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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022259

RESUMO

Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 loss-of-function variants have been linked to increased breast and ovarian cancer risk, with more than 5,000 distinct pathogenic variants being reported worldwide. Among individuals of Greek descent, the BRCA1/2 variant spectrum is heterogeneous, but characterized by strong founder effects. As patients from certain geographical regions of Greece (like Crete) were underrepresented in previous studies, we hypothesized that isolated Cretans, a southern Greece islanders' population with distinct demographic, cultural and genetic features, could harbor founder BRCA1/2 mutations. A total of 304 breast or/and ovarian cancer patients of Cretan descent, fulfilling NCCN criteria for genetic testing, were tested by NGS or Sanger sequencing, followed by MLPA. Haplotype analysis was subsequently performed to investigate potential founder effects of recurrent alleles. Overall, 16.5% (50/304) of the tested patients carried 22 different pathogenic variants; 48% in BRCA1, 52% in BRCA2. Three variants, namely two in BRCA2 (Δexons 12 and 13 and c.7806-2A>T) and one in BRCA1 (c.5492del), constituting approximately half (48%) of all detected pathogenic variants, were shown to have a founder effect, with all carriers sharing common haplotypes. Remarkably, these variants were confined to Cretans and have not been identified in other regions of Greece. The high prevalence of specific BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants among Cretans, provides the possibility of cost- and time-efficient screening of the Cretan population. Integrating this knowledge in local public health services may have a significant impact on cancer prevention, and may serve as a starting point for the implementation of testing on a population level.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(7): 674-685, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate age-specific relative and absolute cancer risks of breast cancer and to estimate risks of ovarian, pancreatic, male breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers associated with germline PALB2 pathogenic variants (PVs) because these risks have not been extensively characterized. METHODS: We analyzed data from 524 families with PALB2 PVs from 21 countries. Complex segregation analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RRs; relative to country-specific population incidences) and absolute risks of cancers. The models allowed for residual familial aggregation of breast and ovarian cancer and were adjusted for the family-specific ascertainment schemes. RESULTS: We found associations between PALB2 PVs and risk of female breast cancer (RR, 7.18; 95% CI, 5.82 to 8.85; P = 6.5 × 10-76), ovarian cancer (RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.04; P = 4.1 × 10-3), pancreatic cancer (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.50; P = 8.7 × 10-3), and male breast cancer (RR, 7.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 42.18; P = 2.6 × 10-2). There was no evidence for increased risks of prostate or colorectal cancer. The breast cancer RRs declined with age (P for trend = 2.0 × 10-3). After adjusting for family ascertainment, breast cancer risk estimates on the basis of multiple case families were similar to the estimates from families ascertained through population-based studies (P for difference = .41). On the basis of the combined data, the estimated risks to age 80 years were 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) for female breast cancer, 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) for ovarian cancer, 2%-3% (95% CI females, 1% to 4%; 95% CI males, 2% to 5%) for pancreatic cancer, and 1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 5%) for male breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These results confirm PALB2 as a major breast cancer susceptibility gene and establish substantial associations between germline PALB2 PVs and ovarian, pancreatic, and male breast cancers. These findings will facilitate incorporation of PALB2 into risk prediction models and optimize the clinical cancer risk management of PALB2 PV carriers.

4.
Cancer Genet ; 237: 90-96, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447071

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multiple lines of evidence have suggested a likely causative role in breast/ovarian cancer (BrCa/OvCa) predisposition for the BRCA1 p.(Val1833Met) variant, predominantly found among Greek patients. Our aim was to study the variant's prevalence and founder effect on the Greek population, while providing additional data for its pathogenicity. METHODS: We genotyped 3531 BrCa/OvCa patients using Sanger and next generation sequencing, as well as 1558 healthy, age-matched females with real-time PCR. Carriers underwent haplotype analysis to determine a founder effect. A co-segregation analysis was applied to estimate the likelihood ratio for pathogenicity. RESULTS: In total, 27 BrCa/OvCa patients (0.77%; 27/3531) were found to carry the p.(Val1833Met) variant. No carriers were identified in the control group diagnosis. A common shared haplotype, spanning 2.76 Mb on chromosome 17 was demonstrated among carriers, establishing the founder effect. BRCA1, p.(Val1833Met) is possibly a disease-associated variant, supported by a likelihood ratio of 1.88, while a correlation to ovarian cancer is suspected. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, BRCA1, p.(Val1833Met) variant is a Greek founder and is very likely to predispose for BrCa/OvCa. Therefore, such carriers should be counselled accordingly, with clinical recommendations supporting surveillance and risk-reduction strategies, while providing the option for targeted therapeutic interventions.

5.
Case Rep Oncol Med ; 2019: 9357924, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223512

RESUMO

We report a case of a 58-year-old female with ovarian cancer. The patient presented with ascites, and the biopsies revealed a low-grade adenocarcinoma, either a serous papillary ovarian cancer with peritoneal implants or a primary peritoneal carcinoma. She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after 5 cycles achieved partial response, and then, she underwent a total hysterectomy/bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The patient underwent germline gene-panel testing for the detection of mutations in cancer predisposing genes. A truncating mutation in the Fanconi anemia complementation group M (FANCM) gene was detected in heterozygosity, namely, p.Arg658Ter (c.1972C>T, rs368728266). The patient's family history is unremarkable, with no reported cases of breast or ovarian cancer, a fact that can be attributed to the significant lower penetrance of FANCM mutations.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 40(11): e1-e23, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209999

RESUMO

BRCA1 BRCA2 mutational spectrum in the Middle East, North Africa, and Southern Europe is not well characterized. The unique history and cultural practices characterizing these regions, often involving consanguinity and inbreeding, plausibly led to the accumulation of population-specific founder pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs). To determine recurring BRCA PSVs in these locales, a search in PUBMED, EMBASE, BIC, and CIMBA was carried out combined with outreach to researchers from the relevant countries for unpublished data. We identified 232 PSVs in BRCA1 and 239 in BRCA2 in 25 of 33 countries surveyed. Common PSVs that were detected in four or more countries were c.5266dup (p.Gln1756Profs), c.181T>G (p.Cys61Gly), c.68_69del (p.Glu23Valfs), c.5030_5033del (p.Thr1677Ilefs), c.4327C>T (p.Arg1443Ter), c.5251C>T (p.Arg1751Ter), c.1016dup (p.Val340Glyfs), c.3700_3704del (p.Val1234Glnfs), c.4065_4068del (p.Asn1355Lysfs), c.1504_1508del (p.Leu502Alafs), c.843_846del (p.Ser282Tyrfs), c.798_799del (p.Ser267Lysfs), and c.3607C>T (p.Arg1203Ter) in BRCA1 and c.2808_2811del (p.Ala938Profs), c.5722_5723del (p.Leu1908Argfs), c.9097dup (p.Thr3033Asnfs), c.1310_1313del (p. p.Lys437Ilefs), and c.5946del (p.Ser1982Argfs) for BRCA2. Notably, some mutations (e.g., p.Asn257Lysfs (c.771_775del)) were observed in unrelated populations. Thus, seemingly genotyping recurring BRCA PSVs in specific populations may provide first pass BRCA genotyping platform.

7.
J Hum Genet ; 64(8): 767-773, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089269

RESUMO

PALB2 loss-of-function variants play an important role in breast, pancreatic and possibly, ovarian and gastric cancer susceptibility. Their frequency can be influenced by founder effects, already described in some populations. Herein, we have assessed the possible founder effect of PALB2 c.2257C>T (p.Arg753*) truncating variant among Greek breast cancer patients, while investigating possible correlations with cancer diagnoses. Following a lead deriving from a background study of highly selected Greek breast cancer patients, a total of 2496 breast and 697 ovarian cancer patients were directly genotyped for the PALB2 c.2257C>T truncating variant. Consequently, haplotype analysis was conducted on identified carriers, using seven microsatellite markers. The prevalence of the PALB2 variant was 0.24% (6/2496) and 0.14% (1/697) among breast and ovarian cases, respectively. Family history seems to be an important factor for the variant identification, although not reaching statistical significance. Microsatellite analysis on 12 carriers revealed a common shared haplotype, spanning a chromosomal region of ~1.2 Mb; the variant was possibly introduced in the Greek population ~1600 years ago. The variant confers high breast cancer risk, as illustrated by comparison with publicly available control groups. Genetic testing for PALB2, especially for the Greek founder c.2257C>T truncating variant, should be seriously considered in Greek breast cancer cases, since such findings could assist appropriate clinical management for the patients and their families.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Efeito Fundador , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Grécia/epidemiologia , Haplótipos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Linhagem , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 631-648, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851065

RESUMO

Genetic testing for cancer predisposition leads to the identification of a number of variants with uncertain significance. To some extent, variants of BRCA1/2 have been classified, in contrast to variants of other genes. CHEK2 is a typical example, in which a large number of variants of unknown clinical significance were identified and still remained unclassified. Herein, the CHEK2 variant assessment was performed through an in vivo, yeast-based, functional assay. In total, 120 germline CHEK2 missense variants, distributed along the protein sequence, and two large in-frame deletions were tested, originating from genetic test results in breast cancer families, or selected from the ClinVar database. Of these, 32 missense and two in-frame deletions behaved as non-functional, 73 as functional, and 15 as semi-functional, after comparing growth rates of each strain with positive and negative controls. The majority of non-functional variants were localized in the CHK2 kinase and forkhead-associated domains. In vivo results from the non-functional variants were in agreement with in silico predictions, and, where available, with strong breast cancer family history, to a great extent. The results of the largest, to date, yeast-based assay, evaluating CHEK2 variants, can complement and assist in the classification of rare CHEK2 variants with unclear clinical significance.

9.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980407

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers indefinitely comprise a distinct group of patients with breast cancer (BC), with their tumors displaying specific pathologic characteristics. Although these connections are known, they are not fully elucidated. We therefore sought to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics and overall survival of Greek patients with BC carrying BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Greek patients with BC diagnosed between 1999 and 2016, fulfilling the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for genetic testing, were analyzed for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations by Sanger sequencing or by a 94-gene panel. Medical records and pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed to retrieve patient and tumor baseline characteristics. Potential associations with mutation status were assessed using the Fisher exact, Pearson χ2, and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: Of 2096 selected patients with BC, we identified 297 (14.2%) BRCA1 and 88 (4.2%) BRCA2 carriers. The mean age at BC diagnosis was 40 and 42.6 years, respectively (P = .02). Tumor histologic subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers were predominantly ductal (79%) followed by medullary (10%), and ductal (72%) followed by lobular (15%), respectively. A significantly higher percentage of BRCA2 tumors were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, compared with BRCA1 tumors (21.7% vs. 5.8%; P < .001). Second primary cancer diagnosis was more frequent in BRCA1 compared with BRCA2 mutation carriers (36.2% vs. 10.7%; P < .001), whereas there was no difference in 15-year overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-1.83; P = .804) between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm established observations in the pathology of BRCA-related tumors and provide further insight on the association of rare histologic entities with mutations in these genes, which can be clinically beneficial.

11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(8): 855-862, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline genetic testing with hereditary cancer gene panels can identify women at increased risk of breast cancer. However, those at increased risk of triple-negative (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative) breast cancer (TNBC) cannot be identified because predisposition genes for TNBC, other than BRCA1, have not been established. The aim of this study was to define the cancer panel genes associated with increased risk of TNBC. METHODS: Multigene panel testing for 21 genes in 8753 TNBC patients was performed by a clinical testing laboratory, and testing for 17 genes in 2148 patients was conducted by a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) of research studies. Associations between deleterious mutations in cancer predisposition genes and TNBC were evaluated using results from TNBC patients and reference controls. RESULTS: Germline pathogenic variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51D were associated with high risk (odds ratio > 5.0) of TNBC and greater than 20% lifetime risk for overall breast cancer among Caucasians. Pathogenic variants in BRIP1, RAD51C, and TP53 were associated with moderate risk (odds ratio > 2) of TNBC. Similar trends were observed for the African American population. Pathogenic variants in these TNBC genes were detected in 12.0% (3.7% non-BRCA1/2) of all participants. CONCLUSIONS: Multigene hereditary cancer panel testing can identify women with elevated risk of TNBC due to mutations in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51D. These women can potentially benefit from improved screening, risk management, and cancer prevention strategies. Patients with mutations may also benefit from specific targeted therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Hum Genet ; 63(11): 1149-1158, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111881

RESUMO

RAD51D gene's protein product is known to be involved in the DNA repair mechanism by homologous recombination. RAD51D germline mutations have been recently associated with ovarian and breast cancer (OC and BC, respectively) predisposition. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency of hereditary RAD51D mutations in Greek patients. To address this, we have screened for RAD51D germline mutations 609 BRCA1- and BRCA2-negative patients diagnosed with OC, unselected for age or family history, and 569 BC patients diagnosed under 55 years and with an additional relative with BC or OC. We identified four pathogenic mutations in four unrelated individuals with family history of BC and/or OC. Three of the RAD51D carriers had developed BC, while the other one was an OC patient, thus accounting for a mutation frequency of 0.16% in the OC cohort and 0.53% in the BC cohort. One of the detected mutations is novel (c.738 + 1G > A), whereas the rest had been detected previously (p.Gln151Ter, p.Arg186Ter, and p.Arg300Ter). It is noteworthy that the 4 carrier families had 13 BC cases and only 4 OC cases. Our data support that RAD51D should be implemented into the comprehensive multigene panel, as mutation carriers may benefit from the administration of PARP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia
13.
J Hum Genet ; 63(8): 877-886, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785007

RESUMO

Germline CHEK2 mutations confer increased cancer risk, for breast and other types, which is variable depending on the specific mutation. Of these, Large Genomic Rearrangements (LGRs) have been rarely reported; to date only eight LGRs have been published with just the Czech founder mutation, the deletion of exons 9 and 10, being molecularly characterized and studied extensively. The present study aimed to molecularly define and determine the contribution of two rare, apparently novel CHEK2 LGRs, among Greek breast cancer patients. These specifically involve a ~6 kb in-frame deletion of exons 2 & 3 that removes CHEK2's FHA domain and a ~7.5 kb in-frame deletion of exon 6, which removes an α-helix of CHEK2's kinase domain. The latter was identified in 5 out of 2355 (0.22%) patients tested, while haplotype analysis revealed a common disease-associated haplotype, suggesting a single common ancestor and a Greek founder. Although in-frame, this LGR is predicted to be damaging by a yeast-based functional assay and structure-function predictions. The present study highlights the existence of rare, population-specific, genomic events in a known breast cancer predisposing gene, which can explain a proportion of hereditary breast cancer. Identification of such mutation carriers is rather important since appropriate clinical actionability will be inferred.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Deleção de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Grécia , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Prevalência , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 169(1): 105-113, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare cancer entity, with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes accounting for ~ 10% of patients. Multiple-gene sequencing has already entered clinical practice for female breast cancer, whereas the performance of panel testing in MBC has not been studied extensively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of panel testing for MBC, by the largest gene panel used so far, through investigation of patients deriving from a population with known founder effects. METHODS: Genomic DNA from one hundred and two Greek MBC patients, unselected for age and family history, was used to prepare libraries which capture the entire coding regions of 94 cancer genes. RESULTS: Loss-of-function (LoF) mutations were found in 12.7% of the cases, distributed in six genes: BRCA2, ATM, BRCA1, CHEK2, PMS2, and FANCL. BRCA2 mutations were the most frequent, followed by ATM mutations, accounting for 6.9 and 2%, respectively, while mutations in other genes were detected in single cases. Age at diagnosis or family history was not predictive of mutation status. Beyond mutations in established breast cancer predisposing genes, LoF mutations in PMS2 and FANCL among MBC patients are reported here for the first time. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, using the largest gene panel for MBC patients so far, indicate that BRCA testing should be the primary concern for MBC patients. Until sufficient evidence arises from larger studies, multiple-gene panels may be of limited benefit for MBC and their families, at least for MBC patients of specific descent.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Efeito Fundador , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Deleção de Sequência/genética
15.
Cancer Genet ; 220: 19-23, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310834

RESUMO

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutations in the STK11 tumor suppressor gene. PJS patients face a cumulative cancer risk as high as 93% for all sites combined. The present study reports the spectrum of STK11 mutations in eight families with clinical diagnosis of PJS, summarizes the clinical characteristics of sixteen mutation carriers and launches a National Registry for PJS in Greece. STK11 loss-of-function (LoF) mutations were detected in 87.5% of index patients. Carriers presented with their first manifestation at a median age of 24.9 years, while early-onset breast cancer was the most frequent malignancy observed, highlighting the need for breast surveillance. Out of the deleterious STK11 mutations identified, two were novel: c.375_376delGT and c.676_679dupAACG, with 57.2% of these potentially occurring de novo. Using all available clinical and genetic data, the National Registry for Greek PJS was established in an attempt to better characterize the syndrome and raise awareness among patients and clinicians (available at https://www.peutzjeghersgreece.org). This is the first comprehensive genetic analysis and clinical characterization of Greek PJS patients, where a high incidence of breast cancer was observed and the first attempt to centralize all data in a National Registry.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/patologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Cancer Res ; 7(1): 98-114, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28123851

RESUMO

The preservation of pathogenic BRCA1/2 germline mutations in tumor tissues is usually not questioned, while it remains unknown whether these interact with somatic genotypes for patient outcome. Herein we compared germline and tumor genotypes in operable triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and evaluated their combined effects on prognosis. We analyzed baseline germline and primary tumor genotype data obtained by Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing in 194 TNBC patients. We also performed multiple tests interrogating the preservation of germline mutations in matched tumors and breast tissue from carriers with available material. Patients had been treated within clinical trials with adjuvant anthracyclines-taxanes based chemotherapy. We identified 50 (26%) germline mutation carriers (78% in BRCA1) and 136 (71%) tumors with somatic mutations (83% in TP53). Tumor mutation patterns differed between carriers and non-carriers (P<0.001); PIK3CA mutations were exclusively present in non-carriers (P=0.007). Germline BRCA1/2 mutations were not detected in matched tumors and breast tissues from 14 out of 33 (42%) evaluable carriers. Microsatellite markers revealed tumor loss of the germline mutant allele in one case only. Tumors that had lost the germline mutation demonstrated a higher incidence of somatic TP53 mutations as compared to tumors with preserved germline mutations (P=0.036). Germline mutation status significantly interacted with tumor TP53 mutations for patient disease-free survival (interaction P=0.026): In non-carriers, tumor TP53 mutations did not affect outcome; In carriers, those with mutated TP53 tumors experienced more relapses compared to those with wild-type TP53 tumors (36% vs. 9% relapse rate, respectively). In conclusion, we show that loss of germline BRCA1/2 mutations is not a rare event in TNBC. This finding, the observed differences in tumor genotypes with respect to germline status and the prognostic interaction between germline BRCA1-related and tumor TP53 mutation status prompt for combined germline and tumor genotyping for the classification of TNBC, particularly in the context of clinical trials evaluating synthetic lethality drugs.

17.
J BUON ; 20(4): 978-84, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26416046

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA mutation carriers can benefit from targeted clinical interventions. On the other hand, families with evident aggregation of breast cancer (BC) cases and a BRCA-negative genetic test can still be considered as of elevated risk, since the underlying genetic factor remains unidentified. In the present study, we compared clinical and demographic characteristics between BRCA1 mutation carriers (BRCA1mut) and non-carriers (non-BRCA1) in a Greek group of BC patients (n=321). METHODS: Data were collected and analyzed from 321 women with BC, with 131 patients screened for pathogenic mutations in the high-penetrant genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Collected data included demographics, pedigrees, tumor histopathology and immunohistochemistry findings. RESULTS: In BRCA1mut patients, their mothers and grand- mothers were diagnosed at a younger age compared to non-BRCA1-carriers. Additionally, BRCA1mut patients were diagnosed with mainly estrogen receptor (ER) negative (p<0.001), Her-2 negative (p<0.05) and triple negative (p<0.01) tumors. The youngest generation was diagnosed with familial breast cancer (FBC) 9.7 years earlier than their mothers (p<0.001). Age at BC diagnosis negatively correlated with the nuclear grade of breast tumors (r=-0.3, p<0.05). Among parous individuals, the number of full-term pregnancies significantly correlated with the age at BC onset (r=0.19, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Despite their similarities, FBC cases with identified BRCA1 mutations exhibit a clearly distinct profile. We have identified an anticipation effect in FBC patients, with significantly reduced age at diagnosis in younger generations. Increased parity seems to prevent early BC onset. This is the first study comparing clinical and demographic characteristics of FBC BRCA1mut and non-carriers in a Greek cohort.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 17: 61, 2015 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25925750

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals with different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their metabolism and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Variability in mitochondrial genetic background can alter reactive oxygen species production, leading to cancer risk. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial haplogroups modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We genotyped 22,214 (11,421 affected, 10,793 unaffected) mutation carriers belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for 129 mitochondrial polymorphisms using the iCOGS array. Haplogroup inference and association detection were performed using a phylogenetic approach. ALTree was applied to explore the reference mitochondrial evolutionary tree and detect subclades enriched in affected or unaffected individuals. RESULTS: We discovered that subclade T1a1 was depleted in affected BRCA2 mutation carriers compared with the rest of clade T (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34 to 0.88; P = 0.01). Compared with the most frequent haplogroup in the general population (that is, H and T clades), the T1a1 haplogroup has a HR of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.40 to 0.95; P = 0.03). We also identified three potential susceptibility loci, including G13708A/rs28359178, which has demonstrated an inverse association with familial breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates how original approaches such as the phylogeny-based method we used can empower classical molecular epidemiological studies aimed at identifying association or risk modification effects.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA2 , Genes Mitocondriais , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Filogenia , Risco
19.
Cancer Genet ; 208(4): 129-34, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25835597

RESUMO

The CHEK2 gene encodes a protein kinase that plays a crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and the DNA repair mechanism. CHEK2 germline mutations are associated with increased risk of breast cancer and other malignancies. From a clinical perspective, the most significant mutation identified is the c.1100delC mutation, which is associated with an approximately 25% lifetime breast cancer risk. The distribution of this mutation shows wide geographical variation; it is more prevalent in the Northern European countries and less common, or even absent, in Southern Europe. In order to estimate the frequency of the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation in Greek breast cancer patients, we genotyped 2,449 patients (2,408 females and 41 males), which was the largest series ever tested for c.1100delC. The mean age of female and male breast cancer diagnosis was 49 and 59 years, respectively. All patients had previously tested negative for the Greek BRCA1 founder and recurrent mutations. The CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation was detected in 0.16% (4 of 2,408) of females, all of whom were diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 50 years. Only one c.1100delC carrier was reported with breast cancer family history. The present study indicates that the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation does not contribute substantially to hereditary breast cancer in patients of Greek descent.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/etnologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Genet ; 47(2): 164-71, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25581431

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility alleles. The pattern of association at these loci is consistent in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers who are at high risk of EOC. After imputation to 1000 Genomes Project data, we assessed associations of 11 million genetic variants with EOC risk from 15,437 cases unselected for family history and 30,845 controls and from 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers (3,096 with ovarian cancer), and we combined the results in a meta-analysis. This new study design yielded increased statistical power, leading to the discovery of six new EOC susceptibility loci. Variants at 1p36 (nearest gene, WNT4), 4q26 (SYNPO2), 9q34.2 (ABO) and 17q11.2 (ATAD5) were associated with EOC risk, and at 1p34.3 (RSPO1) and 6p22.1 (GPX6) variants were specifically associated with the serous EOC subtype, all with P < 5 × 10(-8). Incorporating these variants into risk assessment tools will improve clinical risk predictions for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco , Adulto Jovem
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