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1.
Molecules ; 24(12)2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200495

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases are characterized by the structural and functional abnormalities of neurons in certain regions of the brain. These abnormalities, which can result in progressive neuronal degeneration and functional disability, are incurable to date. Although comprehensive efforts have been made to figure out effective therapies against these diseases, partial success has been achieved and complete functional recovery is still not a reality. At present, plants and plant-derived compounds are getting more attention because of a plethora of pharmacological properties, and they are proving to be a better and safer target as therapeutic interventions. This review aims to highlight the roles of tannins, 'the polyphenol phytochemicals', in tackling neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases as well as neuropsychiatric disorders like depression. Among the multifarious pharmacological properties of tannins, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cholinesterase activities are emphasized more in terms of neuroprotection. The current review also throws light on mechanistic pathways by which various classes of tannins execute neuroprotective effects. Despite their beneficial properties, some harmful effects of tannins have also been elaborated.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Taninos/química , Taninos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neuropsiquiatria , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18403-18410, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049867

RESUMO

Nanoparticles are very effective compounds to transform and detoxicate common environmental contaminants. For this reason, crude urban liquid wastewater sludges were treated by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, 100 nm) for 24 h. Both Ag-NPs' treated and untreated sludges were examined for the evaluation if there are possible mutagenic/anti-mutagenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic/anti-genotoxic effects by Ames and Allium cepa tests. The results were then subjected to statistical analyses by using SPSS software and p < 0.05 was accepted as a significant value. The data obtained from the Ames test showed that while untreated crude liquid sludge had a significant mutagenic effect, Ag-NP-treated one decreased its mutagenicity. Similar effects were also observed in the chromosome aberration-Allium cepa tests. Significant chromosome aberrations observed were C-metaphase, sticky metaphase, sticky anaphase, anaphase bridge, vagrant chromosome, and multipolar anaphases. Both tests demonstrated that silver nanoparticle treatment decreased the major mutagenicity and genotoxicity detected in the liquid wastewater sludges.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Esgotos/química , Prata/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Dano ao DNA , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolas/genética , Águas Residuárias/química
3.
Mycobiology ; 46(3): 215-223, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294481

RESUMO

In this study, we examined myxomycetes that developed in moist chamber cultures of substrata material collected from Kütahya and Konya provinces in Turkey. We collected bark samples from living trees, plant litter from the ground, standing dead wood or stumps, and downed and decayed wood or bark and placed them in the moist chamber cultures. We identified 36 species belonging to 12 genera of myxomycetes. The species determined are listed, and four new records, Didymium balearicum Ing, Macbrideola oblonga Pando & Lado, Paradiacheopsis erythropodia (Ing) Nann-Bremek. and Perichaena pedata (Lister & G. Lister) G. Lister, are added to the mycoflora of Turkey.

4.
J Biol Phys ; 44(4): 579-590, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968194

RESUMO

In this paper, radiation shielding parameters such as mass attenuation coefficients and half value layer (HVL) of some antioxidants are investigated using MCNPX (version 2.4.0). The validation of the generated MCNPX simulation geometry for antioxidant structures is provided by comparing the results with standard WinXcom data for radiation mass attenuation coefficients of antioxidants. Very good agreement between WINXCOM and MCNPX was obtained. The results from the validated geometry were used to calculate the shielding parameters of different antioxidants. The radiation attenuation properties of each antioxidant were compared with each other. The results showed that, on average, the highest and the lowest radiation mass attenuation coefficients were observed on hesperidin and delphinidin chloride, respectively. It can be concluded that Monte Carlo simulation is a strong tool and an alternate method where experimental investigations are not possible and a standard simulation setup can be used in further studies for different biological structures. It can also be concluded that the obtained results from this study are very useful for radiology and radiotherapy applications where antioxidants are frequently used.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Simulação por Computador , Método de Monte Carlo , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Software , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hesperidina/química , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Espalhamento de Radiação
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29148923

RESUMO

Chloroform and Bromoform are two abundant trihalomethanes found in Algerian drinking water. The investigation of the mutagenic hazard of these disinfection by-products was studied by Ames test as prokaryotic bioassay to show their mutagenic effects. For this, Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains were employed. Both chloroform and bromoform showed a direct mutagenic effect since the number of revertant colonies gradually increase in dose-dependent manner with all concentrations tested with the two bacterial strains and these were both in the absence and presence of S9 metabolic activation. The genotoxic hazard was also studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA test on the root cells of Allium cepa as eukaryotic bioassay. DNA extracted from the roots of the onion were incubated at different concentrations of chloroform and bromoform and then amplified by polymerase chain reaction. This was based on demonstrating a major effect of disappearance of bands compared to roots incubated in the negative control (distilled water). The results showed that these two compounds affected genomic DNA by breaks although by mutations.


