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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3914, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477715

RESUMO

YAP1 fusion-positive supratentorial ependymomas predominantly occur in infants, but the molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis are unknown. Here we show YAP1-MAMLD1 fusions are sufficient to drive malignant transformation in mice, and the resulting tumors share histo-molecular characteristics of human ependymomas. Nuclear localization of YAP1-MAMLD1 protein is mediated by MAMLD1 and independent of YAP1-Ser127 phosphorylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing analyses of human YAP1-MAMLD1-positive ependymoma reveal enrichment of NFI and TEAD transcription factor binding site motifs in YAP1-bound regulatory elements, suggesting a role for these transcription factors in YAP1-MAMLD1-driven tumorigenesis. Mutation of the TEAD binding site in the YAP1 fusion or repression of NFI targets prevents tumor induction in mice. Together, these results demonstrate that the YAP1-MAMLD1 fusion functions as an oncogenic driver of ependymoma through recruitment of TEADs and NFIs, indicating a rationale for preclinical studies to block the interaction between YAP1 fusions and NFI and TEAD transcription factors.

2.
Cancer Biol Ther ; : 1-5, 2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423907

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma is an aggressive primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebellum that is more common in children than in adults. In the past decade, advances in understanding the molecular drivers of medulloblastoma have identified four molecular subgroups defined by experimental gene expression profiles: the WNT pathway, sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway, and subgroups 3 and 4 (non-SHH/WNT).  Medulloblastoma of adults belong primarily to the SHH category. Vismodegib, an SHH-pathway inhibitor, FDA-approved in 2012 for treatment of basal cell carcinoma, has been used successfully in the setting of chemorefractory medulloblastoma, but not as a first-line therapy. In 2016, we reported a case of an adult patient with a sustained response of an unresectable multifocal form of adult medulloblastoma to vismodegib. Molecular analysis in that case revealed mutations in TP53 and a cytogenetic abnormality, i17q, that is prevalent and most often associated with subgroup 4 rather than the SHH-activated form of medulloblastoma. Here, we report further whole-genome analysis of that patient (designated Patient A) as well as an additional adult patient (Patient B) whose tumor harbored the SHH molecular subgroup but which was unresponsive to visgmodegib therapy. Comparison of these disparate responses highlights the challenges to tailoring SHH-targeted treatment in individual patients with adult medulloblastoma.

3.
Acta Neuropathol ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414211

RESUMO

Spinal ependymal tumors form a histologically and molecularly heterogeneous group of tumors with generally good prognosis. However, their treatment can be challenging if infiltration of the spinal cord or dissemination throughout the central nervous system (CNS) occurs and, in these cases, clinical outcome remains poor. Here, we describe a new and relatively rare subgroup of spinal ependymal tumors identified using DNA methylation profiling that is distinct from other molecular subgroups of ependymoma. Copy number variation plots derived from DNA methylation arrays showed MYCN amplification as a characteristic genetic alteration in all cases of our cohort (n = 13), which was subsequently validated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The histological diagnosis was anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III) in ten cases and classic ependymoma (WHO Grade II) in three cases. Histological re-evaluation in five primary tumors and seven relapses showed characteristic histological features of ependymoma, namely pseudorosettes, GFAP- and EMA positivity. Electron microscopy revealed cilia, complex intercellular junctions and intermediate filaments in a representative sample. Taking these findings into account, we suggest to designate this molecular subgroup spinal ependymoma with MYCN amplification, SP-EPN-MYCN. SP-EPN-MYCN tumors showed distinct growth patterns with intradural, extramedullary localization mostly within the thoracic and cervical spine, diffuse leptomeningeal spread throughout the whole CNS and infiltrative invasion of the spinal cord. Dissemination was observed in 100% of cases. Despite high-intensity treatment, SP-EPN-MYCN showed significantly worse median progression free survival (PFS) (17 months) and median overall survival (OS) (87 months) than all other previously described molecular spinal ependymoma subgroups. OS and PFS were similar to supratentorial ependymoma with RELA-fusion (ST-EPN-RELA) and posterior fossa ependymoma A (PF-EPN-A), further highlighting the aggressiveness of this distinct new subgroup. We, therefore, propose to establish SP-EPN-MYCN as a new molecular subgroup in ependymoma and advocate for testing newly diagnosed spinal ependymal tumors for MYCN amplification.

