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1.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; : e0045822, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856665

RESUMO

Invasive aspergillosis (IA), caused predominantly by Aspergillus fumigatus, is the most common opportunistic mold infection in immunocompromised patients. Resistance of A. fumigatus to triazoles has been increasingly reported, leading to poor outcomes of IA to the front-line azoles. Triazole resistance is in part driven by exposure to agricultural azoles through mechanisms that are poorly understood beyond mutations in ergosterol biosynthetic genes. Priming is defined as a process in which prior exposures to sublethal stressful stimuli, such as antimicrobial drugs, can enhance the ability of pathogens to withstand reexposure to the same or other stressors. Here, we describe, for the first time, triazole priming, where exposure of conidia of three A. fumigatus strains to subinhibitory concentrations of either agricultural (tebuconazole difenoconazole, epoxiconazole) or medical triazoles (voriconazole) increases germination and growth during subsequent reexposure to subinhibitory triazole challenge. We demonstrate that priming in A. fumigatus is class specific to triazoles, is not confined to a particular isolate, and is retained for extended periods in primed dormant conidia, but is not transferred to subsequent generations. Furthermore, azole priming at subinhibitory triazole concentrations increased the frequency of development of stable resistance development at inhibitory triazole exposures. Triazole priming could have far-reaching clinical implications in generating resistance due to the widespread use of agricultural triazoles or breakthrough IA in patients with subtherapeutic serum levels of azoles.

2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2517: 299-316, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674964

RESUMO

While mammalian models remain the gold standard to study invasive mycoses, mini-host invertebrate models have provided complementary platforms for explorative investigations of fungal pathogenesis, host-pathogen interplay, and antifungal therapy. Specifically, our group has established Toll-deficient Drosophila melanogaster flies as a facile and cost-effective model organism to study candidiasis, and we have recently expanded these studies to the emerging and frequently multidrug-resistant yeast pathogen Candida auris. Our proof-of-concept data suggest that fruit flies could hold a great promise for large-scale applications in antifungal drug discovery and the screening of C. auris (mutant) libraries with disparate pathogenic capacity. This chapter discusses the advantages and limitations of D. melanogaster to study C. auris candidiasis and provides a step-by-step guide for establishing and troubleshooting C. auris infection and antifungal treatment of Toll-deficient flies along with essential downstream readouts.


Assuntos
Candidíase , Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Mamíferos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(6): ofac112, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611348

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections continue to increase as at-risk populations expand. The high associated morbidity and mortality with fungal diseases mandate the continued investigation of novel antifungal agents and diagnostic strategies that include surrogate biomarkers. Biologic markers of disease are useful prognostic indicators during clinical care, and their use in place of traditional survival end points may allow for more rapid conduct of clinical trials requiring fewer participants, decreased trial expense, and limited need for long-term follow-up. A number of fungal biomarkers have been developed and extensively evaluated in prospective clinical trials and small series. We examine the evidence for these surrogate biomarkers in this review and provide recommendations for clinicians and regulatory authorities.

4.
Cancer ; 128(14): 2736-2745, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), combined with hypomethylating agents, can be used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but this strategy results in a high rate of pneumonitis. The authors sought to determine risk factors for pneumonitis development and whether pneumonitis increased mortality. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective review of 258 AML patients who received ICI-containing regimens from 2016 to 2018. A multidisciplinary adjudication committee diagnosed pneumonia and pneumonitis by reviewing symptoms, imaging, microbiology, and response to therapies. To measure risk factors for pneumonitis and mortality, multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were constructed. Pneumonia, pneumonitis, and disease progression were modeled as a time-dependent variable and incorporated a standard risk set modifying variables into the models. RESULTS: Thirty patients developed pneumonitis (12%). Of these, 17 had partial or complete resolution, whereas 13 patients died from pneumonitis. Increasing age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.08), and baseline shortness of breath increased pneumonitis risk (HR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.13-5.55). Female sex (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.70) and increasing platelet count (HR, 0.52 per log-unit increase; 95% CI, 0.30-0.92) decreased pneumonitis risk. In adjusted models, ICI-related pneumonitis significantly increased mortality (HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.84-4.37). CONCLUSIONS: ICI-related pneumonitis occurs at a high rate in AML patients and increases mortality. LAY SUMMARY: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) remove inhibitory signals that reduce T-cell function and allow T-cells to better attack cancer cells. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the effectiveness of ICIs is limited in part by inflammation of the lung, called pneumonitis. This study reviewed 258 patients with AML who received ICIs and identified 30 patients who developed pneumonitis, nearly half of whom died. Older age and baseline shortness of breath increased pneumonitis risk, whereas female sex and higher baseline platelet counts decreased pneumonitis risk. Pneumonitis increased mortality by nearly 3-fold. This work highlights the significant harm imposed by pneumonitis after ICI therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pneumonia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Dispneia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 848580, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35433514

