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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(9): 4154-4161, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041410

RESUMO

Gold is one of the most selective catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 (CO2RR) to CO. However, the concomitant hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) remains unavoidable under aqueous conditions. In this work, a rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) setup has been developed to study quantitatively the role of mass transport in the competition between these two reactions on the Au surface in 0.1 M bicarbonate electrolyte. Interestingly, while the faradaic selectivity for CO formation was found to increase with enhanced mass transport (from 67% to 83%), this effect is not due to an enhancement of the CO2RR rate. Remarkably, the inhibition of the competing HER from water reduction with increasing disk rotation rate is responsible for the enhanced CO2RR selectivity. This can be explained by the observation that, on the Au electrode, water reduction improves with more alkaline pH. As a result, the decrease in the local alkalinity near the electrode surface with enhanced mass transport suppresses HER due to the water reduction. Our study shows that controlling the local pH by mass transport conditions can tune the HER rate, in turn regulating the CO2RR and HER competition in the general operating potential window for CO2RR (-0.4 to -1 V vs RHE).

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(2): 711-715, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682314

RESUMO

We report, for the first time, the observation of a Gouy-Chapman capacitance minimum at the potential of zero charge of the Pt(111)-aqueous perchlorate electrolyte interface. The potential of zero charge of 0.3 V vs. NHE agrees very well with earlier values obtained by different methods. The observation of the potential of zero charge of this interface requires a specific pH (pH 4) and anomalously low electrolyte concentrations (<10-3 m). By comparison to gold and mercury double-layer data, we conclude that the diffuse double layer structure at the Pt(111)-electrolyte interface deviates significantly from the Gouy-Chapman theory in the sense that the electrostatic screening is much better than predicted by purely electrostatic mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann theory.

3.
Anal Chem ; 92(2): 2237-2243, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874560

RESUMO

Probing pH gradients during electrochemical reactions is important to better understand reaction mechanisms and to separate the influence of pH and pH gradients from intrinsic electrolyte effects. Here, we develop a pH sensor to measure pH changes in the diffusion layer during hydrogen evolution. The probe was synthesized by functionalizing a gold ultramicroelectrode with a self-assembled monolayer of 4-nitrothiophenol (4-NTP) and further converting it to form a hydroxylaminothiophenol (4-HATP)/4-nitrosothiophenol (4-NSTP) redox couple. The pH sensing is realized by recording the tip cyclic voltammetry and monitoring the Nernstian shift of the midpeak potential. We employ a capacitive approach technique in our home-built Scanning Electrochemical Microscope (SECM) setup in which an AC potential is applied to the sample and the capacitive current generated at the tip is recorded as a function of distance. This method allows for an approach of the tip to the electrode that is electrolyte-free and consequently also mediator-free. Hydrogen evolution on gold in a neutral electrolyte was studied as a model system. The pH was measured with the probe at a constant distance from the electrode (ca. 75 µm), while the electrode potential was varied in time. In the nonbuffered electrolyte used (0.1 M Li2SO4), even at relatively low current densities, a pH difference of three units is measured between the location of the probe and the bulk electrolyte. The time scale of the diffusion layer transient is captured, due to the high time resolution that can be achieved with this probe. The sensor has high sensitivity, measuring differences of more than 8 pH units with a resolution better than 0.1 pH unit.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5233, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748552

RESUMO

In homoepitaxial crystal growth, four basic growth morphologies (idealized growth modes) have been established that describe the deposition of atoms on single crystal surfaces: step-flow, layer-by-layer, mound formation, and random/self-affine growth. Mound formation leads to nano-scale surface patterning. However, the formation of (nano)-islands, patterns, and roughness occurs also during ion bombardment, electrochemical etching and oxidation/reduction cycling. Here we show, in analogy to many particle/anti-particle formalisms in physics, the existence of the dualism between individual adatom and single vacancy growth modes. We predict that all standard adatom growth modes do exist also in their counter, vacancy version. For the particular case of mound formation, we derive the theoretical equations and show the inverse similarity of the solution. We furthermore treat simultaneous growth by adatoms and vacancies, and derive the analytical solution of the growth shape evolution of the mounds. Finally, we present an experimental verification, in which both adatom and vacancy mound formation are active. The theoretically predicted mound shape nicely fits the experimental observation.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701114