4.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 19(8): 420-438, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300807

RESUMO

The spectrum of tumours arising in childhood is fundamentally different from that seen in adults, and they are known to be divergent from adult malignancies in terms of cellular origins, epidemiology, genetic complexity, driver mutations and underlying mutational processes. Despite the immense knowledge generated through sequencing efforts and functional characterization of identified (epi-)genetic alterations over the past decade, the clinical implications of this knowledge have so far been limited. Novel preclinical platforms such as the European Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer-Paediatric Preclinical Proof-of-Concept Platform and the US-based Pediatric Preclinical Testing Consortium are being developed to try to change this by aiming to recapitulate the extensive heterogeneity of paediatric tumours and thereby, hopefully, improve the ability to predict clinical benefit. Numerous studies have also been established worldwide to provide patients with access to real-time molecular profiling and the possibility of more precise mechanism-of-action-based treatments. In addition to tumour-intrinsic findings and mechanisms, ongoing studies are investigating features such as the immune microenvironment of paediatric tumours in comparison with adult cancers - currently of very timely clinical relevance. However, there is an ongoing need for rigorous preclinical biomarker and target validation to feed into the next generation of molecularly stratified clinical trials. This Review aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the molecular landscape of paediatric solid tumours, including their underlying genomic alterations and interactions with the microenvironment, complemented with our current understanding of potential therapeutic vulnerabilities and how these can be preclinically tested using more accurate predictive methods. Finally, we provide an outlook on the challenges and opportunities associated with translating this overwhelming scientific progress into real clinical benefit.

5.
Cell Stem Cell ; 25(3): 433-446.e7, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204176

RESUMO

Human neural stem cell cultures provide progenitor cells that are potential cells of origin for brain cancers. However, the extent to which genetic predisposition to tumor formation can be faithfully captured in stem cell lines is uncertain. Here, we evaluated neuroepithelial stem (NES) cells, representative of cerebellar progenitors. We transduced NES cells with MYCN, observing medulloblastoma upon orthotopic implantation in mice. Significantly, transcriptomes and patterns of DNA methylation from xenograft tumors were globally more representative of human medulloblastoma compared to a MYCN-driven genetically engineered mouse model. Orthotopic transplantation of NES cells generated from Gorlin syndrome patients, who are predisposed to medulloblastoma due to germline-mutated PTCH1, also generated medulloblastoma. We engineered candidate cooperating mutations in Gorlin NES cells, with mutation of DDX3X or loss of GSE1 both accelerating tumorigenesis. These findings demonstrate that human NES cells provide a potent experimental resource for dissecting genetic causation in medulloblastoma.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 571, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using a pathway-focused approach, we aimed to provide a subgroup-specific basis for finding novel therapeutic strategies and further refinement of the risk stratification in pediatric medulloblastoma. METHOD: Based on genome-wide Cox regression and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we investigated prognosis-related signaling pathways and core genes in pediatric medulloblastoma subgroups using 530 patient data from Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomic International Consortium (MAGIC) project. We further examined the relationship between expression of the prognostic core genes and frequent chromosome aberrations using broad range copy number change data. RESULTS: In SHH subgroup, relatively high expression of the core genes involved in p53, PLK1, FOXM1, and Aurora B signaling pathways are associated with poor prognosis, and their average expression synergistically increases with co-occurrence of losses of 17p, 14q, or 10q, or gain of 17q. In Group 3, in addition to high MYC expression, relatively elevated expression of PDGFRA, IGF1R, and FGF2 and their downstream genes in PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways are related to poor survival outcome, and their average expression is increased with the presence of isochromosome 17q [i(17q)] and synergistically down-regulated with simultaneous losses of 16p, 8q, or 4q. In Group 4, up-regulation of the genes encoding various immune receptors and those involved in NOTCH, NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, or RHOA signaling pathways are associated with worse prognosis. Additionally, the expressions of Notch genes correlate with those of the prognostic immune receptors. Besides the Group 4 patients with previously known prognostic aberration, loss of chromosome 11, those with loss of 8q but without i(17q) show excellent survival outcomes and low average expression of the prognostic core genes whereas those harboring 10q loss, 1q gain, or 12q gain accompanied by i(17q) show bad outcomes. Finally, several metabolic pathways known to be reprogrammed in cancer cells are detected as prognostic pathways including glutamate metabolism in SHH subgroup, pentose phosphate pathway and TCA cycle in Group 3, and folate-mediated one carbon-metabolism in Group 4. CONCLUSIONS: The results underscore several subgroup-specific pathways for potential therapeutic interventions: SHH-GLI-FOXM1 pathway in SHH subgroup, receptor tyrosine kinases and their downstream pathways in Group 3, and immune and inflammatory pathways in Group 4.

