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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 334-350, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374203

RESUMO

Susceptibility to schizophrenia is inversely correlated with general cognitive ability at both the phenotypic and the genetic level. Paradoxically, a modest but consistent positive genetic correlation has been reported between schizophrenia and educational attainment, despite the strong positive genetic correlation between cognitive ability and educational attainment. Here we leverage published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia to parse biological mechanisms underlying these results. Association analysis based on subsets (ASSET), a pleiotropic meta-analytic technique, allowed jointly associated loci to be identified and characterized. Specifically, we identified subsets of variants associated in the expected ("concordant") direction across all three phenotypes (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia, lower cognitive ability, and lower educational attainment); these were contrasted with variants that demonstrated the counterintuitive ("discordant") relationship between education and schizophrenia (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia and higher educational attainment). ASSET analysis revealed 235 independent loci associated with cognitive ability, education, and/or schizophrenia at p < 5 × 10-8. Pleiotropic analysis successfully identified more than 100 loci that were not significant in the input GWASs. Many of these have been validated by larger, more recent single-phenotype GWASs. Leveraging the joint genetic correlations of cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia, we were able to dissociate two distinct biological mechanisms-early neurodevelopmental pathways that characterize concordant allelic variation and adulthood synaptic pruning pathways-that were linked to the paradoxical positive genetic association between education and schizophrenia. Furthermore, genetic correlation analyses revealed that these mechanisms contribute not only to the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia but also to the broader biological dimensions implicated in both general health outcomes and psychiatric illness.

2.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

3.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(12): 1656-1669, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482948

RESUMO

Liability to alcohol dependence (AD) is heritable, but little is known about its complex polygenic architecture or its genetic relationship with other disorders. To discover loci associated with AD and characterize the relationship between AD and other psychiatric and behavioral outcomes, we carried out the largest genome-wide association study to date of DSM-IV-diagnosed AD. Genome-wide data on 14,904 individuals with AD and 37,944 controls from 28 case-control and family-based studies were meta-analyzed, stratified by genetic ancestry (European, n = 46,568; African, n = 6,280). Independent, genome-wide significant effects of different ADH1B variants were identified in European (rs1229984; P = 9.8 × 10-13) and African ancestries (rs2066702; P = 2.2 × 10-9). Significant genetic correlations were observed with 17 phenotypes, including schizophrenia, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, depression, and use of cigarettes and cannabis. The genetic underpinnings of AD only partially overlap with those for alcohol consumption, underscoring the genetic distinction between pathological and nonpathological drinking behaviors.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279457

RESUMO

Experimental studies of learning suggest that human temperament may depend on the molecular mechanisms for associative conditioning, which are highly conserved in animals. The main genetic pathways for associative conditioning are known in experimental animals, but have not been identified in prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of human temperament. We used a data-driven machine learning method for GWAS to uncover the complex genotypic-phenotypic networks and environmental interactions related to human temperament. In a discovery sample of 2149 healthy Finns, we identified sets of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that cluster within particular individuals (i.e., SNP sets) regardless of phenotype. Second, we identified 3 clusters of people with distinct temperament profiles measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory regardless of genotype. Third, we found 51 SNP sets that identified 736 gene loci and were significantly associated with temperament. The identified genes were enriched in pathways activated by associative conditioning in animals, including the ERK, PI3K, and PKC pathways. 74% of the identified genes were unique to a specific temperament profile. Environmental influences measured in childhood and adulthood had small but significant effects. We confirmed the replicability of the 51 Finnish SNP sets in healthy Korean (90%) and German samples (89%), as well as their associations with temperament. The identified SNPs explained nearly all the heritability expected in each sample (37-53%) despite variable cultures and environments. We conclude that human temperament is strongly influenced by more than 700 genes that modulate associative conditioning by molecular processes for synaptic plasticity and long-term memory.

