Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 27
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Biomolecules ; 9(10)2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557956

RESUMO

Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) are found in many organisms, such as fish and hexapods, plants, and bacteria that need to cope with low temperatures. Ice nucleation and thermal hysteresis are two attributes of IBPs. While ice nucleation is promoted by large proteins, known as ice nucleating proteins, the smaller IBPs, referred to as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), inhibit the growth of ice crystals by up to several degrees below the melting point, resulting in a thermal hysteresis (TH) gap between melting and ice growth. Recently, we showed that the nucleation capacity of two types of IBPs corresponds to their size, in agreement with classical nucleation theory. Here, we expand this finding to additional IBPs that we isolated from snow fleas (the arthropod Collembola), collected in northern Israel. Chemical analyses using circular dichroism and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy data suggest that these IBPs have a similar structure to a previously reported snow flea antifreeze protein. Further experiments reveal that the ice-shell purified proteins have hyperactive antifreeze properties, as determined by nanoliter osmometry, and also exhibit low ice-nucleation activity in accordance with their size.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(5): 966-972, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742446

RESUMO

Several types of natural molecules interact specifically with ice crystals. Small antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to particular facets of ice crystals, thus inhibiting their growth, whereas larger ice-nucleating proteins (INPs) can trigger the formation of new ice crystals at temperatures much higher than the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature of pure water. It has been proposed that both types of proteins interact similarly with ice and that, in principle, they may be able to exhibit both functions. Here we investigated two naturally occurring antifreeze proteins, one from fish, type-III AFP, and one from beetles, TmAFP. We show that in addition to ice growth inhibition, both can also trigger ice nucleation above the homogeneous freezing temperature, providing unambiguous experimental proof for their contrasting behavior. Our analysis suggests that the predominant difference between AFPs and INPs is their molecular size, which is a very good predictor of their ice nucleation temperature.


Assuntos
Proteínas Anticongelantes/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Gelo
3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(6): 3360-3369, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693356

RESUMO

The surface tension of supercooled water is of fundamental importance in physical chemistry and materials and atmospheric sciences. Controversy, however, exists over its temperature dependence in the supercooled regime, especially on the existence of the "second inflection point (SIP)". Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations of the SPC/E water model to study the surface tension of water (σw) as a function of temperature down to 198.15 K, and find a minimum point of surface excess entropy per unit area around ∼240-250 K. Additional simulations with the TIP4P/2005 water model also show consistent results. Hence, we predict an SIP of σw roughly in this region, at the boundary where the "no man's land" happens. The increase of surface entropy with decreasing temperature in the region below the inflection point is clearly an anomalous behavior, unknown for simple liquids. Furthermore, we find that σw has a near-linear correlation with the interfacial width, which can be well explained by the capillary wave theory. Deep in the supercooled regime, a compact water layer at the interface is detected in our simulations, which may be a key component that contributes to the deviation of surface tension from the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam relationship. Our findings may advance the understanding of the origin of the anomalous properties of liquid water in the supercooled regime.

4.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15002, 2017 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28429776

RESUMO

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a large source of uncertainty in our current understanding of climate change and air pollution. The phase state of SOA is important for quantifying their effects on climate and air quality, but its global distribution is poorly characterized. We developed a method to estimate glass transition temperatures based on the molar mass and molecular O:C ratio of SOA components, and we used the global chemistry climate model EMAC with the organic aerosol module ORACLE to predict the phase state of atmospheric SOA. For the planetary boundary layer, global simulations indicate that SOA are mostly liquid in tropical and polar air with high relative humidity, semi-solid in the mid-latitudes and solid over dry lands. We find that in the middle and upper troposphere SOA should be mostly in a glassy solid phase state. Thus, slow diffusion of water, oxidants and organic molecules could kinetically limit gas-particle interactions of SOA in the free and upper troposphere, promote ice nucleation and facilitate long-range transport of reactive and toxic organic pollutants embedded in SOA.

