Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 57
Filtrar
1.
Adv Mater ; : e2103974, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510572

RESUMO

Continuous monitoring of vital signs is an essential aspect of operations in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (NICUs and PICUs), of particular importance to extremely premature and/or critically ill patients. Current approaches require multiple sensors taped to the skin and connected via hard-wired interfaces to external data acquisition electronics. The adhesives can cause iatrogenic injuries to fragile, underdeveloped skin, and the wires can complicate even the most routine tasks in patient care. Here, materials strategies and design concepts are introduced that significantly improve these platforms through the use of optimized materials, open (i.e., "holey") layouts and precurved designs. These schemes 1) reduce the stresses at the skin interface, 2) facilitate release of interfacial moisture from transepidermal water loss, 3) allow visual inspection of the skin for rashes or other forms of irritation, 4) enable triggered reduction of adhesion to reduce the probability for injuries that can result from device removal. A combination of systematic benchtop testing and computational modeling identifies the essential mechanisms and key considerations. Demonstrations on adult volunteers and on a neonate in an operating NICUs illustrate a broad range of capabilities in continuous, clinical-grade monitoring of conventional vital signs, and unconventional indicators of health status.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5008, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429436

RESUMO

Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Pressão , Temperatura , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele , Termografia/instrumentação , Termografia/métodos
3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(14): 2004973, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306974

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells play a key role in immune tolerance to self-antigens, thereby preventing autoimmune diseases. However, no drugs targeting Treg cells have been approved for clinical trials yet. Here, a chimeric peptide is generated by conjugation of the cytoplasmic domain of CTLA-4 (ctCTLA-4) with dNP2 for intracellular delivery, dNP2-ctCTLA-4, and evaluated Foxp3 expression during Th0, Th1, Treg, and Th17 differentiation dependent on TGF-ß. The lysine motif of ctCTLA-4, not tyrosine motif, is required for Foxp3 expression for Treg induction and amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Transcriptome analysis reveals that dNP2-ctCTLA-4-treated T cells express Treg transcriptomic patterns with properties of suppressive functions. In addition, the molecular interaction between the lysine motif of ctCTLA-4 and PKC-η is critical for Foxp3 expression. Although both CTLA-4-Ig and dNP2-ctCTLA-4 treatment in vivo ameliorated EAE progression, only dNP2-ctCTLA-4 requires Treg cells for inhibition of disease progression and prevention of relapse. Furthermore, the CTLA-4 signaling peptide is able to induce human Tregs in vitro and in vivo as well as from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of multiple sclerosis patients. These results collectively suggest that the chimeric CTLA-4 signaling peptide can be used for successful induction of regulatory T cells in vivo to control autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.

4.
Nat Mater ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326506

RESUMO

Flexible electronic/optoelectronic systems that can intimately integrate onto the surfaces of vital organ systems have the potential to offer revolutionary diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities relevant to a wide spectrum of diseases and disorders. The critical interfaces between such technologies and living tissues must provide soft mechanical coupling and efficient optical/electrical/chemical exchange. Here, we introduce a functional adhesive bioelectronic-tissue interface material, in the forms of mechanically compliant, electrically conductive, and optically transparent encapsulating coatings, interfacial layers or supporting matrices. These materials strongly bond both to the surfaces of the devices and to those of different internal organs, with stable adhesion for several days to months, in chemistries that can be tailored to bioresorb at controlled rates. Experimental demonstrations in live animal models include device applications that range from battery-free optoelectronic systems for deep-brain optogenetics and subdermal phototherapy to wireless millimetre-scale pacemakers and flexible multielectrode epicardial arrays. These advances have immediate applicability across nearly all types of bioelectronic/optoelectronic system currently used in animal model studies, and they also have the potential for future treatment of life-threatening diseases and disorders in humans.