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283034

RESUMO

Human personality is 30-60% heritable according to twin and adoption studies. Hundreds of genetic variants are expected to influence its complex development, but few have been identified. We used a machine learning method for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to uncover complex genotypic-phenotypic networks and environmental interactions. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) measured the self-regulatory components of personality critical for health (i.e., the character traits of self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence). In a discovery sample of 2149 healthy Finns, we identified sets of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that cluster within particular individuals (i.e., SNP sets) regardless of phenotype. Second, we identified five clusters of people with distinct profiles of character traits regardless of genotype. Third, we found 42 SNP sets that identified 727 gene loci and were significantly associated with one or more of the character profiles. Each character profile was related to different SNP sets with distinct molecular processes and neuronal functions. Environmental influences measured in childhood and adulthood had small but significant effects. We confirmed the replicability of 95% of the 42 SNP sets in healthy Korean and German samples, as well as their associations with character. The identified SNPs explained nearly all the heritability expected for character in each sample (50 to 58%). We conclude that self-regulatory personality traits are strongly influenced by organized interactions among more than 700 genes despite variable cultures and environments. These gene sets modulate specific molecular processes in brain for intentional goal-setting, self-reflection, empathy, and episodic learning and memory.

6.
Front Neurol ; 9: 591, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079052

RESUMO

Objective: In order to identify genetic variants associated with vestibular neuritis, a common cause of peripheral vertigo with a potential causative link to the reactivation of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1), we conducted a genome-wide association study. Methods: Association was assessed using approximately 8 million variants. 131 patients with vestibular neuritis and 2,609 controls of European ancestry were included. Results: Genome-wide associations with vestibular neuritis were detected in 4 regions containing protein coding genes assignable to two functional groups: virus hypothesis and insulin metabolism. Genes of set 1 are related to viral processes: nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 2 (NR3C2) is a receptor for mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids and was shown to be a host factor for HSV-1 replication. Ankyrin repeat domain 30A (ANKRD30A) encodes a host factor for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. It shows rapid evolution and is induced by interferon stimulation. Mediator complex 30 (MED30), an important member of the mediator complex, has been shown to be involved in replication of HIV-1, a knockdown leading to impaired viral replication. The second set of genes LIM homeobox transcription factor 1 alpha (LMX1A), solute carrier family 30 member 8 (SLC30A8) is associated with insulin metabolism and resistance, a feature of some patients in whom type 2 diabetes is an accompanying comorbidity of vestibular neuritis. Conclusions: Using a GWAS approach to evaluate the etiology of vestibular neuritis these findings provide another piece of evidence that it may be caused by a viral inflammation.

7.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(5): 394-397, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001766

RESUMO

Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84-88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled 'Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets' (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597-2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229-237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from 'inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]', as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84-88), and are not 'more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence'.

8.
Psychiatry Res ; 2018 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057257

RESUMO

Previously, we reported that Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii)-seropositivity is associated with higher impulsive sensation seeking in younger men. As dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling regulate impulsivity, and as T. gondii directly and indirectly affects dopaminergic signaling and induces activation of the kynurenine pathway leading to the diversion of tryptophan from serotonin production, we investigated if dopamine and serotonin precursors or the tryptophan metabolite kynurenine interact with the T. gondii-impulsivity association. In 950 psychiatrically healthy participants, trait impulsivity scores were related to T. gondii IgG seropositivity. Interactions were also identified between categorized levels of phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), Phe:Tyr ratio, kynurenine (Kyn), tryptophan (Trp) and Kyn:Trp ratio, and age and gender. Only younger T. gondii-positive men with a high Phe:Tyr ratio, were found to have significantly higher impulsivity scores. There were no significant associations in other demographic groups, including women and older men. No significant effects or interactions were identified for Phe, Tyr, Kyn, Trp, or Kyn:Trp ratio. Phe:Tyr ratio, therefore, may play a moderating role in the association between T. gondii seropositivity and impulsivity in younger men. These results could potentially lead to individualized approaches to reduce impulsivity, based on combined demographic, biochemical and serological factors.