Assuntos
Clorofórmio/toxicidade , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Água Potável/química , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Trialometanos/toxicidade
6.
Cytotechnology ; 69(6): 865-874, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28608257

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the mutagenic effect of Anilofos, organophosphate pesticide, by using Ames/Salmonella/microsome test. Its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were also determined by chromosome aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the Ames test, five different concentrations of Anilofos were examined on TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains in the absence and presence of S9 fraction. According to the results all concentrations of this pesticide have not shown any mutagenic activity on TA97, TA100 and TA102 strains in the absence and presence of S9 fraction. But, 10, 100 and 1000 µg/plate concentrations of Anilofos were determined to be mutagenic on TA98 strain without S9 fraction. Lymphocytes were treated with various concentrations (25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) of Anilofos for 24 and 48 h. The results of the assays showed that Anilofos did not induce SCE frequency, replication index and MN formation at all concentrations for both treatment periods. Anilofos significantly increased CA frequency at 100 and 200 µg/ml concentrations at 24 h treatment periods and at 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml concentrations in 48 h treatment periods. Additionally, it was determined that this pesticide decreased mitotic index and nuclear division index significantly. It was concluded that Anilofos has genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in human peripheral lymphocytes.

7.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 40(2): 191-195, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27387265

RESUMO

The genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Halfenprox, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and acaricide, was assessed using two standard genotoxicity assays of the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay in human peripheral lymphocytes. In the Ames test, Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 were treated with or without S9 fraction. The doses of Halfenprox were 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/plate and test materials were dissolved in DMSO. The concentrations of Halfenprox did not show mutagenic activity on both strains with and without S9 fraction. The MN assay was used to investigate the genotoxic effects of Halfenprox in human peripheral lymphocytes treated with 250, 500, 750, and 1000 µg/ml concentrations of Halfenprox for 24 and 48 h, and at 1000 µg/ml the concentration was significantly increased and the MN formation was compared with the negative control for both treatment periods. In addition, a significant decrease of the nuclear devision index (NDI) values at the higher concentrations of Halfenprox and at both treatment periods was observed.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/toxicidade , DNA Bacteriano/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mutação , Éteres Fenílicos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Microb Pathog ; 106: 69-75, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27287495

RESUMO

Exponential developments of both Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 3R ve 36R and methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) 27S were evaluated in the presence and absence of oxacillin. The strains were isolated from the specimens collected in microbiology department. It was also determined the transfer of mecA gene from 3R to 27S strain by using the replica plate technique. It was observed that the presence of antibiotics in the preliminary culture had a positive impact on the growth of the secondary culture of MRSA isolates. Comparison results of Rt bacteria in three different mixed cultures, assessed with Tukey's HSD test, showed a significant statistical difference among the groups. The values were as following; on the first day; Df: 2, F: 60.90, P: 0.0001, second day; Df:2, F:90.56, P: 0.0000, and third day; Df:2, F:4.86, P:0.0557. As a result of the study, we can suggest that the gene expression levels of the transferred antibiotic resistance genes could help us in both controlling hospital originated sickness and developing new strategies to prevent the spread of resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxacilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Humanos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
9.
Cytotechnology ; 68(4): 829-38, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25550040

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to evaluate genotoxic potential of Thermopsis turcica aqueous extracts on the roots of onion bulb (Allium cepa L.) by comet assay and random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. The Allium root growth inhibition test indicated that the EC50 and 2×EC50 values were 8 and 16 mg/ml concentrations of T. turcica aqueous extracts, respectively. The negative control (distilled water), positive control (methyl methane sulfonate, 10 mg/l) and 8 and 16 mg/ml concentrations of T. turcica extracts were introduced to the roots of onion bulbs for 24 and 96 h. The root growth, DNA damage in root cells and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of root tissue were used as endpoints of the genotoxicity. The comet assay clearly indicated that dose-dependent single strand DNA breaks in the root nuclei of onions were determined for the treatment concentrations of T. turcica extracts. In comparison to RAPD profile of negative control group, RAPD polymorphisms became evident as disappearance and/or appearance of RAPD bands in treated roots. The diagnostic and phenetic numerical analyses of RAPD profiles obviously indicated dose-dependent genotoxicity induced by Thermopsis extracts. In conclusion, the results clearly indicated that water extract of T. turcica has genotoxic potential on the roots of onion bulbs as shown by comet assay and RAPD technique.

10.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 32(9): 1720-8, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25907664

RESUMO

In this study, the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanomaterial were assessed using two standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and the in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay. Seven different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/plate) of this nanomaterial were tested using the Ames test on the TA98 and TA100 strains in the presence and absence of the S9 mixture. At all the concentrations tested, this substance did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies compared with the control with or without S9 mixture. The genotoxic effects of ITO were investigated in human peripheral lymphocytes treated with 125, 250, 500, and 750 µg/ml concentrations of this substance for 24- and 48-h treatment periods using an MN test. Nuclear division index (NDI) was also calculated in order to determine the cytotoxicity of ITO. It was determined that ITO increased MN frequency in the 750 µg/ml concentration in 24- and 48-h treatments. In addition, ITO dose dependently decreased the NDI significantly for two treatment periods.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Divisão do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Estanho/toxicidade , Adulto , Animais , Carcinógenos Ambientais/química , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes para Micronúcleos , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Mutagênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Salmonella typhimurium/metabolismo , Compostos de Estanho/química , Compostos de Estanho/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 39(1): 35-40, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26333298

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of Benodanil fungicide by employing both mitotic index (MI) and mitotic phases on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa and genotoxic effects by using in vitro micronucleus assay (MN) in human peripheral blood lymphocyte. In the Allium root growth inhibition test, the EC50 value was first determined as 25 ppm. Then, 2 × EC50 value (50 ppm), EC50 value (25 ppm), and 1/2 × EC50 value (12.5 ppm) were tested with different treatment periods (24, 48, and 72 h). Both negative and positive controls were also used in parallel experiments. We obtained that mitotic index and prophase index decreased when compared with the control in all concentrations. In the micronucleus assay, lymphocytes were treated with various concentrations (250, 500, 750, and 1000 µg/ml) of Benodanil for 24 and 48 h. The results showed that Benodanil did not induce MN frequency in all concentrations of both treatment periods. Additionally, it was determined that this pesticide decreased nuclear division index (NDI) significantly. It was concluded that Benodanil has a cytotoxic effects depending on decreasing of MI and NDI.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fungicidas Industriais/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Linfócitos/patologia , Testes para Micronúcleos , Índice Mitótico , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 11: 84, 2015 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26701098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The traditional knowledge about plants and their uses in Turkey is disappearing in recent years because the new generations of villagers migrate to big cities for a better life. Afyonkarahisar located at the intersection of roads and phytogeographical regions (Mediterranean, Iran-Turan, and Euro-Siberian) has more than 2500 plant species. This richness of plant diversity promotes the indigenous commuity for the traditional use of wild plants. The aim of the study is to show wild plants' ethnobotanical usages associated with medicinal, food, fodder, and household goods in 31 settlements within the boundaries of Afyonkarahisar province. METHODS: The ethnobotanical data were collected from 46 informants by means of semi-structured interviews from 2012 to 2014. Ethnobotanical uses of plants of the study area were conducted in the vicinity of Afyonkarahisar (5 districts, 8 towns, 15 villages, and 3 neighborhood centers). RESULTS: One hundred and thirty plant taxa belonging to 39 families were recorded and collected. Hundred and seventy-eight different uses of these plants were documented and used generally for medicinal (84), food (68), fodder (16), household goods (3), dyes (3), handicrafts (3) and religious (1). CONCLUSION: This study provides interesting uses of plants in the local community of Afyonkarahisar and its surrounding area, in what purpose they make use of plants, how they make use of them and obtained results will contribute to economy of villagers. Since the local people, especially in villages, are poor and do not have health care, they use the plants to treat illnesses, food, fodder, household goods and other uses (evil eye). Also this study will light the way for posterity for next generations.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas Comestíveis , Plantas Medicinais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 187(2): 26, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25632904

RESUMO

Assessment of water pollution and its effect upon river biotic communities and human health is indispensable to develop control and management strategies. In this study, the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of urban wastewater of the city of Guelma in Algeria were examined between April 2012 and April 2013. For this, two biological tests, namely Amesand chromosomal aberrations (CA) test in Allium cepa root tips were employed on the samples collected from five different sampling stages (S1-S5). In Ames test, two strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolic activation (S9-mix) were used. All water samples were found to be mutagenic to S. typhimurium TA98 with or without S9-mix. A significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) was observed with a decrease in the percentage of cells in the prophase and an increase in the telophase. Main aberrations observed were anaphase bridges, disturbed anaphase-telophase cells, vagrants and stickiness in anaphase-telophase cells. All treatments of wastewater in April 2012, at S5 in July 2012, at S1 and S5 in November 2012, at S5 in February 2013, and at S1 in April 2013 induced CA when compared to the negative control. Some physicochemical parameters and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Cu) were also recorded in the samples examined.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Argélia , Anáfase , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Dano ao DNA , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos/análise , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Cebolas , Rios , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Telófase , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 187(2): 21, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25626560

RESUMO

In this study, a battery of genotoxicity assays for monitoring drinking water was performed to assess the quality of the water resulting from the treatment plants. Five different types of samples were collected: raw water (P1), treated after pre-chlorination (P2), treated after decantation (P3), treated post-chlorination (P4), and consumers' taps (P5-P12). This study aims to evaluate the formation/occurrence of mutagenic and/or genotoxic compounds in surface drinking waters treated with chlorine disinfectant, during four seasonal experiments: summer, autumn, winter, and spring between 2012 and 2013 by bacterial reverse mutation assay in both Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains with or without metabolic activation system (S9 mix) and Allium cepa root meristematic cells, respectively. All of water samples, except at P1, P2, and P5 in summer; P1 in autumn; and P1 and P3-P12 in spring without S9 mix, and at P1 and P2 in summer and P6 and P8-P12 in spring with S9 mix, were found to be mutagenic in S. typhimurium TA98. However, only P11 and P12 in winter were found to be mutagenic for TA100 without S9 mix. The tested preparations in Allium anaphase-telophase test revealed a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and a simultaneous increase in chromosome aberrations (CAs) compared to the control. The bridge, stickiness, vagrant chromosomes, and disturbed chromosome aberrations were observed in anaphase-telophase cells. Physicochemical analysis, trihalomethanes (THMs), romoform (CHBr3), chloroform (CHCl3), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), and dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl) levels in water samples were also determined. The results show also that this short-term battery tests are applicable in the routine monitoring of drinking water quality before and after distribution.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Argélia , Cloro/análise , Clorofórmio/análise , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos/análise , Cebolas , Salmonella typhimurium , Trialometanos/análise , Trialometanos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/análise
15.
Environ Toxicol ; 30(8): 937-45, 2015 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24515492

RESUMO

Potential mutagenic and genotoxic effects of Chlorthiophos, an organophosphate pesticide, were evaluated using four standard assays. Five different concentrations of the pesticide were tested by an Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102, with and without S9 metabolic activation. No concentrations of Chlorthiophos showed mutagenic activity on the TA97, TA100, and TA102 strains, with and without S9 fraction, but were all mutagenic to the TA98 strain without S9. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were used to investigate the genotoxic effects of Chlorthiophos in human peripheral lymphocytes treated with 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL concentrations of Chlorthiophos for 24 and 48 h. The nuclear division index (NDI), replication index (RI), and mitotic index (MI) were also calculated to determine the cytotoxicity of Chlorthiophos. No increase in SCE frequency was seen for any treatment period or concentration, but Chlorthiophos at 200 µg/mL increased the frequency of CAs. Increases in MN formation were only observed at Chlorthiophos concentrations of 200 µg/mL following 24 and 48 h treatments. Chlorthiophos treatment reduced the MI and NDI significantly, but had no effect on the RI.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade , Animais , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Dano ao DNA , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Índice Mitótico , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Ratos , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Troca de Cromátide Irmã
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 187(1): 4161, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25424498

RESUMO

Persistence of the residue of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) became a great danger to our environment long ago. In this study, the persistence of OCPs at Manzala Lake in Egypt was determined. Four different sites were investigated: the El-Gamel, El-Kowar, El-Rasoah, and Janb El-Timsah regions. Among these, the El-Kowar region had the highest concentration of total OCPs in the sediment samples when compared to other regions during both 2012 and 2013. In fact, generally, the residues of OCPs in the sediment samples were significantly higher in all tested sites in comparison with other compartments. Conversely, OCP residues were undetectable in water samples at both the El-Gamel region and the El-Rasoah site in the studied seasons. The data proved that the sediment layer plays a sourcing role in OCP persistence in the aquatic ecosystem. Data analysis also indicated that there was an external source for OCP contamination in the Manzala Lake ecosystem that most likely comes from Nile Basin countries and which extends the expected half-life of these compounds. It could be exemplified by DDT, the half-life of which increased from 30 to approximately 47 years.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Lagos/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecossistema , Egito , Meia-Vida , Praguicidas/análise , Estações do Ano
17.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 38(3): 337-41, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25275653

RESUMO

The present study evaluates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of pyracarbolid using both micronuleus (MN) assay, in human lymphocytes, and Allium cepa assay, in the root meristem cells. In Allium test, EC50 value was determined in order to selecting the test concentrations for the assay and the root tips were treated with 25 ppm (EC50/2), 50 ppm (EC50) and 100 ppm (EC50 × 2) concentrations of pyracarbolid. One percent of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In the micronucleus assay, the cultures were treated with four concentrations (250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg/ml) of pyracarbolid for 24 and 48 h, negative and positive controls were also used in the experiment parallely. The results showed that mitotic index (MI) significantly reduced with increasing the pyracarbolid concentration at each exposure time. It was also obtained that prophase and metaphase index decreased significantly in all concentration at each exposure time. Anaphase index decreased as well and results were found to be statistically significant, except 24 h. A significant increase was observed in MN frequency in all concentrations and both treatment periods when compared with the controls. Pyracarbolid also caused a significant reduction in the cytokinesis block proliferation index (CBPI) in all concentration and both exposure time.


Assuntos
Allium/efeitos dos fármacos , Anilidas/toxicidade , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Adulto , Allium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinese/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Meristema/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cytotechnology ; 67(1): 157-63, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24337653

RESUMO

Genotoxic effects of indium tin oxide (ITO) were investigated on root cells of Allium cepa by employing both Allium and Comet assays. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm) for 4 h. Exposure of ITO significantly increased mitotic index, and total chromosomal aberrations by the Allium test. While chromosome laggards, stickiness, disturbed anaphase-telophase and anaphase bridges were observed in anaphase-telophase cells, c-metaphase and binuclear cells were observed in other cells. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of ITO by the Comet assay. These results indicate that ITO exhibits genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

19.
Cytotechnology ; 67(2): 207-13, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24363168

RESUMO

Genotoxic effects of bromoform and chloroform, disinfection by-products of the chlorination of drinking water, were examined by using mitotic index (MI), mitotic phase, chromosome aberrations (CAs) and comet assay on root meristematic cells of Allium cepa. Different concentrations of bromoform (25, 50, 75 and 100 µg/mL) and chloroform (25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL) were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water was used as a negative control and methyl methansulfonate (MMS-10 µg/mL) as positive control. All obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses by using SPSS 15.0 for Windows software. For comparison purposes, Duncan multiple range tests by using one-way analysis of variance were employed and p < 0.05 was accepted as significant value. Exposure of both chemicals (except 25 µg/mL applications of bromoform) significantly decreased MI. Bromoform and chloroform (except 25 µg/mL applications) increased total CAs in Allium anaphase-telophase test. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of both bromoform and chloroform examined by comet assay. The damages were higher than that of positive control especially at 75-100 µg/mL for bromoform and 100-200 µg/mL for chloroform.

20.
Cytotechnology ; 67(6): 1023-30, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24848210

RESUMO

Dioxacarb (Elecron, Famid) is a phenyl methylcarbamate insecticide and in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of this pesticide on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and Allium root meristematic cells were investigated by chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and Allium test. Human lymphocytes were treated with 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 ppm doses of dioxacarb for CAs. CA/cell, abnormal cell % and mitotic index % (MI %) data were obtained from these concentrations in 24 and 48 h treatment periods. Dioxacarb did not increase the CA/cell frequency significantly, so this insecticide was not identified as genotoxic. But it was found cytotoxic especially at 250 and 500 ppm concentrations because of the reduced the MI % and increased the abnormal cell %. In Allium test, 25 ppm (EC50/2), 50 ppm (EC50) and 100 ppm (EC50 × 2) concentrations were used for root growth inhibition (EC50 determination) and Allium mitotic index (MI) determination tests. The used concentrations of dioxacarb induced dose-dependent inhibition of MI and root growth on root meristems. Mitotic inhibition of dioxacarb was found significantly higher than for the positive control. These Allium results indicated the high cytotoxicity of dioxacarb. The present study is the first research on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of dioxacarb by human lymphocyte CAs and Allium test.

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