5.
Sci Rep ; 7: 41890, 2017 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28157236

RESUMO

Ice nucleation and growth is an important and widespread environmental process. Accordingly, nature has developed means to either promote or inhibit ice crystal formation, for example ice-nucleating proteins in bacteria or ice-binding antifreeze proteins in polar fish. Recently, it was found that birch pollen release ice-nucleating macromolecules when suspended in water. Here we show that birch pollen washing water exhibits also ice-binding properties such as ice shaping and ice recrystallization inhibition, similar to antifreeze proteins. We present spectroscopic evidence that both the ice-nucleating as well as the ice-binding molecules are polysaccharides bearing carboxylate groups. The spectra suggest that both polysaccharides consist of very similar chemical moieties, but centrifugal filtration indicates differences in molecular size: ice nucleation occurs only in the supernatant of a 100 kDa filter, while ice shaping is strongly enhanced in the filtrate. This finding may suggest that the larger ice-nucleating polysaccharides consist of clusters of the smaller ice-binding polysaccharides, or that the latter are fragments of the ice-nucleating polysaccharides. Finally, similar polysaccharides released from pine and alder pollen also display both ice-nucleating as well as ice-binding ability, suggesting a common mechanism of interaction with ice among several boreal pollen with implications for atmospheric processes and antifreeze protection.


Assuntos
Betula/metabolismo , Congelamento , Gelo , Pólen/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Betula/química , Pólen/química , Polissacarídeos/química
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(5): 797-799, 2017 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28104819
7.
J Chem Phys ; 145(21): 211915, 2016 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28799369

RESUMO

Liquid water can persist in a supercooled state to below 238 K in the Earth's atmosphere, a temperature range where homogeneous nucleation becomes increasingly probable. However, the rate of homogeneous ice nucleation in supercooled water is poorly constrained, in part, because supercooled water eludes experimental scrutiny in the region of the homogeneous nucleation regime where it can exist only fleetingly. Here we present a new parameterization of the rate of homogeneous ice nucleation based on classical nucleation theory. In our approach, we constrain the key terms in classical theory, i.e., the diffusion activation energy and the ice-liquid interfacial energy, with physically consistent parameterizations of the pertinent quantities. The diffusion activation energy is related to the translational self-diffusion coefficient of water for which we assess a range of descriptions and conclude that the most physically consistent fit is provided by a power law. The other key term is the interfacial energy between the ice embryo and supercooled water whose temperature dependence we constrain using the Turnbull correlation, which relates the interfacial energy to the difference in enthalpy between the solid and liquid phases. The only adjustable parameter in our model is the absolute value of the interfacial energy at one reference temperature. That value is determined by fitting this classical model to a selection of laboratory homogeneous ice nucleation data sets between 233.6 K and 238.5 K. On extrapolation to temperatures below 233 K, into a range not accessible to standard techniques, we predict that the homogeneous nucleation rate peaks between about 227 and 231 K at a maximum nucleation rate many orders of magnitude lower than previous parameterizations suggest. This extrapolation to temperatures below 233 K is consistent with the most recent measurement of the ice nucleation rate in micrometer-sized droplets at temperatures of 227-232 K on very short time scales using an X-ray laser technique. In summary, we present a new physically constrained parameterization for homogeneous ice nucleation which is consistent with the latest literature nucleation data and our physical understanding of the properties of supercooled water.

8.
Geophys Res Lett ; 42(5): 1599-1605, 2015 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26074652

RESUMO

Water droplets in some clouds can supercool to temperatures where homogeneous ice nucleation becomes the dominant freezing mechanism. In many cloud resolving and mesoscale models, it is assumed that homogeneous ice nucleation in water droplets only occurs below some threshold temperature typically set at -40°C. However, laboratory measurements show that there is a finite rate of nucleation at warmer temperatures. In this study we use a parcel model with detailed microphysics to show that cloud properties can be sensitive to homogeneous ice nucleation as warm as -30°C. Thus, homogeneous ice nucleation may be more important for cloud development, precipitation rates, and key cloud radiative parameters than is often assumed. Furthermore, we show that cloud development is particularly sensitive to the temperature dependence of the nucleation rate. In order to better constrain the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation laboratory measurements are needed at both high (>-35°C) and low (<-38°C) temperatures. KEY POINTS: Homogeneous freezing may be significant as warm as -30°CHomogeneous freezing should not be represented by a threshold approximationThere is a need for an improved parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation.