9.
Schizophr Res ; 195: 306-317, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has a large genetic component, and the pathways from genes to illness manifestation are beginning to be identified. The Genetics of Endophenotypes of Neurofunction to Understand Schizophrenia (GENUS) Consortium aims to clarify the role of genetic variation in brain abnormalities underlying schizophrenia. This article describes the GENUS Consortium sample collection. METHODS: We identified existing samples collected for schizophrenia studies consisting of patients, controls, and/or individuals at familial high-risk (FHR) for schizophrenia. Samples had single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data or genomic DNA, clinical and demographic data, and neuropsychological and/or brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Data were subjected to quality control procedures at a central site. RESULTS: Sixteen research groups contributed data from 5199 psychosis patients, 4877 controls, and 725 FHR individuals. All participants have relevant demographic data and all patients have relevant clinical data. The sex ratio is 56.5% male and 43.5% female. Significant differences exist between diagnostic groups for premorbid and current IQ (both p<1×10-10). Data from a diversity of neuropsychological tests are available for 92% of participants, and 30% have structural MRI scans (half also have diffusion-weighted MRI scans). SNP data are available for 76% of participants. The ancestry composition is 70% European, 20% East Asian, 7% African, and 3% other. CONCLUSIONS: The Consortium is investigating the genetic contribution to brain phenotypes in a schizophrenia sample collection of >10,000 participants. The breadth of data across clinical, genetic, neuropsychological, and MRI modalities provides an important opportunity for elucidating the genetic basis of neural processes underlying schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico por imagem , Endofenótipos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cell Rep ; 21(9): 2597-2613, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186694

RESUMO

Here, we present a large (n = 107,207) genome-wide association study (GWAS) of general cognitive ability ("g"), further enhanced by combining results with a large-scale GWAS of educational attainment. We identified 70 independent genomic loci associated with general cognitive ability. Results showed significant enrichment for genes causing Mendelian disorders with an intellectual disability phenotype. Competitive pathway analysis implicated the biological processes of neurogenesis and synaptic regulation, as well as the gene targets of two pharmacologic agents: cinnarizine, a T-type calcium channel blocker, and LY97241, a potassium channel inhibitor. Transcriptome-wide and epigenome-wide analysis revealed that the implicated loci were enriched for genes expressed across all brain regions (most strongly in the cerebellum). Enrichment was exclusive to genes expressed in neurons but not oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Finally, we report genetic correlations between cognitive ability and disparate phenotypes including psychiatric disorders, several autoimmune disorders, longevity, and maternal age at first birth.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Cefotaxima/análogos & derivados , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinapses/metabolismo
11.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-8, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Disturbances in the gamma-frequency band of electroencephalography (EEG) measures are among the most consistently observed intermediate phenotypes in schizophrenia. We assessed whether genetic variations are associated with gamma-band activity. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association analysis of the early auditory evoked gamma-band response in schizophrenia affected subjects and healthy control individuals (in total N = 315). RESULTS: No marker surpassed the threshold for genome-wide significant association. Several of the markers that were closest to significance mapped to genes involved in neuronal development and the Neuregulin-ErbB signalling network, such as NRG2 and KALRN. Using a gene-set enrichment analysis, we found suggestive evidence for association with genes involved in EEG abnormality (P = .048). CONCLUSIONS: We identified no marker genome-wide significantly associating with gamma response; independent replication of the gene-set analysis result and larger sample sizes will be required to provide leads to cellular pathways involved in gamma-band activity.