5.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(10): 1228-1238, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183859

RESUMO

Temporary cardiac pacemakers used in periods of need during surgical recovery involve percutaneous leads and externalized hardware that carry risks of infection, constrain patient mobility and may damage the heart during lead removal. Here we report a leadless, battery-free, fully implantable cardiac pacemaker for postoperative control of cardiac rate and rhythm that undergoes complete dissolution and clearance by natural biological processes after a defined operating timeframe. We show that these devices provide effective pacing of hearts of various sizes in mouse, rat, rabbit, canine and human cardiac models, with tailored geometries and operation timescales, powered by wireless energy transfer. This approach overcomes key disadvantages of traditional temporary pacing devices and may serve as the basis for the next generation of postoperative temporary pacing technology.

6.
Biomaterials ; 274: 120845, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971559

RESUMO

Sepsis is an acute systemic inflammatory disease triggered by bacterial infection leading organ dysfunctions that macrophages are responsible for major triggering of systemic inflammation. Treatment options are limited to antibiotics and drugs to manage the symptoms of sepsis, but there are currently no molecular-targeted therapies. Here, we identified a novel macrophage-preferable delivery peptide, C10, which we conjugated to truncated domains of NLRX1 (leucine-rich repeat region (LRR), and nucleotide binding domain (NBD)) to obtain C10-LRR and C10-NBD. Leucine rich amino acid of C10 enables macrophage preferable moieties that efficiently deliver a cargo protein into macrophages in vitro and in vivo. C10-LRR but not C10-NBD significantly improved survival in an LPS-mediated lethal endotoxemia sepsis model. C10-LRR efficiently inhibited IL-6 production in peritoneal macrophages via prevention of IκB degradation and p65 phosphorylation. In addition, C10-LRR negatively regulated IL-1ß production by preventing caspase-1 activation with a sustained mitochondrial MAVS level. Finally, co-treatment with anti-TNFα antibody and C10-LRR had a synergistic effect in an LPS-induced sepsis model. Collectively, these findings indicate that C10-LRR could be an effective therapeutic agent to treat systemic inflammation in sepsis by regulating both NF-κB and inflammasome signaling activation.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Sepse , Humanos , Leucina , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos , Proteínas Mitocondriais , NF-kappa B , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Biomed Eng Lett ; : 1-12, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868759

RESUMO

Interest in biomolecular sensors for diagnosis of early diseases and prognosis of the diseases is increasing day by day. Among them, FET-based sensors are very useful in that of their versatile operating characteristics using various materials. Herein, after addressing the basic principles of BioFET, we conduct an overall review of BioFET on two of the main structural elements: transducing materials and probes. Transducing materials were classified into graphene, carbon nanotube, silicon, MOF, etc., and probes were classified into antibodies, enzymes, aptamers, etc.. The important elements in designing BioFETs, such as electrical properties of each material, Debye length, and fabrication process are introduced along with their respective structures and materials. After the review of each of these structures and characteristics, examples are discussed along with sensitivity, selectivity, and limit of detection. In addition to the operating aspects of the senser, novel processes, treatments, and materials that can be considered for various purposes are also introduced. Based on the understanding, an overview of diverse examples is given by dividing the applications of BioFET into three main types: antigen sensing, biomarker sensing, and drug effect monitoring. Focusing on these general reviews, we conclude how the future direction of development will move forward and what the main challenge is.

8.
Nat Mater ; 20(5): 638-644, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558719

RESUMO

Topological aspects of the geometry of DNA and similar chiral molecules have received a lot of attention, but the topology of their electronic structure is less explored. Previous experiments revealed that DNA can efficiently filter spin-polarized electrons between metal contacts, a process called chiral-induced spin selectivity. However, the underlying correlation between chiral structure and electronic spin remains elusive. In this work, we reveal an orbital texture in the band structure, a topological characteristic induced by the chirality. We found that this orbital texture enables the chiral molecule to polarize the quantum orbital. This orbital polarization effect (OPE) induces spin polarization assisted by the spin-orbit interaction of a metal contact and leads to magnetoresistance and chiral separation. The orbital angular momentum of photoelectrons also plays an essential role in related photoemission experiments. Beyond chiral-induced spin selectivity, we predict that the orbital polarization effect could induce spin-selective phenomena even in achiral but inversion-breaking materials.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Estereoisomerismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5990, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239608