7.
Neurosurgery ; 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary intratumoral hemorrhage as a presenting sign is rare in children with medulloblastomas but may result in severe complications. Given the distinct properties of molecular medulloblastoma subgroups, the impact on neurosurgical practice has still to be defined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate both clinical and radiological presentation of intratumoral hemorrhage in medulloblastoma patients in the context of molecular subgroups. METHODS: Data of all consecutive medulloblastoma patients treated at our institution between 1993 and 2018 (n = 104) were retrospectively reviewed in respect of clinical and radiological presentation as well as molecular subgroups. For cases with available tumor tissue (n = 86), subgroups were assigned by either 450 K methylation array or immunohistochemistry and CTNNB1 sequencing. Available imaging at diagnosis (n = 62) was reviewed by an experienced neuroradiologist. RESULTS: Within the entire cohort, 4 patients (4%) presented with massive spontaneous hemorrhage. Although no patient died as a direct consequence of hemorrhage, all suffered from serious sequelae. Moreover, 3 additional patients displayed radiological evidence of significant hemorrhage. Interestingly, all 7 cases belonged to the wingless (WNT) subgroup (n = 13), resulting in intratumoral hemorrhage in 54% (7/13) of pediatric WNT medulloblastomas. In contrast, significant hemorrhage was absent in all other molecular subgroups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a substantial proportion of pediatric WNT medulloblastomas display significant intratumoral hemorrhage at the time of diagnosis. Consequently, the presence of significant hemorrhage in fourth ventricle childhood tumors is suggestive of WNT medulloblastoma and should lead to a less aggressive attempt for total resection in this prognostically favorable tumor type.

8.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(2): 275-293, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062076

RESUMO

Glioblastomas strongly invade the brain by infiltrating into the white matter along myelinated nerve fiber tracts even though the myelin protein Nogo-A prevents cell migration by activating inhibitory RhoA signaling. The mechanisms behind this long-known phenomenon remained elusive so far, precluding a targeted therapeutic intervention. This study demonstrates that the prevalent activation of AKT in gliomas increases the ER protein-folding capacity and enables tumor cells to utilize a side effect of RhoA activation: the perturbation of the IRE1α-mediated decay of SPARC mRNA. Once translation is initiated, glioblastoma cells rapidly secrete SPARC to block Nogo-A from inhibiting migration via RhoA. By advanced ultramicroscopy for studying single-cell invasion in whole, undissected mouse brains, we show that gliomas require SPARC for invading into white matter structures. SPARC depletion reduces tumor dissemination that significantly prolongs survival and improves response to cytostatic therapy. Our finding of a novel RhoA-IRE1 axis provides a druggable target for interfering with SPARC production and underscores its therapeutic value.

9.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(2): 309-326, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076851

RESUMO

In 2012, an international consensus paper reported that medulloblastoma comprises four molecular subgroups (WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4), each associated with distinct genomic features and clinical behavior. Independently, multiple recent reports have defined further intra-subgroup heterogeneity in the form of biologically and clinically relevant subtypes. However, owing to differences in patient cohorts and analytical methods, estimates of subtype number and definition have been inconsistent, especially within Group 3 and Group 4. Herein, we aimed to reconcile the definition of Group 3/Group 4 MB subtypes through the analysis of a series of 1501 medulloblastomas with DNA-methylation profiling data, including 852 with matched transcriptome data. Using multiple complementary bioinformatic approaches, we compared the concordance of subtype calls between published cohorts and analytical methods, including assessments of class-definition confidence and reproducibility. While the lowest complexity solutions continued to support the original consensus subgroups of Group 3 and Group 4, our analysis most strongly supported a definition comprising eight robust Group 3/Group 4 subtypes (types I-VIII). Subtype II was consistently identified across all component studies, while all others were supported by multiple class-definition methods. Regardless of analytical technique, increasing cohort size did not further increase the number of identified Group 3/Group 4 subtypes. Summarizing the molecular and clinico-pathological features of these eight subtypes indicated enrichment of specific driver gene alterations and cytogenetic events amongst subtypes, and identified highly disparate survival outcomes, further supporting their biological and clinical relevance. Collectively, this study provides continued support for consensus Groups 3 and 4 while enabling robust derivation of, and categorical accounting for, the extensive intertumoral heterogeneity within Groups 3 and 4, revealed by recent high-resolution subclassification approaches. Furthermore, these findings provide a basis for application of emerging methods (e.g., proteomics/single-cell approaches) which may additionally inform medulloblastoma subclassification. Outputs from this study will help shape definition of the next generation of medulloblastoma clinical protocols and facilitate the application of enhanced molecularly guided risk stratification to improve outcomes and quality of life for patients and their families.