9.
Nat Commun ; 6: 5923, 2015 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25586967

RESUMO

Phase transitions of nanoparticles are of fundamental importance in atmospheric sciences, but current understanding is insufficient to explain observations at the nano-scale. In particular, discrepancies exist between observations and model predictions of deliquescence and efflorescence transitions and the hygroscopic growth of salt nanoparticles. Here we show that these discrepancies can be resolved by consideration of particle size effects with consistent thermodynamic data. We present a new method for the determination of water and solute activities and interfacial energies in highly supersaturated aqueous solution droplets (Differential Köhler Analysis). Our analysis reveals that particle size can strongly alter the characteristic concentration of phase separation in mixed systems, resembling the influence of temperature. Owing to similar effects, atmospheric secondary organic aerosol particles at room temperature are expected to be always liquid at diameters below ~20 nm. We thus propose and demonstrate that particle size should be included as an additional dimension in the equilibrium phase diagram of aerosol nanoparticles.

10.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(19): 4552-61, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25490407

RESUMO

Recent experiments suggest that organic aerosol particles may transform into a glassy state at room temperature under dry conditions. Information on glass forming processes in mixed inorganic/organic aerosol particles is sparse, however, because inorganic crystal nucleation is usually very likely in such mixtures. Here we investigate the glass transition temperatures Tg of various organics (trehalose, sucrose, citric acid, sorbitol, and glycerol as well as 3-MBTCA) in binary mixtures with either NaNO3 or NH4HSO4 at different mass fractions. The glassy samples were prepared with the MARBLES technique by atomizing dilute aqueous solutions into aerosol particles and subsequent diffusion drying. The resulting aerosol particles were collected and their phase behavior was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. At small and intermediate inorganic mass fractions salt crystallization did not occur. Instead, the single-phase mixtures remained in an amorphous state upon drying such that determination of their Tg was possible. From these measurements the Tg value of pure NaNO3 and pure NH4HSO4 could be inferred through extrapolation, resulting in values of Tg(NaNO3) ≈ 290 K and Tg(NH4HSO4) ≈ 220 K. Upon drying of NH4HSO4/3-MBTCA mixtures, phase-separated samples formed in which the inorganic-rich and organic-rich phases each show an independent glass transition. Our measurements provide a route toward establishing Tg values of inorganic salts that usually crystallize readily, and they may explain the reported contradicting observations of NaNO3 aerosol particles to either crystallize or remain amorphous upon drying at room temperature.

11.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(34): 7024-33, 2014 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25099628

RESUMO

3-Methylbutane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA) is an atmospheric oxidation product of α-pinene and has been identified as the most relevant tracer compound for atmospheric terpene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles. Little is known, however, of its physicochemical properties such as water solubility and phase state (e.g., liquid, crystalline, glassy). To gain knowledge, we synthesized 3-MBCTA from methyl 2-methylpropanoate and dimethyl maleate via a Michael addition and subsequent hydrolysis with 78% overall yield. It was found that 3-MBTCA transforms into anhydrides upon melting at Tm = 426 ± 1 K, thus preventing a determination of the glass transition temperature Tg by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) through melting and subsequent cooling. Therefore, we designed the novel technique MARBLES (metastable aerosol by low temperature evaporation of solvent) for transferring a substance into a glassy state without heating. In MARBLES an aqueous solution is atomized into wet aerosol particles that are subsequently dried in several diffusion dryers resulting in glass formation of the residual particles for several solutes. The glassy aerosol particles are collected in an impactor until enough mass has accumulated that the sample's Tg can be determined by DSC. Using this method, the glass transition temperature of 3-MBTCA was found to be Tg ≈ 305 ± 2 K. Moreover, we have determined the glass transition Tg' of the maximal freeze-concentrated aqueous solution of 3-MBTCA, and Tg of mixtures of 3-MBTCA with water and pinonic acid. The latter data indicate a dependence of Tg upon the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio of the mixture, with implications for parametrizing the glass-forming behavior of α-pinene SOA particles in the atmosphere.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(51): 20414-9, 2013 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24297908

RESUMO

The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges.