12.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 42(13): 2612-2622, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28607492

RESUMO

With >100 common variants associated with schizophrenia risk, establishing their biological significance is a priority. We sought to establish cognitive effects of risk variants at loci implicated in synaptic transmission by (1) identifying GWAS schizophrenia variants whose associated gene function is related to synaptic transmission, and (2) testing for association between these and measures of neurocognitive function. We selected variants, reported in the largest GWAS to date, associated with genes involved in synaptic transmission. Associations between genotype and cognitive test score were analyzed in a discovery sample (988 Irish participants, including 798 with psychosis), and replication samples (528 UK patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder; 921 German participants including 362 patients with schizophrenia). Three loci showed significant associations with neuropsychological performance in the discovery samples. This included an association between the rs2007044 (risk allele G) within CACNA1C and poorer working memory performance (increased errors B (95% CI)=0.635-4.535, p=0.012), an effect driven mainly by the psychosis groups. In an fMRI analysis of working memory performance (n=84 healthy participants, a subset of the discovery sample), we further found evidence that the same CACNA1C allele was associated with decreased functional connectivity between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right superior occipital gyrus/cuneus and anterior cingulate cortex. In conclusion, these data provide evidence to suggest that the CACNA1C risk variant rs2007044 is associated with poorer memory function that may result from risk carriers' difficulty with top-down initiated responses caused by dysconnectivity between the right DLPFC and several cortical regions.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Cognição , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Memória de Curto Prazo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 91: 98-104, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327445

RESUMO

Several lines of evidence indicate that suicidal behaviour is partly heritable, with multiple genes implicated in its aetiology. We focused on nine genes (S100A13, EFEMP1, PCDHB5, PDGFRB, CDCA7L, SCN2B, PTPRR, MLC1 and ZFP36) which we previously detected as differentially expressed in the cortex of suicide victims compared to controls. We investigated 84 variants within these genes in 495 suicidal subjects (299 completers and 196 attempters) and 1513 controls (109 post-mortem and 1404 healthy). We evaluated associations with: 1) suicidal phenotype; 2) possible endophenotypes for suicidal behaviour. Overall positive results did not survive the correction threshold. However, we found a nominally different distribution of EFEMP1 genotypes, alleles and haplotypes between suicidal subjects and controls, results that were partially replicated when we separately considered the subgroup of suicide completers and post-mortem controls. A weaker association emerged also for PTPRR. Both EFEMP1 and PTPRR genes were also related to possible endophenotypes for suicidal behaviour such as anger, depression-anxiety and fatigue. Because of the large number of analyses performed and the low significance values further replication are mandatory. Nevertheless, neurotrophic gene variants, in particular EFEMP1 and PTPRR, may have a role in the pathogenesis of suicidal behaviour.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 7 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/genética , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Autopsia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 249: 212-217, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28119174

RESUMO

Serotonergic neurotransmission dysfunctions have been well documented in patients with suicidal behaviour. We investigated monoamine oxidase A (MAOA: rs2064070, rs6323, rs909525) and B (MAOB: rs1799836, rs2311013, rs2205655) genetic modulation of personality traits (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI) as endophenotype for suicidal behaviour. 108 suicide attempters and 286 healthy controls of German origin were screened. Among females, allelic analyses revealed associations between MAOA rs6323 A allele and higher Harm Avoidance in suicide attempters and MAOB rs2205655 A allele and higher Cooperativeness scores in healthy controls. Among males, MAOA rs909525 A allele was associated with higher Reward Dependence in suicide attempters. Multivariate analyses controlling for age and educational level mainly confirmed results. Case-control analyses in this subsample do not differ from our previously reported one. Despite of the small sample size, a possible involvement of these genes in the modulation of personality traits closely related to suicidal behaviour cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Monoaminoxidase/genética , Personalidade/genética , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Alelos , Endofenótipos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Sci Rep ; 6: 36189, 2016 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811963