RESUMO

Bioresorbable electronic stimulators are of rapidly growing interest as unusual therapeutic platforms, i.e., bioelectronic medicines, for treating disease states, accelerating wound healing processes and eliminating infections. Here, we present advanced materials that support operation in these systems over clinically relevant timeframes, ultimately bioresorbing harmlessly to benign products without residues, to eliminate the need for surgical extraction. Our findings overcome key challenges of bioresorbable electronic devices by realizing lifetimes that match clinical needs. The devices exploit a bioresorbable dynamic covalent polymer that facilitates tight bonding to itself and other surfaces, as a soft, elastic substrate and encapsulation coating for wireless electronic components. We describe the underlying features and chemical design considerations for this polymer, and the biocompatibility of its constituent materials. In devices with optimized, wireless designs, these polymers enable stable, long-lived operation as distal stimulators in a rat model of peripheral nerve injuries, thereby demonstrating the potential of programmable long-term electrical stimulation for maintaining muscle receptivity and enhancing functional recovery.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Poliuretanos/química , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ratos , Regeneração , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Nervo Isquiático/fisiologia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(45): 27906-27915, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106394

RESUMO

Soft microfluidic systems that capture, store, and perform biomarker analysis of microliter volumes of sweat, in situ, as it emerges from the surface of the skin, represent an emerging class of wearable technology with powerful capabilities that complement those of traditional biophysical sensing devices. Recent work establishes applications in the real-time characterization of sweat dynamics and sweat chemistry in the context of sports performance and healthcare diagnostics. This paper presents a collection of advances in biochemical sensors and microfluidic designs that support multimodal operation in the monitoring of physiological signatures directly correlated to physical and mental stresses. These wireless, battery-free, skin-interfaced devices combine lateral flow immunoassays for cortisol, fluorometric assays for glucose and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and digital tracking of skin galvanic responses. Systematic benchtop evaluations and field studies on human subjects highlight the key features of this platform for the continuous, noninvasive monitoring of biochemical and biophysical correlates of the stress state.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Suor/química , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/instrumentação , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Impedância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Fluorometria , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Pele/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4769, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938915

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

12.
Sci Adv ; 6(35): eabb1093, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923633

RESUMO

Implantable drug release platforms that offer wirelessly programmable control over pharmacokinetics have potential in advanced treatment protocols for hormone imbalances, malignant cancers, diabetic conditions, and others. We present a system with this type of functionality in which the constituent materials undergo complete bioresorption to eliminate device load from the patient after completing the final stage of the release process. Here, bioresorbable polyanhydride reservoirs store drugs in defined reservoirs without leakage until wirelessly triggered valve structures open to allow release. These valves operate through an electrochemical mechanism of geometrically accelerated corrosion induced by passage of electrical current from a wireless, bioresorbable power-harvesting unit. Evaluations in cell cultures demonstrate the efficacy of this technology for the treatment of cancerous tissues by release of the drug doxorubicin. Complete in vivo studies of platforms with multiple, independently controlled release events in live-animal models illustrate capabilities for control of blood glucose levels by timed delivery of insulin.

13.
Adv Mater ; 32(39): e2003368, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812291

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapies, including adoptive T cell transfer and immune checkpoint blockades, have recently shown considerable success in cancer treatment. Nevertheless, transferred T cells often become exhausted because of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Immune checkpoint blockades, in contrast, can reinvigorate the exhausted T cells; however, the therapeutic efficacy is modest in 70-80% of patients. To address some of the challenges faced by the current cancer treatments, here T-cell-membrane-coated nanoparticles (TCMNPs) are developed for cancer immunotherapy. Similar to cytotoxic T cells, TCMNPs can be targeted at tumors via T-cell-membrane-originated proteins and kill cancer cells by releasing anticancer molecules and inducing Fas-ligand-mediated apoptosis. Unlike cytotoxic T cells, TCMNPs are resistant to immunosuppressive molecules (e.g., transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) of cancer cells by scavenging TGF-ß1 and PD-L1. Indeed, TCMNPs exhibit higher therapeutic efficacy than an immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma treatment. Furthermore, the anti-tumoral actions of TCMNPs are also demonstrated in the treatment of lung cancer in an antigen-nonspecific manner. Taken together, TCMNPs have a potential to improve the current cancer immunotherapy.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3476, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651362