RESUMO

This paper examines the thermodynamics of PtO2 stripes formed as intermediates of Pt(111) surface oxidation as a function of the degree of dilation parallel to the stripes, using density functional theory and atomistic thermodynamics. Internal energy calculations predict 7/8 and 8/9 stripe structures to dominate at standard temperature and pressure, which contain 7 or 8 elevated PtO2 units per 8 or 9 supporting surface Pt atoms, respectively. Moreover, we found a thermodynamic optimum with respect to mean in-stripe Pt-Pt spacing close to that of α-PtO2. Vibrational zero point energies, including bulk layer contributions, make a small but significant contribution to the stripe free energies, leading to the 6/7 stripe being most stable, although the 7/8 structure is still close in free energy. These findings correspond closely to experimental observations, providing insight into the driving force for oxide stripe formation and structure as the initial intermediate of platinum surface oxidation, and aiding our understanding of platinum catalysts and surface roughening under oxidative conditions.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(21): 6842-6849, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618039

RESUMO

Electrode surfaces may change their surface structure as a result of the adsorption of chemical species, impacting their catalytic activity. Using density functional theory, we find that the strong adsorption of hydrogen at low electrode potentials promotes the thermodynamics and kinetics of a unique type of roughening of 110-type Pt step edges. This change in surface structure causes the appearance of the so-called "third hydrogen peak" in voltammograms measured on Pt electrodes, an observation that has eluded explanation for over 50 years. Understanding this roughening process is important for structure-sensitive (electro)catalysis and the development of active and stable catalysts.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(31): 17142-17151, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339149

RESUMO

In this work we compute high-coverage hydrogen adsorption energies and geometries on the stepped platinum surfaces Pt(211) and Pt(533) which contain a (100)-step type and the Pt(221) and Pt(553) surface with a (111) step edge. We discuss these results in relation to ultra-high-vacuum temperature programmed desorption (TPD) data to elucidate the origin of the desorption features. Our results indicated that on surfaces with a (100)-step type, two distinct ranges of adsorption energy for the step and terrace are observed, which mirrors the TPD spectra for which we find a clear separation of the desorption peaks. For the (111) step type, the TPD spectra show much less separation of the step and terrace features, which we assign to the low individual adsorption energies for H atoms on this step edge. From our results we obtain a much clearer understanding of the surface-hydrogen bonding at high coverages and the origin of the different TPD features present for the two step types studied.


Assuntos
Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Hidrogênio/química , Platina/química , Adsorção , Cristalização , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
8.
Chemphyschem ; 20(22): 2968-2972, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348598

RESUMO

Solvation can significantly modify the adsorption energy of species at surfaces, thereby influencing the performance of electrocatalysts and liquid-phase catalysts. Thus, it is important to understand adsorbate solvation at the nanoscale. Here we evaluate the effect of van der Waals (vdW) interactions described by different approaches on the solvation energy of *OH adsorbed on near-surface alloys (NSAs) of Pt. Our results show that the studied functionals can be divided into two groups, each with rather similar average *OH solvation energies: (1) PBE and PW91; and (2) vdW functionals, RPBE, PBE-D3 and RPBE-D3. On average, *OH solvation energies are less negative by ∼0.14 eV in group (2) compared to (1), and the values for a given alloy can be extrapolated from one functional to another within the same group. Depending on the desired level of accuracy, these concrete observations and our tabulated values can be used to rapidly incorporate solvation into models for electrocatalysis and liquid-phase catalysis.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(30): 12071-12078, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274297

RESUMO

This paper studies the electrochemical hydrogenation of the carbonyl functional group of acetophenone and 4-acetylpyridine at platinum single-crystal electrodes. Comparison with results obtained for the hydrogenation of acetone featuring an isolated carbonyl functional group reveals the influence of the phenyl ring and the pyridine ring, respectively. Lack of acetone adsorption at Pt(111) and Pt(100) due to a weak interaction between surface and carbonyl functional group renders these surfaces inactive for the hydrogenation of acetone. Adsorption through a strong interaction with the phenyl ring of acetophenone activates the Pt(111) and Pt(100) surfaces for hydrogenation of the acetyl substituent. In agreement with previous results for acetone reduction, the Pt(100) surface is specifically active for the hydrogenolysis reaction, breaking the C-O bond, whereas the other surfaces only hydrogenate the carbonyl functionality. In contrast to the phenyl ring, the pyridine ring has a very different effect: due to the dominant interaction of the N atom of the pyridine ring with the platinum electrode, a vertical adsorption mode is realized. The resulting large physical distance between the carbonyl functional group and the electrode surface inhibits the hydrogenation at all platinum surfaces. This also holds for the Pt(110) electrode, which is otherwise active for the electrochemical hydrogenation of the isolated carbonyl functional group of aliphatic ketones. Our results show how the combination of molecular structure of the reactant and surface structure of the catalyst determine the selective electroreduction of functionalized ketones.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(37): 12999-13003, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250499

RESUMO

Herein, the effect of the alkali cation (Li+ , Na+ , K+ , and Cs+ ) in alkaline electrolytes with and without Fe impurities is investigated for enhancing the activity of nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Cyclic voltammograms show that Fe impurities have a significant catalytic effect on OER activity; however, both under purified and unpurified conditions, the trend in OER activity is Cs+ > Na+ > K+ > Li+ , suggesting an intrinsic cation effect of the OER activity on Fe-free Ni oxyhydroxide. In situ surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), shows this cation dependence is related to the formation of superoxo OER intermediate (NiOO- ). The electrochemically active surface area, evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), is not influenced significantly by the cation. We postulate that the cations interact with the Ni-OO- species leading to the formation of NiOO- -M+ species that is stabilized better by bigger cations (Cs+ ). This species would then act as the precursor to O2 evolution, explaining the higher activity.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 150(4): 041401, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709260

RESUMO

Interfacial electrochemistry and photo(electro)catalysis are key processes that convert the energy of photons or electrons to chemical bonds in many energy conversion and storage technologies. Achieving a molecular level understanding of the fundamental interfacial structure, energetics, dynamics, and reaction mechanisms that govern these processes represents a broad frontier for chemical physics and physical chemistry. This Special Topic contains a collection of articles that range from the development of new experimental and computational techniques to the novel application of those techniques for mechanistic studies, as the principal investigators seek a fundamental molecular understanding of both electrode/electrolyte interfaces and the relevant electrocatalytic, photocatalytic, and photoelectrochemical reactions taking place thereabout. Altogether, this collection of articles captures the current state of this very active, frontier research field and highlights the current and remaining key scientific challenges and opportunities.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(1): 613-623, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539624

RESUMO

The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) constitutes one of the most important reactions in electrochemistry because of the value of hydrogen as a vector for energy storage and transport. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of this reaction in relation to its pH dependence is of crucial importance. While the HER on Pt(111) works efficiently in acid media, in alkaline media, the reaction is impeded and considerably larger applied overpotentials are necessary. The presence of Ni(OH)2 adsorbed on Pt(111) has been demonstrated to highly improve the rate of hydrogen evolution, decreasing the overpotential of this reaction in comparison to acid media. The way low coverages of Ni(OH)2 on the Pt surface improve HER is still under discussion. In this work, we have prepared different Ni(OH)2 coverages on Pt(111) to check how Ni(OH)2 deposited on Pt(111) influences the HER rate. To this end, the Ni(OH)2-Pt(111)|0.1 M NaOH interface was characterized with cyclic voltammetry, CO displacement technique, and Fourier transform infrared-reflection absorption spectroscopy. On the basis of the proposal made by Ledezma-Yanez et al. [ Nature Energy 2017, 2, 17031] to explain the HER in alkaline media, we also studied the effect of the different Ni(OH)2 coverages on the electric field using the laser-induced temperature jump technique. This technique revealed that introduction of nickel adlayers on the surface decreases the ordering of the water network at the interphase, a fact that has relevant implications for the HER mechanism.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(45): 39363-39379, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351902

RESUMO

Cathodic corrosion is an electrochemical etching process that alters metallic surfaces by creating nanoparticles and a variety of etching features. Because these features typically have a preferential orientation, cathodic corrosion can be applied to modify and nanostructure electrode surfaces. However, this application of cathodic corrosion is currently limited by an insufficient chemical understanding of its underlying mechanism. This includes the role of alkali metal cations, which are thought to be crucial in both enabling cathodic corrosion and controlling its final facet preference. This work addresses this knowledge gap by exploring the cathodic corrosion of Pt, Rh, and Au in LiOH, NaOH, and KOH through both experimental and theoretical methods. These methods demonstrate that cations are adsorbed during cathodic corrosion and play a major role in controlling the onset potential and final surface morphology in cathodic corrosion. Interestingly, an equally significant role appears to be played by adsorbed hydrogen, based on calculations using literature density functional theory data. Considering the significance of both hydrogen and electrolyte cations, it is hypothesized that cathodic corrosion might proceed via an intermediate ternary metal hydride. This fundamental insight leads to both metal-specific recommendations and more general guidelines for applying cathodic corrosion to structure metallic surfaces.

15.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 122(29): 16756-16764, 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258524

RESUMO

The effect of the alkali-metal cation (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) on the non-Nernstian pH shift of the Pt(554) and Pt(533) step-associated voltammetric peak is elucidated over a wide pH window (1-13), through computation and experiment. In conjunction with our previously reported study on Pt(553), the non-Nernstian pH shift of the step-induced peak is found to be independent of the step density and the step orientation. In our prior work, we explained the sharp peak as due to the exchange between adsorbed hydrogen and hydroxyl along the step and the non-Nernstian shift as a result of the adsorption of an alkali-metal cation and its subsequent weakening of hydroxyl adsorption. Our density functional theory results support this same mechanism on Pt(533) and capture the effect of alkali-metal cation identity and alkali cation coverage well, where increasing electrolyte pH and cation concentration leads to increased cation coverage and a greater weakening effect on hydroxide adsorption. This work paints a consistent picture for the mechanism of these effects, expanding our fundamental understanding of the electrode/electrolyte interface and practical ability to control hydrogen and hydroxyl adsorption thermodynamics via the electrolyte composition, important for improving fuel cell and electrolyzer performance.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(41): 13285-13291, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222335

RESUMO

Understanding the electrochemical behavior of Pt at the solid/liquid interface is of significant importance for the development of efficient electrochemical devices, such as fuel cells and water electrolyzers. In this work, the evolution of the surface morphology of a polycrystalline platinum under potential cycling conditions was investigated by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM). After 50 cycles between 0.05 and 1.8 V in 0.1 M H2SO4, the Pt surface is coarsened and nanoparticles of several nanometers appear on the surface. The critical upper and lower potentials for the formation of nanoparticles are found to be 1.8 and 0.8 V, respectively. The in situ AFM observation coupled with Cyclic Voltammerty reveals the periodic disappearance and reappearance of the nanoparticles, based on which the formation of nanoparticles is attributed to the deposition of dissolved Pt from solution, and a model for the nanoparticle formation is proposed. While the formation of a thick oxide layer is a prerequisite, the reduction process is found to have a strong influence on Pt nanoparticle formation as well. This investigation provides a visualization of the Pt electrode surface under electrochemical control in a large potential window, enabling a broader understanding of the Pt electrode roughening mechanisms.

17.
Faraday Discuss ; 210(0): 301-315, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987308

RESUMO

The "hydrogen region" of platinum is a powerful tool to structurally characterize nanostructured platinum electrodes. In recent years, the understanding of this hydrogen region has improved considerably: on Pt(111) sites, there is indeed only hydrogen adsorption, while on step sites, the hydrogen region involves the replacement of adsorbed hydrogen by adsorbed hydroxyl which interacts with co-adsorbed cations. However, the hydrogen region features an enigmatic and less well-understood "third hydrogen peak", which develops on oxidatively roughened platinum electrodes as well as on platinum electrodes with a high (110) step density that have been subjected to a high concentration of hydrogen. In this paper, we present evidence that the peak involves surface-adsorbed hydrogen (instead of subsurface hydrogen) on a locally "reconstructed" (110)-type surface site. This site is unstable when the hydrogen is oxidatively removed. The cation sensitivity of the third hydrogen peak appears different from other step-related peaks, suggesting that the chemistry involved may still be subtly different from the other features in the hydrogen region.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(32): 10270-10281, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024752

RESUMO

The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and chlorine evolution reaction (CER) are electrochemical processes with high relevance to water splitting for (solar) energy conversion and industrial production of commodity chemicals, respectively. Carrying out the two reactions separately is challenging, since the catalytic intermediates are linked by scaling relations. Optimizing the efficiency of OER over CER in acidic media has proven especially difficult. In this regard, we have investigated the OER versus CER selectivity of manganese oxide (MnOx), a known OER catalyst. Thin films (∼5-20 nm) of MnOx were electrodeposited on glassy carbon-supported hydrous iridium oxide (IrOx/GC) in aqueous chloride solutions of pH ∼0.9. Using rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry and online electrochemical mass spectrometry, it was found that deposition of MnOx onto IrO x decreases the CER selectivity of the system in the presence of 30 mM Cl- from 86% to less than 7%, making it a highly OER-selective catalyst. Detailed studies of the CER mechanism and ex-situ structure studies using SEM, TEM, and XPS suggest that the MnOx film is in fact not a catalytically active phase, but functions as a permeable overlayer that disfavors the transport of chloride ions.

19.
ACS Catal ; 8(5): 4420-4428, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755830

RESUMO

Heterogenization of molecular catalysts for CO2 electroreduction has attracted significant research activity, due to the combined advantages of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. In this work, we demonstrate the strong influence of the nature of the substrate on the selectivity and reactivity of electrocatalytic CO2 reduction, as well as on the stability of the studied immobilized indium(III) protoporphyrin IX, for electrosynthesis of formic acid. Additionally, we investigate strategies to improve the CO2 reduction by tuning the chemical functionality of the substrate surface by means of electrochemical and plasma treatment and by catalyst encapsulation in polymer membranes. We point out several underlying factors that affect the performance of electrocatalytic CO2 reduction. The insights gained here allow one to optimize heterogenized molecular systems for enhanced CO2 electroreduction without modification of the catalyst itself.

20.
ACS Catal ; 8(4): 3087-3090, 2018 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657886

RESUMO

In this work, we study the synthesis of diphenyl carbonate (DPC) from phenol and CO on gold electrodes studied by means of in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that, on gold electrodes, the formation of DPC is observed at potentials as low as 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl, together with the formation of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from the carbonylation of methanol that was used as a solvent. The spectroelectrochemical results also suggest that the formation of DPC occurs via the replacement of the methoxy groups from DMC with phenoxy groups from phenol and not directly by the carbonylation of phenol. Although this transesterification process is known to occur with heterogeneous catalysts, it has not been reported under electrochemical conditions. These are interesting findings, since the direct DPC production by carbonylation of phenol to DPC is usually performed with Pd-based catalysts. With this reaction scheme of transesterification happening under electrochemical conditions, other non-Pd catalysts could be used as well for one-step DPC production from phenol and CO. These findings give important mechanistic insights into this reaction and open up possibilities to an alternative process for the production of DPC.

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