RESUMO

Failure to maintain segregation of oral and gut microbial communities has been linked to several diseases. We sought to characterize oral-fecal microbiome community coalescence, ectopic extension of oral bacteria, clinical variables contributing to this phenomenon, and associated infectious consequences by analyzing the 16S rRNA V4 sequences of longitudinal fecal (n=551) and oral (n=737) samples from 97 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) receiving induction chemotherapy (IC). Clustering observed in permutation based multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and PCoA plot of UniFrac distances between intra-patient longitudinal oral-stool sample pairs suggested potential oral-stool microbial community coalescence. Bray-Curtis dissimilarities and UniFrac distances were used to create an objective definition of microbial community coalescence. We determined that only 23 of the 92 patients exhibited oral-stool community coalescence. This was validated through a linear mixed model which determined that patients who experienced coalescence had an increased proportion of shared to unique OTUs between their oral-stool sample pairs over time compared to non-coalesced patients. Evaluation of longitudinal microbial characteristics revealed that patients who experienced coalescence had increased stool abundance of Streptococcus and Stenotrophomonas compared to non-coalesced patients. When treated as a time-varying covariate, each additional day of linezolid (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06 - 1.24, P <0.001), meropenem (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.21, P = 0.001), metronidazole (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.21, P = 0.001), and cefepime (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.18, P = 0.021) increased the hazard of oral-stool microbial community coalescence. Levofloxacin receipt was associated with a lower risk of microbiome community coalescence (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61 - 0.93, P = 0.009). By the time of neutrophil recovery, the relative abundance of Bacteroidia (P<0.001), Fusobacteria (P=0.012), and Clostridia (P=0.013) in the stool were significantly lower in patients with oral-gut community coalescence. Exhibiting oral-stool community coalescence was associated with the occurrence of infections prior to neutrophil recovery (P=0.002), as well as infections during the 90 days post neutrophil recovery (P=0.027). This work elucidates specific antimicrobial effects on microbial ecology and furthers the understanding of oral/intestinal microbial biogeography and its implications for adverse clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Microbiota , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
6.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(4)2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448611

RESUMO

The cultural recovery of Mucorales from hyphae-laden tissue is poor, and the clinical implications of culture positivity are scarcely studied. Therefore, we compared clinical and histopathological characteristics of culture-positive and culture-negative histology-proven pulmonary mucormycosis cases among cancer patients. Histology specimens were blindly reviewed by a thoracic pathologist and graded on four histopathologic features: hyphal quantity, tissue necrosis, tissue invasion, and vascular invasion. Twenty cases with a corresponding fungal culture were identified; five were culture-positive, and fifteen were culture-negative. Although no statistically significant differences were found, culture-positive patients were more likely to exhibit a high burden of necrosis and have a high burden of hyphae but tended to have less vascular invasion than culture-negative patients. In terms of clinical characteristics, culture-positive patients were more likely to have acute myeloid leukemia (60% vs. 27%, p = 0.19), a history of hematopoietic cell transplant (80% vs. 53%, p = 0.31), severe lymphopenia (absolute lymphocyte count ≤ 500/µL, 100% vs. 73%, p = 0.36), and monocytopenia (absolute monocyte count ≤100/µL, 60% vs. 20%, p = 0.11). Forty-two-day all-cause mortality was comparable between culture-positive and culture-negative patients (60% and 53%, p = 0.80). This pilot study represents the first comprehensive histopathological scoring method to examine the relationship between histopathologic features, culture positivity, and clinical features of pulmonary mucormycosis.