RESUMO

Weyl semimetals exhibit unusual surface states and anomalous transport phenomena. It is hard to manipulate the band structure topology of specific Weyl materials. Topological transport phenomena usually appear at very low temperatures, which sets challenges for applications. In this work, we demonstrate the band topology modification via a weak magnetic field in a ferromagnetic Weyl semimetal candidate, Co2MnAl, at room temperature. We observe a tunable, giant anomalous Hall effect (AHE) induced by the transition involving Weyl points and nodal rings. The AHE conductivity is as large as that of a 3D quantum AHE, with the Hall angle (ΘH) reaching a record value ([Formula: see text]) at the room temperature among magnetic conductors. Furthermore, we propose a material recipe to generate large AHE by gaping nodal rings without requiring Weyl points. Our work reveals an intrinsically magnetic platform to explore the interplay between magnetic dynamics and topological physics for developing spintronic devices.

15.
Sci Adv ; 6(17): eaaz3522, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494640

RESUMO

The Wiedemann-Franz (WF) law has been tested in numerous solids, but the extent of its relevance to the anomalous transverse transport and the topological nature of the wave function, remains an open question. Here, we present a study of anomalous transverse response in the noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge extended from room temperature down to sub-kelvin temperature and find that the anomalous Lorenz ratio remains close to the Sommerfeld value up to 100 K but not above. The finite-temperature violation of the WF correlation is caused by a mismatch between the thermal and electrical summations of the Berry curvature and not by inelastic scattering. This interpretation is backed by our theoretical calculations, which reveals a competition between the temperature and the Berry curvature distribution. The data accuracy is supported by verifying the anomalous Bridgman relation. The anomalous Lorenz ratio is thus an extremely sensitive probe of the Berry spectrum of a solid.

16.
Sci Adv ; 6(17): eaba3252, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426469

RESUMO

A smart contact lens can be used as an excellent interface between the human body and an electronic device for wearable healthcare applications. Despite wide investigations of smart contact lenses for diagnostic applications, there has been no report on electrically controlled drug delivery in combination with real-time biometric analysis. Here, we developed smart contact lenses for both continuous glucose monitoring and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. The smart contact lens device, built on a biocompatible polymer, contains ultrathin, flexible electrical circuits and a microcontroller chip for real-time electrochemical biosensing, on-demand controlled drug delivery, wireless power management, and data communication. In diabetic rabbit models, we could measure tear glucose levels to be validated by the conventional invasive blood glucose tests and trigger drugs to be released from reservoirs for treating diabetic retinopathy. Together, we successfully demonstrated the feasibility of smart contact lenses for noninvasive and continuous diabetic diagnosis and diabetic retinopathy therapy.

17.
Theranostics ; 10(7): 3138-3150, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194859

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), which is a chronic progressive disease and is caused by uncontrolled activation of myelin antigen specific T cells. It has high unmet medical needs due to the difficulty of efficient drug delivery into the CNS to control tissue inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate that a fusion protein of NOD-like receptor family member X1 (NLRX1) and blood brain barrier (BBB)-permeable peptide, dNP2 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Methods: We purified recombinant LRR or NBD regions of NLRX1 protein conjugated with dNP2. To examine intracellular delivery efficiency of the recombinant protein, we incubated the proteins with Jurkat T cells or murine splenic T cells and their delivery efficiency was analyzed by flow cytometry. To investigate the therapeutic efficacy in an EAE model, we injected the recombinant protein into mice with 3 different treatment schemes e.g., prevention, semi-therapeutic, and therapeutic. To analyze their functional roles in T cells, we treated MACS-sorted naïve CD4 T cells with the proteins during their activation and differentiation into Th1, Th17, and Treg cells. Results: dNP2-LRR protein treatment showed significantly higher delivery efficiency than TAT-LRR or LRR alone in Jurkat T cells and mouse splenic T cells. In all three treatment schemes of EAE experiments, dNP2-LRR administration showed ameliorated tissue inflammation and disease severity with reduced number of infiltrating T cells producing inflammatory cytokines such as IFNγ. In addition, dNP2-LRR inhibited T cell activation, cytokine production, and Th1 differentiation. Conclusion: These results suggest that dNP2-LRR is a novel agent, which regulates effector T cell functions and could be a promising molecule for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