13.
Nature ; 498(7454): 302-3, 2013 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23760486
14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(16): 5873-87, 2013 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23486888

RESUMO

Ice nucleation was investigated experimentally in water droplets with diameters between 53 and 96 micrometres. The droplets were produced in a microfluidic device in which a flow of methyl-cyclohexane and water was combined at the T-junction of micro-channels yielding inverse (water-in-oil) emulsions consisting of water droplets with small standard deviations. In cryo-microscopic experiments we confirmed that upon cooling of such emulsion samples ice nucleation in individual droplets occurred independently of each other as required for the investigation of a stochastic process. The emulsion samples were then subjected to cooling at 1 Kelvin per minute in a differential scanning calorimeter with high temperature accuracy. From the latent heat released by freezing water droplets we inferred the volume-dependent homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient of water at temperatures between 236.5 and 237.9 Kelvin. A comparison of our newly derived values to existing rate coefficients from other studies suggests that the volume-dependent ice nucleation rate in supercooled water is slightly lower than previously thought. Moreover, a comprehensive error analysis suggests that absolute temperature accuracy is the single most important experimental parameter determining the uncertainty of the derived ice nucleation rates in our experiments, and presumably also in many previous experiments. Our analysis, thus, also provides a route for improving the accuracy of future ice nucleation rate measurements.


Assuntos
Água/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cicloexanos/química , Congelamento , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Temperatura , Incerteza
15.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 8: 1657-67, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23209499

RESUMO

Antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGPs) are a special class of biological antifreeze agents, which possess the property to inhibit ice growth in the body fluids of arctic and antarctic fish and, thus, enable life under these harsh conditions. AFGPs are composed of 4-55 tripeptide units -Ala-Ala-Thr- glycosylated at the threonine side chains. Despite the structural homology among all the fish species, divergence regarding the composition of the amino acids occurs in peptides from natural sources. Although AFGPs were discovered in the early 1960s, the adsorption mechanism of these macromolecules to the surface of the ice crystals has not yet been fully elucidated. Two AFGP diastereomers containing different amino acid configurations were synthesized to study the influence of amino acid stereochemistry on conformation and antifreeze activity. For this purpose, peptides containing monosaccharide-substituted allo-L- and D-threonine building blocks were assembled by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The retro-inverso AFGP analogue contained all amino acids in D-configuration, while the allo-L-diastereomer was composed of L-amino acids, like native AFGPs, with replacement of L-threonine by its allo-L-diastereomer. Both glycopeptides were analyzed regarding their conformational properties, by circular dichroism (CD), and their ability to inhibit ice recrystallization in microphysical experiments.

16.
Chemistry ; 18(40): 12783-93, 2012 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22930587

RESUMO

Certain Arctic and Antarctic ectotherm species have developed strategies for survival under low temperature conditions that, among others, consist of antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGP). AFGP form a class of biological antifreeze agents that exhibit the ability to inhibit ice growth in vitro and in vivo and, hence, enable life at temperatures below the freezing point. AFGP usually consist of a varying number of (Ala-Ala-Thr)(n) units (n=4-55) with the disaccharide ß-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine glycosidically attached to every threonine side chain hydroxyl group. AFGP have been shown to adopt polyproline II helical conformation. Although this pattern is highly conserved among different species, microheterogeneity concerning the amino acid composition usually occurs; for example, alanine is occasionally replaced by proline in smaller AFGP. The influence of minor and major sequence mutations on conformation and antifreeze activity of AFGP analogues was investigated by replacement of alanine by proline and glycosylated threonine by glycosylated hydroxyproline. The target compounds were prepared by using microwave-enhanced solid phase peptide synthesis. Furthermore, artificial analogues were obtained by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC): propargyl glycosides were treated with polyproline helix II-forming peptides comprising (Pro-Azp-Pro)(n) units (n=2-4) that contained 4-azidoproline (Azp). The conformations of all analogues were examined by circular dichroism (CD). In addition, microphysical analysis was performed to provide information on their inhibitory effect on ice recrystallization.


Assuntos
Proteínas Anticongelantes/química , Proteínas Anticongelantes/síntese química , Azidas/química , Carboidratos/química , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/síntese química , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Prolina/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Conformação Proteica
17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(43): 19238-55, 2011 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21993380