12.
Acta Neuropathol ; 137(4): 657-673, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830316

RESUMO

The TCF4 gene encodes for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 4 (TCF4), which plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Haploinsufficiency of TCF4 was found to cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Recently, the screening of a large cohort of medulloblastoma (MB), a highly aggressive embryonal brain tumor, revealed almost 20% of adult patients with MB of the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) subtype carrying somatic TCF4 mutations. Interestingly, many of these mutations have previously been detected as germline mutations in patients with PTHS. We show here that overexpression of wild-type TCF4 in vitro significantly suppresses cell proliferation in MB cells, whereas mutant TCF4 proteins do not to the same extent. Furthermore, RNA sequencing revealed significant upregulation of multiple well-known tumor suppressors upon expression of wild-type TCF4. In vivo, a prenatal knockout of Tcf4 in mice caused a significant increase in apoptosis accompanied by a decreased proliferation and failed migration of cerebellar granule neuron precursor cells (CGNP), which are thought to be the cells of origin for SHH MB. In contrast, postnatal in vitro and in vivo knockouts of Tcf4 with and without an additional constitutive activation of the SHH pathway led to significantly increased proliferation of CGNP or MB cells. Finally, publicly available data from human MB show that relatively low expression levels of TCF4 significantly correlate with a worse clinical outcome. These results not only point to time-specific roles of Tcf4 during cerebellar development but also suggest a functional linkage between TCF4 mutations and the formation of SHH MB, proposing that TCF4 acts as a tumor suppressor during postnatal stages of cerebellar development.

13.
Cancer Res ; 79(8): 1967-1980, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862721

RESUMO

A subset of group 3 medulloblastoma frequently harbors amplification or overexpression of MYC lacking additional focal aberrations, yet it remains unclear whether MYC overexpression alone can induce tumorigenesis and which cells give rise to these tumors. Here, we showed that astrocyte progenitors in the early postnatal cerebellum were susceptible to transformation by MYC. The resulting tumors specifically resembled human group 3 medulloblastoma based on histology and gene-expression profiling. Gene-expression analysis of MYC-driven medulloblastoma cells revealed altered glucose metabolic pathways with marked overexpression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). LDHA abundance correlated positively with MYC expression and was associated with poor prognosis in human group 3 medulloblastoma. Inhibition of LDHA significantly reduced growth of both mouse and human MYC-driven tumors but had little effect on normal cerebellar cells or SHH-associated medulloblastoma. By generating a new mouse model, we demonstrated for the first time that astrocyte progenitors can be transformed by MYC and serve as the cells of origin for group 3 medulloblastoma. Moreover, we identified LDHA as a novel, specific therapeutic target for this devastating disease. SIGNIFICANCE: Insights from a new model identified LDHA as a novel target for group 3 medulloblastoma, paving the way for the development of effective therapies against this disease.

14.
Acta Neuropathol ; 137(6): 1003-1015, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826918

RESUMO

Desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastomas (DNMB) and medulloblastomas with extensive nodularity (MBEN) were outlined in the current WHO classification of tumors of the nervous system as two distinct histological MB variants. However, they are often considered as cognate SHH MB entities, and it is a reason why some clinical MB trials do not separate the patients with DNMB or MBEN histology. In the current study, we performed an integrated DNA/RNA-based molecular analysis of 83 DNMB and 36 MBEN to assess the etiopathogenetic relationship between these SHH MB variants. Methylation profiling revealed "infant" and "children" SHH MB clusters but neither DNMB nor MBEN composed separate epigenetic cohorts, and their profiles were intermixed within the "infant" cluster. In contrast, RNA-based transcriptional profiling disclosed that expression signatures of all MBEN were clustered separately from most of DNMB and a set of differentially expressed genes was identified. MBEN transcriptomes were enriched with genes associated with synaptic transmission, neuronal differentiation and metabolism, whereas DNMB profiling signatures included sets of genes involved in phototransduction and NOTCH signaling pathways. Thus, DNMB and MBEN are distinct tumor entities within the SHH MB family whose biology is determined by different transcriptional programs. Therefore, we recommend a transcriptome analysis as an optimal molecular tool to discriminate between DNMB and MBEN, which may be of benefit for patients' risk stratification in clinical trials. Molecular events identified in DNMB by RNA sequencing could be considered in the future as potent molecular targets for novel therapeutic interventions in treatment-resistant cases.