7.
mBio ; 13(2): e0047322, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357212

RESUMO

The exact cause of the disproportionate increase in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) cases in India remains unknown. Most researchers consider the major cause of India's CAM epidemic to be the conjunction of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated corticosteroid treatment with the enormous number of Indians with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, excess CAM cases were not seen to the same extent in the Western world, where diabetes is prevalent and corticosteroids are also used extensively for COVID-19 treatment. Herein, we hypothesize that previously overlooked environmental factors specific to India were important contributors to the country's CAM epidemic. Specifically, we propose that the spread of fungal spores, mainly through fumes generated from the burning of Mucorales-rich biomass, like cow dung and crop stubble, caused extensive environmental exposure in the context of a large population of highly vulnerable patients with DM and COVID-19. Testing this hypothesis with epidemiologic studies, phylogenetic analyses, and strategic environmental sampling may have implications for preventing future epidemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mucormicose , Corticosteroides , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mucormicose/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Filogenia
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple factors influence the choice of primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing remission induction chemotherapy (RIC) given the recent incorporation of targeted leukemia therapies into these regimens. METHODS: We evaluated the incidence and characteristics of breakthrough IFI (bIFI) in 277 adult patients with newly diagnosed AML undergoing RIC with high-intensity, or low-intensity venetoclax-containing therapy. Patients receiving posaconazole (PCZ), voriconazole (VCZ), or isavuconazole (ISA) for > 5 days as PAP during RIC were included. Echinocandin use prior to, but not concomitantly with, the PAP azole was allowed. IFI (modified EORTC/MSG criteria) occurring after > 5 days of continuous azole exposure or within 14 days of discontinuation were considered bIFI. RESULTS: Proven or probable bIFI were observed in 11 patients (4%). The incidence of bIFI was 2.9% for PCZ, 4.8% for VCZ, and 5.7% for ISA (p=0.55). 161 patients (58%) received echinocandin prophylaxis prior to azole initiation. Neither echinocandin exposure nor chemotherapy intensity impacted bIFI rate. Patients with bIFI had a lower rate of absolute neutrophil count recovery >1000 cells/µL (64% vs 90%, p=0.021) or complete remission (CR; 18% vs 66%, p=0.002) after RIC. Thirty-eight patients (14%) discontinued PAP due to toxicity, most often hepatotoxicity. Discontinuation due to hepatotoxicity was similar among azoles (PCZ: 13%; VCZ: 15%; ISA: 13%). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of bIFI is low during RIC in patients with newly diagnosed AML receiving any of the mold-active triazoles as PAP. Neutrophil recovery and achievement of CR are important for bIFI risk.

9.
J Infect ; 84(5): 701-709, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Extensive floodwater damage following hurricane Harvey raised concerns of increase in invasive mould infections (IMIs), especially in immunocompromised patients. To more comprehensively characterize the IMI landscape pre- and post-Harvey, we used a modified, less restrictive clinical IMI (mcIMI) definition by incorporating therapeutic-intent antifungal drug prescriptions combined with an expanded list of host and clinical features. METHODS: We reviewed 103 patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, Texas), who lived in Harvey-affected counties and had mould-positive cultures within 12 months pre-/post-Harvey (36 and 67 patients, respectively). Cases were classified as proven or probable IMI (EORTC/MSG criteria), mcIMI, or colonization/contamination. We also compared in-hospital mortality and 42- day survival outcomes of patients with mcIMI pre-/post-Harvey. RESULTS: The number of patients with mould- positive cultures from Harvey-affected counties almost doubled from 36 pre- Harvey to 67 post- Harvey (p < 0.01). In contrast, no significant changes in (mc)IMI incidence post-Harvey nor changes in the aetiological mould genera were noted. However, patients with mcIMIs from flood affected areas had significantly higher in-hospital mortality (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We observed increased colonization but no excess cases of (mc)IMIs in immunosuppressed cancer patients from affected areas following a large flooding event such as hurricane Harvey.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Neoplasias , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Inundações , Fungos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838344, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35251033

RESUMO

Anecdotal clinical reports suggested a benefit of adjunct immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) to treat invasive mucormycosis. However, proof-of-concept data in animal models and mechanistic insights into the effects of ICIs on host defense against Mucorales are lacking. Therefore, we studied the effects of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors (4 doses of 250 µg/kg) on outcomes and immunopathology of invasive pulmonary mucormycosis (IPM) in cyclophosphamide- and cortisone acetate-immunosuppressed mice. Rhizopus arrhizus-infected mice receiving either of the ICI treatments had significantly improved survival, less morbidity, and lower fungal burden compared to isotype-treated infected mice. While early improvement of morbidity/mortality was comparable between the ICI treatments, anti-PD-L1 provided more consistent sustained protection through day 7 post-infection than anti-PD-1. Both ICIs enhanced the fungicidal activity of ex-vivo splenocytes and effectively counteracted T-cell exhaustion; however, macrophages of ICI-treated mice showed compensatory upregulation of other checkpoint markers. Anti-PD-1 elicited stronger pulmonary release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines than anti-PD-L1, but also induced cytokines associated with potentially unfavorable type 2 T-helper-cell and regulatory T-cell responses. Although no signs of hyperinflammatory toxicity were observed, mice with IPM receiving ICIs, particularly anti-PD-1, had elevated serum levels of IL-6, a cytokine linked to ICI toxicities. Altogether, inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway improved clinical outcomes of IPM in immunosuppressed mice, even without concomitant antifungals. PD-L1 inhibition yielded more favorable immune responses and more consistent protection from IPM-associated morbidity and mortality than PD-1 blockade. Future dose-effect studies are needed to define the "sweet spot" between ICI-induced augmentation of antifungal immunity and potential immunotoxicities.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Mucormicose , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Citocinas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Mucormicose/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1
11.
mSphere ; 7(2): e0081721, 2022 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35224979

RESUMO

Candida auris is a globally spreading yeast pathogen causing bloodstream infections with high mortality in critically ill patients. The inherent antifungal drug resistance of most C. auris isolates and threat of multidrug-resistant strains create a need for adjunct immunotherapeutic strategies. While C. albicans candidemia was shown to induce immune paralysis and activation of inhibitory immune checkpoints, in vivo data on host responses to C. auris bloodstream infection are lacking as is an immunocompetent murine infection model to study the immunopathology and immunotherapy of C. auris sepsis. Therefore, herein, we developed an immunocompetent C. auris sepsis model by intravenously infecting C57BL/6 mice with 1.5 × 108 to 8 × 108 yeast cells of aggregate-forming (AR-0384) and nonaggregative (AR-0381) C. auris reference isolates. Both isolates caused reproducible, inoculum-dependent increasing morbidity, mortality, and fungal burden in kidney tissue. Notably, morbidity and mortality outcomes were partially decoupled from fungal burden, suggesting a role of additional modulators of disease severity such as host immune responses. Flow cytometric analyses of splenic immune cells revealed significant upregulation of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) on T cells and its ligand PD-L1 on macrophages from mice infected with C. auris AR-0384 compared to uninfected mice. PD-L1 expression on macrophages from AR-0384-infected mice strongly correlated with fungal tissue burden (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.95). Altogether, our findings suggest that C. auris sepsis promotes a suppressive immune phenotype through PD-1/PD-L1 induction, supporting further exploration of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade as an immunotherapeutic strategy to mitigate C. auris candidiasis. IMPORTANCE Health authorities consider Candida auris to be one of the most serious emerging nosocomial pathogens due to its transmissibility, resistance to disinfection procedures, and frequent antifungal drug resistance. The frequency of multidrug-resistant C. auris isolates necessitates the development of novel therapeutic platforms, including immunotherapy. However, in vivo data on host interactions with C. auris are scarce, compounded by the lack of reliable immunocompetent mammalian models of C. auris candidemia. Herein, we describe a C. auris sepsis model in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice and demonstrate reproducible and inoculum-dependent acute infection with both aggregate-forming and nonaggregative reference isolates from different clades. Furthermore, we show that C. auris sepsis induces upregulation of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway in infected mice, raising the potential of a therapeutic benefit of immune checkpoint blockade. Our immunocompetent model of C. auris sepsis could provide a facile preclinical platform to thoroughly investigate immune checkpoint blockade and combination therapy with antifungals.


Assuntos
Candidemia , Candidíase Invasiva , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/uso terapêutico , Candida/genética , Candida albicans , Candida auris , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/uso terapêutico , Regulação para Cima
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0183721, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107318

RESUMO

Here, we report two paired sets of an index wild-type Candida glabrata bloodstream isolate and subsequent echinocandin-resistant FKS mutant. One paired set exhibited a higher proportion of clumping cells and was more virulent in the invertebrate host Galleria mellonella than the other paired set. No virulence difference between the paired index and FKS strains was observed. These findings imply a potential link of clumping morphology with virulence in C. glabrata that is uncoupled from FKS-mediated echinocandin resistance. IMPORTANCE Candida glabrata is a leading cause of invasive candidiasis. In contrast to other species, it has a high propensity for developing resistance to echinocandins, which are the first-line treatment. Unlike the dimorphic Candida albicans which can grow invasive filamentous hyphae, C. glabrata lacks this ability. Here, we report a link between virulence and clumping cell morphology in two different sets of clinical C. glabrata strains obtained from patients failing echinocandin therapy. One set of paired strains (echinocandin-susceptible and subsequent resistant mutant) had a high proportion of clumping cells in the population and were significantly more virulent than another set which had fewer clumping cells. Additionally, we corroborate that echinocandin resistance does not impart a significant fitness cost. Our findings suggest that clumping morphology may be an important but previously underestimated virulence factor for C. glabrata and also aid our understand for the high prevalence of resistance observed in this species.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida glabrata/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida glabrata/patogenicidade , Candidíase/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Equinocandinas/farmacologia , Animais , Candida glabrata/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida glabrata/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mariposas/microbiologia
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986246

RESUMO

Treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFI) remains challenging, because of the limitations of the current antifungal agents (i.e. mode of administration, toxicity, drug-drug interactions), and the emergence of resistant fungal pathogens. Therefore, there is an urgent need to expand our antifungal armamentarium. Several compounds are reaching the stage of phase II or III clinical assessment. These include new drugs within the existing antifungal classes or displaying similar mechanism of activity with improved pharmacologic properties (rezafungin, ibrexafungerp) or first-in-class drugs with novel mechanisms of action (olorofim, fosmanogepix). Although critical information regarding the performance of these agents in heavily immunosuppressed patients is pending, they may provide useful additions to current therapies in some clinical scenarios, including IFI caused by azole-resistant Aspergillus or multi-resistant fungal pathogens (e.g. Candida auris, Lomentospora prolificans). However, their limited activity against Mucorales and some other opportunistic molds (e.g. some Fusarium spp.) persists as a major unmet need.

14.
Mycoses ; 65(2): 186-198, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isavuconazole, administered as isavuconazonium sulfate (ISAVUSULF), is a broad-spectrum triazole agent for the treatment of invasive fungal disease. In phase 3 studies, ISAVUSULF showed comparable efficacy to voriconazole and amphotericin B for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and invasive mucormycosis (IM), respectively. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine all-cause mortality and safety outcomes among adults with IM and/or IA non-fumigatus (nf) treated with ISAVUSULF or other antifungal therapies (AFT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicentre, non-interventional registry enrolled patients aged ≥18 years with IM or IA-nf who received systemic AFT from January 2016 to November 2018. Patients received primary ISAVUSULF, non-primary ISAVUSULF, or other AFT, as monotherapy or combination therapy. The primary end point was all-cause mortality at Days 42 and 84; safety outcomes were adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to ISAVUSULF. RESULTS: Of 204 patients enrolled, 74 received primary ISAVUSULF, 30 non-primary ISAVUSULF, and 100 other AFT. All-cause mortality through Day 42 was numerically lower in the non-primary ISAVUSULF group than in the primary ISAVUSULF and other AFT groups, for patients with IM (20.0% vs. 33.3% and 41.3%, respectively) or IA-nf (0% vs. 14.8% and 17.8%, respectively). All-cause mortality tended to be lower with combination therapy than with monotherapy, except for patients with IM receiving primary ISAVUSULF. Of 111 patients receiving ISAVUSULF, 14 (12.6%) reported ADRs, of whom three (2.7%) developed serious ADRs. There were no drug-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the effectiveness and tolerability of ISAVUSULF in clinical practice. Further research is required to confirm the value of ISAVUSULF combination therapy over monotherapy.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Aspergilose , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Mucormicose , Adulto , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Mucormicose/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas/efeitos adversos , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Triazóis/uso terapêutico
15.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 22(5): 305-310, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence and spectrum of infections in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) in combination with a hypomethylating agents (HMAs) is not known. Nivolumab is a PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor approved in many solid tumors and lymphoma. MATERIALS/METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 75 adult patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center with relapsed/refractory AML treated with azacitidine and nivolumab or with nivolumab and ipilimumab from March 2016 through March 2020 and described the infectious complications that occurred during their treatment. RESULTS: Sixty-four (85%) patients developed an infection during the study period, and bacterial infections were by far the most common type of infection. A comparison of risk factors and characteristic between the 75 patients on CPIs who developed infection and those who did not found that corticosteroid use (odds ratio [OR], 28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-490; P =.02) and lymphopenia (OR, 4; 95% CI, 1-15.5; P =.04) were significantly associated with infections. CONCLUSION: Patient with relapsed/refractory AML treated with salvage CPI-based therapy were more likely to develop infections when treated with corticosteroids in the setting of an immune-related adverse event, compared to those who were not.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adulto , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
STAR Protoc ; 2(4): 100963, 2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849488

RESUMO

Epithelia provide the first line of defense against foreign pathogens, and disruption of tissue homeostasis frequently allows for opportunistic infections. Here we provide a protocol for induction of epithelial cell loss in zebrafish larvae, followed by infection with fungal pathogens. Details are provided for monitoring larval survival after infection, assessment of fungal burden, and prophylactic treatment with antifungal compounds. Limitations of the protocol include potential antifungal toxicity and high fungal inoculums to induce lethal infection with some pathogenic fungal species. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Wurster et al. (2021).


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Larva/microbiologia , Micoses , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/patologia
17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(11): ofab500, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34926712

RESUMO

Cat scratch disease (CSD) infrequently mimics malignancy. We reviewed 11 such cases at MD Anderson Cancer Center and an additional 36 reported from the literature. Breast cancer, sarcoma, and lymphoma were the most commonly suspected malignancies. Most patients were young, female, had prior cat exposure, and had no systemic symptoms. Regional lymphadenopathy was the most common finding.

18.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(6): 619-626, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751181

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To investigate the peculiarities of invasive fusariosis (IF) in pediatric patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review to identify human cases of locally invasive and systemic fusariosis documented in children (up to 18 years) published between 1973 (first case report) and 2021. RECENT FINDINGS: One hundred and six cases were retrieved, and hematologic malignancy was reported in 64% (68/106) of the cases. The most frequent anatomic sites involved were skin 66% (70/106), blood 47% (50/106), and lungs 35% (37/106), bone and joint (8%, 09/106), and eye/central nervous system involvement (8%, 9/106). Fusarium solani, followed by Fusarium oxysporum, were the most commonly reported species. In disseminated fusariosis, relapsed or refractory baseline disease (P < 0.001, OR=10.555, CI 95% 3.552-31.365) was associated with poor outcome, whereas voriconazole-based therapy was associated with better prognosis (P  = 0.04, OR = 0.273, CI 95% 0.076-0.978). SUMMARY: Hematologic malignancies and solid tumors requiring intensive immunosuppression are the main conditions related to IF in children where other organs than skin, blood, and lungs were frequently involved. Voriconazole therapy appears to be also effective in children with IF, despite the wide pharmacokinetic variability of this triazole in pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Fusariose , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Fusariose/diagnóstico , Fusariose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Triazóis , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
19.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(12): e0123021, 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570643

RESUMO

Posaconazole (POS) appears to have dose-proportional pharmacokinetics; however, there is a paucity of real-life data. We retrospectively evaluated 67 patients with hematologic cancer who had POS dose increases from 300 mg/day to either 400 mg/day (n = 52) or 300 mg twice daily (BID) (n = 15) and for whom POS serum levels were measured. Median POS levels were 840 ng/ml, 1,625 ng/ml, and 2,710 ng/ml for the dosages of 300 mg/day, 400 mg/day, and 300 mg BID, respectively. Significant interpatient variability in serum levels was noted.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triazóis
20.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 34(4): e0031120, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190571

RESUMO

Infections due to Aspergillus species are an acute threat to human health; members of the Aspergillus section Fumigati are the most frequently occurring agents, but depending on the local epidemiology, representatives of section Terrei or section Flavi are the second or third most important. Aspergillus terreus species complex is of great interest, as it is usually amphotericin B resistant and displays notable differences in immune interactions in comparison to Aspergillus fumigatus. The latest epidemiological surveys show an increased incidence of A. terreus as well as an expanding clinical spectrum (chronic infections) and new groups of at-risk patients being affected. Hallmarks of these non-Aspergillus fumigatus invasive mold infections are high potential for tissue invasion, dissemination, and possible morbidity due to mycotoxin production. We seek to review the microbiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of A. terreus species complex, address clinical characteristics, and highlight the underlying mechanisms of amphotericin B resistance. Selected topics will contrast key elements of A. terreus with A. fumigatus. We provide a comprehensive resource for clinicians dealing with fungal infections and researchers working on A. terreus pathogenesis, aiming to bridge the emerging translational knowledge and future therapeutic challenges on this opportunistic pathogen.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/epidemiologia , Aspergillus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
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