18.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(4): 1900757, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099750

RESUMO

The atomic or molecular assembly on 2D materials through the relatively weak van der Waals interaction is quite different from the conventional heteroepitaxy and may result in unique growth behaviors. Here, it is shown that straight 1D cyanide chains display universal epitaxy on hexagonal 2D materials. A universal oriented assembly of cyanide crystals (AgCN, AuCN, and Cu0.5Au0.5CN) is observed, where the chains are aligned along the three zigzag lattice directions of various 2D hexagonal crystals (graphene, h-BN, WS2, MoS2, WSe2, MoSe2, and MoTe2). The potential energy landscape of the hexagonal lattice induces this preferred alignment of 1D chains along the zigzag lattice directions, regardless of the lattice parameter and surface elements as demonstrated by first-principles calculations and parameterized surface potential calculations. Furthermore, the oriented microwires can serve as crystal orientation markers, and stacking-angle-controlled vertical 2D heterostructures are successfully fabricated by using them as markers. The oriented van der Waals epitaxy can be generalized to any hexagonal 2D crystals and will serve as a unique growth process to form crystals with orientations along the zigzag directions by epitaxy.

19.
Lab Chip ; 20(1): 84-92, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776526

RESUMO

Eccrine sweat is a rich and largely unexplored biofluid that contains a range of important biomarkers, from electrolytes, metabolites, micronutrients and hormones to exogenous agents, each of which can change in concentration with diet, stress level, hydration status and physiologic or metabolic state. Traditionally, clinicians and researchers have used absorbent pads and benchtop analyzers to collect and analyze the biochemical constituents of sweat in controlled, laboratory settings. Recently reported wearable microfluidic and electrochemical sensing devices represent significant advances in this context, with capabilities for rapid, in situ evaluations, in many cases with improved repeatability and accuracy. A limitation is that assays performed in these platforms offer limited control of reaction kinetics and mixing of different reagents and samples. Here, we present a multi-layered microfluidic device platform with designs that eliminate these constraints, to enable integrated enzymatic assays with demonstrations of in situ analysis of the concentrations of ammonia and ethanol in microliter volumes of sweat. Careful characterization of the reaction kinetics and their optimization using statistical techniques yield robust analysis protocols. Human subject studies with sweat initiated by warm-water bathing highlight the operational features of these systems.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Amônia/análise , Etanol/análise , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Suor/química , Amônia/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Cinética , Suor/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20253, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882982

RESUMO

Crystal structure prediction and in silico physical property observations guide experimental synthesis in high-pressure research. Here, we used magnesium carbides as a representative example of computational high-pressure studies. We predicted various compositions of Mg-C compounds up to 150 GPa and successfully reproduced previous experimental results. Interestingly, our proposed MgC2 at high pressure >7 GPa consists of extended carbon bonds, one-dimensional graphene layers, and Mg atomic layers, which provides a good platform to study superconductivity of metal intercalated graphene nano-ribbons. We found that this new phase of MgC2 could be recovered to ambient pressure and exhibited a strong electron-phonon coupling (EPC) strength of 0.6 whose corresponding superconductivity transition temperature reached 15 K. The EPC originated from the cooperation of the out-of-plane and the in-plane phonon modes. The geometry confinement and the hybridization between the Mg s and C pz orbitals significantly affect the coupling of phonon modes and electrons. These results show the importance of the high-pressure route to the synthesis of novel functional materials, which can promote the search for new phases of carbon-based superconductors.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...