RESUMO

Only a few common variants in the sequence of the genome have been shown to impact cognitive traits. Here we demonstrate that polygenic scores of educational attainment predict specific aspects of childhood cognition, as measured with IQ. Recently, three sequence variants were shown to associate with educational attainment, a confluence phenotype of genetic and environmental factors contributing to academic success. We show that one of these variants associating with educational attainment, rs4851266-T, also associates with Verbal IQ in dyslexic children (P = 4.3 × 10-4, ß = 0.16 s.d.). The effect of 0.16 s.d. corresponds to 1.4 IQ points for heterozygotes and 2.8 IQ points for homozygotes. We verified this association in independent samples consisting of adults (P = 8.3 × 10-5, ß = 0.12 s.d., combined P = 2.2 x 10-7, ß = 0.14 s.d.). Childhood cognition is unlikely to be affected by education attained later in life, and the variant explains a greater fraction of the variance in verbal IQ than in educational attainment (0.7% vs 0.12%,. P = 1.0 × 10-5).


Assuntos
Cognição , Dislexia/genética , Inteligência/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Escolaridade , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Proteínas Nucleares/genética
16.
Front Public Health ; 4: 182, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27626030

RESUMO

Smoking is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and exerts a negative impact on cardiovascular mortality in these patients. Smoking has complex interactions with monoamine metabolism through the ability of cigarette smoke to suppress Type 1 T helper cell (Th1) type immunity, the immunophenotype that is implicated in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) dysfunction and tryptophan (Trp) breakdown to kynurenine (Kyn) via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Nicotine also induces tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression, leading to increased synthesis of catecholamines. Furthermore, there is evidence for PAH dysfunction in schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare the plasma levels of selected monoamine precursors and their metabolites in smokers vs. non-smokers in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia. We measured plasma phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), Trp, and Kyn levels using high-performance liquid chromatography and calculated Phe:Tyr and Kyn:Trp ratios in 920 patients with schizophrenia. Analysis of variance and linear regression analyses were used to compare these endpoints between three groups of patients with schizophrenia: (1) current smokers, (2) past smokers, and (3) non-smokers. There were significant differences among the three groups with regards to Tyr levels [F (2,789) = 3.77, p = 0.02], with current smokers having lower Tyr levels when compared with non-smokers (p = 0.02). Kyn levels and Kyn:Trp ratio were different among the three groups [F (2,738) = 3.17, p = 0.04, F (2,738) = 3.61, p = 0.03] with current smokers having lower Kyn levels (p = 0.04) and higher Kyn:Trp ratio (p = 0.02) when compared with past smokers. These findings need to be replicated with protocols that include healthy controls to further elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of altered Tyr and Kyn levels in smokers. Results do suggest potential molecular links between schizophrenia and smoking that may represent biomarkers and treatment targets for reducing an important modifiable cause of general morbidity and mortality in patients with schizophrenia.

17.
Psychosom Med ; 78(8): 931-939, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27359171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported an association between nonceliac gluten sensitivity and schizophrenia. Immune and kynurenine (KYN) pathways have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and certain proinflammatory immune mediators may increase KYN and reduce tryptophan (TRP) levels. METHODS: We measured serum antigliadin immunoglobulin G (IgG), KYN, and TRP in 950 patients with schizophrenia. Patients with antibody level at the 90th percentile or higher of control participants (21.9% of all patients) were classified as having elevated antigliadin IgG. Independent t tests and linear regression models were used to compare TRP, KYN, and KYN-TRP ratio (indicator of TRP metabolism) between patients with and those without elevated antigliadin IgG. The correlation between antigliadin IgG and TRP, KYN, and the ratio was also evaluated in the patients. RESULTS: KYN and KYN-TRP ratio were higher in patients with elevated antigliadin IgG (geometric mean [standard deviation {SD}] = 2.65 [0.25] µmol/L versus 2.25 [0.23] µmol/L [p < .001] and 0.05 [0.26] versus 0.04 [0.25; p = .001] respectively), findings robust to adjustment for potential demographic and clinical confounders. Antigliadin IgG positively correlated with KYN and KYN-TRP ratio (r = 0.12, p < .001; r = 0.11, p = .002). TRP did not differ between the two groups and did not correlate with antigliadin IgG. CONCLUSIONS: Our results connect nonceliac gluten sensitivity with the KYN pathway of TRP metabolism in psychotic illness and hint toward potential individualized treatment targets.


Assuntos
Gliadina/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Cinurenina/sangue , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Esquizofrenia/imunologia , Triptofano/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Behav Genet ; 46(2): 151-69, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26392368

RESUMO

The mu1 opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, has long been a high-priority candidate for human genetic studies of addiction. Because of its potential functional significance, the non-synonymous variant rs1799971 (A118G, Asn40Asp) in OPRM1 has been extensively studied, yet its role in addiction has remained unclear, with conflicting association findings. To resolve the question of what effect, if any, rs1799971 has on substance dependence risk, we conducted collaborative meta-analyses of 25 datasets with over 28,000 European-ancestry subjects. We investigated non-specific risk for "general" substance dependence, comparing cases dependent on any substance to controls who were non-dependent on all assessed substances. We also examined five specific substance dependence diagnoses: DSM-IV alcohol, opioid, cannabis, and cocaine dependence, and nicotine dependence defined by the proxy of heavy/light smoking (cigarettes-per-day >20 vs. ≤ 10). The G allele showed a modest protective effect on general substance dependence (OR = 0.90, 95% C.I. [0.83-0.97], p value = 0.0095, N = 16,908). We observed similar effects for each individual substance, although these were not statistically significant, likely because of reduced sample sizes. We conclude that rs1799971 contributes to mechanisms of addiction liability that are shared across different addictive substances. This project highlights the benefits of examining addictive behaviors collectively and the power of collaborative data sharing and meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Frequência do Gene/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho da Amostra
19.
J Psychiatr Res ; 72: 74-81, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26594873

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) chronic infection and elevated kynurenine (KYN) levels have been individually associated with non-fatal suicidal self-directed violence (NF-SSDV). We aimed to test the hypothesis that the association between T. gondii seropositivity and history of NF-SSDV would be stronger in schizophrenia patients with high plasma KYN levels than in those with lower KYN levels. We measured anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and plasma KYN in 950 patients with schizophrenia, and used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between NF-SSDV and KYN in patients who were either seropositive or seronegative for T. gondii. For those with KYN levels in the upper 25th percentile, the unadjusted odds ratio for the association between NF-SSDV history and KYN in T. gondii seropositive patients was 1.63 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.66), p = 0.048; the adjusted odds ratio was 1.95 (95% CI 1.15 to 3.30), p = 0.014. Plasma KYN was not associated with a history of NF-SSDV in T. gondii seronegative patients. The results suggest that T. gondii and KYN may have a nonlinear cumulative effect on the risk of NF-SSDV among those with schizophrenia. If confirmed by future longitudinal studies, this result is expected to have both theoretical and clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of suicidal behavior.


Assuntos
Cinurenina/sangue , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/sangue , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/complicações , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
20.
Behav Genet ; 46(2): 170-82, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26362575

RESUMO

Extraversion is a relatively stable and heritable personality trait associated with numerous psychosocial, lifestyle and health outcomes. Despite its substantial heritability, no genetic variants have been detected in previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies, which may be due to relatively small sample sizes of those studies. Here, we report on a large meta-analysis of GWA studies for extraversion in 63,030 subjects in 29 cohorts. Extraversion item data from multiple personality inventories were harmonized across inventories and cohorts. No genome-wide significant associations were found at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level but there was one significant hit at the gene level for a long non-coding RNA site (LOC101928162). Genome-wide complex trait analysis in two large cohorts showed that the additive variance explained by common SNPs was not significantly different from zero, but polygenic risk scores, weighted using linkage information, significantly predicted extraversion scores in an independent cohort. These results show that extraversion is a highly polygenic personality trait, with an architecture possibly different from other complex human traits, including other personality traits. Future studies are required to further determine which genetic variants, by what modes of gene action, constitute the heritable nature of extraversion.


Assuntos
Extroversão (Psicologia) , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Personalidade/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
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