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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3176, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320664

RESUMO

Extracting light from silicon is a longstanding challenge in modern engineering and physics. While silicon has underpinned the past 70 years of electronics advancement, a facile tunable and efficient silicon-based light source remains elusive. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the generation of tunable radiation from a one-dimensional, all-silicon nanograting. Light is generated by the spontaneous emission from the interaction of these nanogratings with low-energy free electrons (2-20 keV) and is recorded in the wavelength range of 800-1600 nm, which includes the silicon transparency window. Tunable free-electron-based light generation from nanoscale silicon gratings with efficiencies approaching those from metallic gratings is demonstrated. We theoretically investigate the feasibility of a scalable, compact, all-silicon tunable light source comprised of a silicon Field Emitter Array integrated with a silicon nanograting that emits at telecommunication wavelengths. Our results reveal the prospects of a CMOS-compatible electrically-pumped silicon light source for possible applications in the mid-infrared and telecommunication wavelengths.

2.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 86: 71-76, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957446

RESUMO

The high-velocity impact response of gelatin and synthetic hydrogel samples is investigated using a laser-based microballistic platform for launching and imaging supersonic micro-particles. The micro-particles are monitored during impact and penetration into the gels using a high-speed multi-frame camera that can record up to 16 images with nanosecond time resolution. The trajectories are compared with a Poncelet model for particle penetration, demonstrating good agreement between experiments and the model for impact in gelatin. The model is further validated on a synthetic hydrogel and the applicability of the results is discussed. We find the strength resistance parameter in the Poncelet model to be two orders of magnitude higher than in macroscopic experiments at comparable impact velocities. The results open prospects for testing high-rate behavior of soft materials on the microscale and for guiding the design of drug delivery methods using accelerated microparticles.


Assuntos
Gelatina/química , Hidrogéis/química , Microesferas
3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(20): 6501-6508, 2018 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29762019

RESUMO

Materials with magneto-optic (MO) properties have enabled critical fiber-optic applications and highly sensitive magnetic field sensors. While traditional MO materials are inorganic in nature, new generations of MO materials based on organic semiconducting polymers could allow increased versatility for device architectures, manufacturing options, and flexible mechanics. However, the origin of MO activity in semiconducting polymers is far from understood. In this paper, we report high MO activity observed in a chiral helical poly-3-(alkylsulfone)thiophene (P3AST), which confirms a new design for the creation of a giant Faraday effect with Verdet constants up to (7.63 ± 0.78) × 104 deg T-1 m-1 at 532 nm. We have determined that the sign of the Verdet constant and its magnitude are related to the helicity of the polymer at the measured wavelength. The Faraday rotation and the helical conformation of P3AST are modulated by thermal annealing, which is further supported by DFT calculations and MD simulations. Our results demonstrate that helical polymers exhibit enhanced Verdet constants and expand the previous design space for polythiophene MO materials that was thought to be limited to highly regular lamellar structures. The structure-property studies herein provide insights for the design of next-generation MO materials based upon semiconducting organic polymers.

4.
Adv Mater ; 26(21): 3398-404, 2014 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24648015

RESUMO

M13 bacteriophages are assembled via a covalent layer-by-layer process to form a highly nanoporous network capable of organizing nanoparticles and acting as a scaffold for templating metal-oxides. The morphological and optical properties of the film itself are presented as well as its ability to organize and disperse metal nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago M13/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Bacteriófago M13/ultraestrutura , Compostos de Ouro/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Porosidade , Titânio/química
5.
Adv Mater ; 25(42): 6100-5, 2013 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23963926

RESUMO

A positive-tone 2D direct-write technique that can achieve sub-wavelength patterning by non-linear overlap effects in a conventional polymer system is described. The technique involves relatively inexpensive free-space optics, skips the usual development step, and promises the possibility of a lithographic method that is solvent-free.

6.
Opt Express ; 20(10): 11097-108, 2012 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22565733

RESUMO

For the next generation of phoXonic, plasmonic, opto-mechanical and microfluidic devices, the capability to create 3D microstructures is highly desirable. Fabrication of such structures by conventional top-down techniques generally requires multiple time-consuming steps and is limited in the ability to define features spanning multiple layers at prescribed angles. 3D direct write lithography (3DDW) has the capability to draw nearly arbitrary structures, but is an inherently slow serial writing process. Here we present a method, denoted focused proximity field nanopatterning (FPnP), that combines 3DDW with single or multiphoton interference lithography (IL). By exposing a thick photoresist layer having a phase mask pattern imprinted on its surface with a tightly focused laser beam, we produce locally unique complex structures. The morphology can be varied based on beam and mask parameters. Patterns may be written rapidly in a single shot mode with arbitrary positions defined by the direct write, thus exploiting the control of 3DDW with the enhanced speed of phase mask IL. Here we show the ability for this technique to rapidly produce arrays of "stand-up" far IR resonators.


Assuntos
Óptica e Fotônica , Espectroscopia Terahertz/métodos , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Raios Infravermelhos , Lasers , Luz , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Fótons
7.
Nanoscale ; 3(7): 2730-8, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21503354

RESUMO

Lithographic alternatives to conventional layer-by-layer processes for the design of 3D structures such as photonic or phononic crystals often present a dichotomy: patterning control versus patterning area. We demonstrate a combined technique of large area interference lithography and local area direct write focused laser spike (FLaSk) annealing that can enable the microscale patterning of hierarchical structures defined in their morphology by the interference and defined in placement and shape by the direct write. This is accomplished by doping a commercial chemically amplified photoresist (SU-8) with an absorbing dye to provide thermal activation at a wavelength shifted from that causing UV crosslinking. In this way, the necessary post-exposure bake to complete the crosslinking of the resist is locally performed by the FLaSk laser, rather than globally on a hot plate. By utilizing the same experimental setup as used by a 3D direct write system, it is possible to integrate another level of patterning by enabling fully dense, arbitrarily written features on multiple length scales. Both experimental and simulated results of this novel processing method are shown.


Assuntos
Lasers , Nanotecnologia
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 131(1): 20-1, 2009 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19072056

RESUMO

A new polymerization technique that allows for the first-ever synthesis of poly(phenylenedicyanovinylene)s (PPCN2Vs) is described. PPCN2Vs, with their high electron affinities and structural versatility, seem ideally suited to address the need for new n-type polymers. Remarkably the polymers presented herein become more photoluminescent, in the thin film, under continuous irradiation.


Assuntos
Polímeros/síntese química , Polivinil/síntese química , Ânions/química , Oxirredução
10.
Nano Lett ; 7(3): 647-51, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17295546

RESUMO

We present a new route for the fabrication of highly nonspherical complex multivalent submicron particles. This technique exploits the ability of holographic interference lithography to control geometrical elements such as symmetry and volume fraction in 3D lattices on the submicron scale. Colloidal particles with prescribed complex concave shapes are obtained by cleaving low volume fraction connected structures fabricated by interference lithography. Controlling which Wyckoff sites in the space group of the parent structure are connected assures specific "valencies" of the particles. Two types of particles, 2D "4-valent" and 3D "6-valent" particles are fabricated via this technique. In addition to being able to control multivalent particle shape, this technique has the potential to provide tight control over size, yield, and dispersity.

11.
Macromolecules ; 40(25): 8833-8841, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18923651

RESUMO

Degradation experiments and model studies suggested that the longer lived green fluorescence from an aggregated poly(p-phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) was due to the presence of highly emissive, low-energy, anthryl defect sites rather than the emissive conjugated polymer excimers proposed in a previous report. After elucidating the origin of the green fluorescence, additional anthryl units were purposely incorporated into the polymer to enhance the blue-to-green fluorescence color change that accompanied polymer aggregation. The improved color contrast from this anthryl-doped conjugated polymer led to the development of crude solution-state and solid-state sensors, which, upon exposure to water, exhibited a visually noticeable blue-to-green fluorescence color change.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 127(39): 13726-31, 2005 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16190739

RESUMO

Conjugated polymers often display a decrease of fluorescence efficiency upon aggregation due in large part to enhanced interpolymer interactions that produce weakly emissive species generally described as having excimer-like character. We have found that poly(phenylene ethynylene)s with fused pendant [2.2.2] ring structures having alkene bridges substituted with two ester groups function to give highly emissive, broad, and red-shifted emission spectra in the solid state. To best understand the origin of this new solid-state emissive species, we have performed photophysical studies of a series of different materials in solution, spin-coated thin films, solid solutions, and Langmuir films. We conclude that the new, red-shifted, emissive species originate from excimers produced by interchain interactions being mediated by the particular [2.2.2] ring system employed. The ability to design structures that can reliably produce highly emissive conjugated polymer excimers offers new opportunities in the emission tailoring of electroluminescence and sensory devices.

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