substantial barriers to the physiology and diversification of life. Evaluating the adaptive biological responses to these environmental challenges is inherently difficult because of the paucity of fossil records. Here we applied molecular clock analyses to 13 gene families participating in principal pathways of arsenic resistance and cycling, to explore the nature of early arsenic biogeocycles and decipher feedbacks associated with planetary oxygenation. Our results reveal the advent of nascent arsenic resistance systems under the anoxic environment predating the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), with the primary function of detoxifying reduced arsenic compounds that were abundant in Archean environments. To cope with the increased toxicity of oxidized arsenic species that occurred as oxygen built up in Earth's atmosphere, we found that parts of preexisting detoxification systems for trivalent arsenicals were merged with newly emerged pathways that originated via convergent evolution. Further expansion of arsenic resistance systems was made feasible by incorporation of oxygen-dependent enzymatic pathways into the detoxification network. These genetic innovations, together with adaptive responses to other redox-sensitive metals, provided organisms with novel mechanisms for adaption to changes in global biogeocycles that emerged as a consequence of the GOE.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Arsênico/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Atmosfera , Evolução Biológica , Planeta Terra , Evolução Planetária , Fósseis , Oxirredução
20.
Cancer Med ; 9(11): 3714-3724, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the importance of commensal microbes in vaginal health is well appreciated, little is known about the effects of gynecological cancer (GynCa) and radiation therapy (RT) on the vaginal microbiome (VM) of postmenopausal women. METHODS: We studied women with GynCa, pre- (N = 65) and post-RT (N = 25) and a group of healthy controls (N = 67) by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from vaginal swabs and compared the diversity and composition of VMs between the three groups accounting for potential confounding factors in multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: Comparisons of cancer vs healthy groups revealed that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have significantly higher relative abundance in the healthy group, while the cancer group was enriched in 16 phylogroups associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammation, including Sneathia, Prevotella, Peptoniphilus, Fusobacterium, Anaerococcus, Dialister, Moryella, and Peptostreptococcus. In our sample, RT affected the α-diversity and correlated with higher abundance of typically rare VM species, including several members of the Lacnospiraceae family, a taxon previously linked to vaginal dysbiosis. In addition to cancer and treatment modalities, age and vaginal pH were identified as significant parameters that structure the VM. CONCLUSIONS: This is among the first reports identifying VM changes among postmenopausal women with cancer. RT alone seems to affect several phylogroups (12 bacterial genera), while gynecological cancer and its treatment modalities are associated with even greater significant shifts in the vaginal microbiota including the enrichment of opportunistic bacterial pathogens, which warrants further attention.

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