15.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posterior fossa A (PFA) ependymomas comprise one out of nine molecular groups of ependymoma. PFA tumors are mainly diagnosed in infants and young children, show a poor prognosis and are characterized by a lack of the repressive histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) mark. Recently, we reported CXorf67 overexpression as hallmark of PFA ependymoma and showed that CXorf67 can interact with EZH2 thereby inhibiting polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), but the mechanism of action remained unclear. METHODS: We performed mass spectrometry (MS) and peptide modelling analyses to identify the functional domain of CXorf67 responsible for binding and inhibition of EZH2. Our findings were validated by immunocytochemistry, western blot and methyltransferase assays. RESULTS: We find that the inhibitory mechanism of CXorf67 is similar as in diffuse midline gliomas harboring H3K27M mutations. A small, highly conserved peptide sequence located in the C-terminal region of CXorf67 mimics the sequence of K27M mutated histones and binds to the SET domain of EZH2. This interaction blocks EZH2 methyltransferase activity and inhibits PRC2 function causing de-repression of PRC2 target genes including genes involved in neurodevelopment. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of CXorf67 is an oncogenic mechanism that drives H3K27 hypomethylation in PFA tumors by mimicking K27M mutated histones. Disrupting the interaction between CXorf67 and EZH2 may serve as a novel targeted therapy for PFA tumors but also for other tumors that overexpress CXorf67. Based on its function, we have renamed CXorf67 into EZH Inhibitory Protein (EZHIP).

16.
Oncologist ; 24(9): e921-e929, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on frequency, clinical presentation, and outcome of primary metastatic intracranial ependymoma in children are scarce. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective data on patients younger than 21 years with metastatic intracranial ependymoma at first diagnosis, registered from 2001 to 2014 in the HIT-2000 trial and the HIT-2000 Interim Registry, were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 453 registered patients with intracranial ependymoma and central neuropathology review, initial staging included spinal magnetic resonance imaging in all patients and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in 402 patients. Ten patients (2.2%) had metastatic disease, including three with microscopic CSF positivity only (M1 metastasis stage, 0.7% of patients with CSF staging). Location of the primary tumor was supratentorial in four patients (all supratentorial RELA-fused ependymoma [ST-EPN-RELA]) and within the posterior fossa in five patients (posterior fossa ependymoma type A [PF-EPN-A], n = 4; posterior fossa ependymoma not further classifiable, n = 1), and multifocal in one patient.All four patients with ST-EPN-RELA were alive in first or second complete remission (CR) 7.5-12.3 years after diagnosis. All four patients with macroscopic metastases of posterior fossa or multifocal ependymoma died. Three patients with initial M1 stage (ST-EPN-RELA, n = 1; PF-EPN-A, n = 2) received chemotherapy and local irradiation and were alive in second or third CR 3.0-9.7 years after diagnosis. Progression-free and overall survival of the entire cohort at 5 years was 13% (±6%), and 58% (±16%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Primary metastatic disease is rare in children with intracranial ependymoma. Prognosis may depend on molecular subgroup and extent of dissemination, and relevance of CSF analysis for initial staging remains to be clarified. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Childhood ependymoma presenting with metastasis at first diagnosis is very rare with a frequency of 2.4% in this population-based, well-characterized cohort. Detection of microscopic metastases in the cerebrospinal fluid was extremely rare, and impact on prognosis and respective treatment decision on irradiation field remains unclear. Initial metastatic presentation occurs in both supratentorial RELA-fused ependymoma and posterior fossa ependymoma. Prognosis may differ according to extent of metastasis and biological subgroup, with poor prognosis in diffusely spread metastatic posterior fossa ependymoma even after combination therapy with both intensive chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation, which may help to guide individual therapeutic decisions for future patients.

17.
Cancer Cell ; 35(1): 95-110.e8, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595504

RESUMO

Biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1, encoding a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, is the hallmark genetic aberration of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT). Here, we report how loss of SMARCB1 affects the epigenome in these tumors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) on primary tumors for a series of active and repressive histone marks, we identified the chromatin states differentially represented in ATRTs compared with other brain tumors and non-neoplastic brain. Re-expression of SMARCB1 in ATRT cell lines enabled confirmation of our genome-wide findings for the chromatin states. Additional generation of ChIP-seq data for SWI/SNF and Polycomb group proteins and the transcriptional repressor protein REST determined differential dependencies of SWI/SNF and Polycomb complexes in regulation of diverse gene sets in ATRTs.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657775

RESUMO

High morbidity and mortality are common traits of malignant tumours and identification of the cells responsible is a focus of on-going research. Many studies are now reporting the use of antibodies specific to Clusters of Differentiation (CD) cell surface antigens to identify tumour-initiating cell (TIC) populations in neural tumours. Medulloblastoma is one of the most common malignant brain tumours in children and despite a considerable amount of research investigating this tumour, the identity of the TICs, and the means by which such cells can be targeted remain largely unknown. Current prognostication and stratification of medulloblastoma using clinical factors, histology and genetic profiling have classified this tumour into four main subgroups: WNT, Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Group 3 and Group 4. Of these subgroups, SHH remains one of the most studied tumour groups due to the ability to model medulloblastoma formation through targeted deletion of the Shh pathway inhibitor Patched1 (Ptch1). Here we sought to utilise CD antibody expression to identify and isolate TIC populations in Ptch1 deleted medulloblastoma, and determine if these antibodies can help classify the identity of human medulloblastoma subgroups. Using a fluorescence-activated cell sorted (FACS) CD antibody panel, we identified CD24 as a marker of TICs in Ptch1 deleted medulloblastoma. CD24 expression was not correlated with markers of astrocytes or oligodendrocytes, but co-labelled with markers of neural progenitor cells. In conjunction with CD15, proliferating CD24+/CD15+ granule cell precursors (GCPs) were identified as a TIC population in Ptch1 deleted medulloblastoma. On human medulloblastoma, CD24 was found to be highly expressed on Group 3, Group 4 and SHH subgroups compared with the WNT subgroup, which was predominantly positive for CD15, suggesting CD24 is an important marker of non-WNT medulloblastoma initiating cells and a potential therapeutic target in human medulloblastoma. This study reports the use of CD24 and CD15 to isolate a GCP-like TIC population in Ptch1 deleted medulloblastoma, and suggests CD24 expression as a marker to help stratify human WNT tumours from other medulloblastoma subgroups.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(6): 1851-1866, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530705

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common childhood brain tumor, characterized by constitutive MAPK activation. MAPK signaling induces oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), which may cause unpredictable growth behavior of pilocytic astrocytomas. The senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) has been shown to regulate OIS, but its role in pilocytic astrocytoma remains unknown.Experimental Design: The patient-derived pilocytic astrocytoma cell culture model, DKFZ-BT66, was used to demonstrate presence of the SASP and analyze its impact on OIS in pilocytic astrocytoma. The model allows for doxycycline-inducible switching between proliferation and OIS. Both states were studied using gene expression profiling (GEP), Western blot, ELISA, and cell viability testing. Primary pilocytic astrocytoma tumors were analyzed by GEP and multiplex assay. RESULTS: SASP factors were upregulated in primary human and murine pilocytic astrocytoma and during OIS in DKFZ-BT66 cells. Conditioned medium induced growth arrest of proliferating pilocytic astrocytoma cells. The SASP factors IL1B and IL6 were upregulated in primary pilocytic astrocytoma, and both pathways were regulated during OIS in DKFZ-BT66. Stimulation with rIL1B but not rIL6 reduced growth of DKFZ-BT66 cells and induced the SASP. Anti-inflammatory treatment with dexamethasone induced regrowth of senescent cells and inhibited the SASP. Senescent DKFZ-BT66 cells responded to senolytic BCL2 inhibitors. High IL1B and SASP expression in pilocytic astrocytoma tumors was associated with favorable progression-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence for the SASP regulating OIS in pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma, with IL1B as a relevant mediator. SASP expression could enable prediction of progression in patients with pilocytic astrocytoma. Further investigation of the SASP driving the unpredictable growth of pilocytic astrocytomas, and its possible therapeutic application, is warranted.

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