RESUMO

Recently, it has been proposed that organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere can exist in an amorphous semi-solid or solid (i.e. glassy) state. In this perspective, we analyse and discuss the formation and properties of amorphous semi-solids and glasses from organic liquids. Based on a systematic survey of a wide range of organic compounds, we present estimates for the glass forming properties of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In particular we investigate the dependence of the glass transition temperature T(g) upon various molecular properties such as the compounds' melting temperature, their molar mass, and their atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratios (O:C ratios). Also the effects of mixing different compounds and the effects of hygroscopic water uptake depending on ambient relative humidity are investigated. In addition to the effects of temperature, we suggest that molar mass and water content are much more important than the O:C ratio for characterizing whether an organic aerosol particle is in a liquid, semi-solid, or glassy state. Moreover, we show how the viscosity in liquid, semi-solid and glassy states affect the diffusivity of those molecules constituting the organic matrix as well as that of guest molecules such as water or oxidants, and we discuss the implications for atmospheric multi-phase processes. Finally, we assess the current state of knowledge and the level of scientific understanding, and we propose avenues for future studies to resolve existing uncertainties.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera/química , Vidro/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Transição de Fase , Temperatura , Viscosidade , Água/química
18.
Small ; 7(21): 3075-86, 2011 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21932284

RESUMO

Routes are presented for synthesizing nano- and mesostructured ß-tin particles in the form of monocrystalline spheres, cubes, and bars, as well as polycrystalline rods and needles, by the decomposition of decamethylstannocene in organic solvents under various conditions. The formation of the observed shapes is based on the presence of liquidlike and of partly crystalline droplets. These particle stages allow structure-determining processes such as entire coalescence, oriented superficial coalescence or superficial induced crystallization. Entire coalescence and oriented superficial coalescence take place in the absence of surfactants; the superficially induced crystallization occurs in the presence of ionic additives. The observed tin morphologies depend on the competition between droplet growth and crystallization behavior. The different tin particles are investigated by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/química , Estanho , Anisotropia , Cristalização , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Solventes , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(27): 11003-8, 2011 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21690350

RESUMO

Organic substances can adopt an amorphous solid or semisolid state, influencing the rate of heterogeneous reactions and multiphase processes in atmospheric aerosols. Here we demonstrate how molecular diffusion in the condensed phase affects the gas uptake and chemical transformation of semisolid organic particles. Flow tube experiments show that the ozone uptake and oxidative aging of amorphous protein is kinetically limited by bulk diffusion. The reactive gas uptake exhibits a pronounced increase with relative humidity, which can be explained by a decrease of viscosity and increase of diffusivity due to hygroscopic water uptake transforming the amorphous organic matrix from a glassy to a semisolid state (moisture-induced phase transition). The reaction rate depends on the condensed phase diffusion coefficients of both the oxidant and the organic reactant molecules, which can be described by a kinetic multilayer flux model but not by the traditional resistor model approach of multiphase chemistry. The chemical lifetime of reactive compounds in atmospheric particles can increase from seconds to days as the rate of diffusion in semisolid phases can decrease by multiple orders of magnitude in response to low temperature or low relative humidity. The findings demonstrate that the occurrence and properties of amorphous semisolid phases challenge traditional views and require advanced formalisms for the description of organic particle formation and transformation in atmospheric models of aerosol effects on air quality, public health, and climate.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Material Particulado/química , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Atmosfera/química , Bovinos , Difusão , Gases/química , Humanos , Umidade , Modelos Químicos , Ozônio/química , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Viscosidade
20.
Amino Acids ; 41(3): 719-32, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21603949

RESUMO

In Arctic and Antarctic marine regions, where the temperature declines below the colligative freezing point of physiological fluids, efficient biological antifreeze agents are crucial for the survival of polar fish. One group of such agents is classified as antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP) that usually consist of a varying number (n = 4-55) of [AAT]( n )-repeating units. The threonine side chain of each unit is glycosidically linked to ß-D: -galactosyl-(1 â†’ 3)-α-N-acetyl-D: -galactosamine. These biopolymers can be considered as biological antifreeze foldamers. A preparative route for stepwise synthesis of AFGP allows for efficient synthesis. The diglycosylated threonine building block was introduced into the peptide using microwave-enhanced solid phase synthesis. By this versatile solid phase approach, glycosylated peptides of varying sequences and lengths could be obtained. Conformational studies of the synthetic AFGP analogs were performed by circular dichroism experiments (CD). Furthermore, the foldamers were analysed microphysically according to their inhibiting effect on ice recrystallization and influence on the crystal habit.


Assuntos
Proteínas Anticongelantes/síntese química , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Proteínas Anticongelantes/química , Regiões Árticas , Dicroísmo Circular , Peixes , Glicosilação , Gelo , Micro-Ondas , Conformação Proteica , Treonina/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA