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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 757048, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310668

RESUMO

Foliar zinc (Zn) fertilization is an important approach for overcoming crop Zn deficiency, yet little is known regarding the subsequent translocation of this foliar-applied Zn. Using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) and transcriptome analysis, the present study examined the translocation of foliar absorbed Zn in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) leaves. Although bulk analyses showed that there had been minimal translocation of the absorbed Zn out of the leaf within 7 days, in situ analyses showed that the distribution of Zn in the leaf had changed with time. Specifically, when Zn was applied to the leaf for 0.5 h and then removed, Zn primarily accumulated within the upper and lower epidermal layers (when examined after 3 h), but when examined after 24 h, the Zn had moved to the vascular tissues. Transcriptome analyses identified a range of genes involved in stress response, cell wall reinforcement, and binding that were initially upregulated following foliar Zn application, whereas they were downregulated after 24 h. These observations suggest that foliar Zn application caused rapid stress to the leaf, with the initial Zn accumulation in the epidermis as a detoxification strategy, but once this stress decreased, Zn was then moved to the vascular tissues. Overall, this study has shown that despite foliar Zn application causing rapid stress to the leaf and that most of the Zn stayed within the leaf over 7 days, the distribution of Zn in the leaf had changed, with Zn mostly located in the vascular tissues 24 h after the Zn had been applied. Not only do the data presented herein provide new insight for improving the efficiency of foliar Zn fertilizers, but our approach of combining XFM with a transcriptome methodological system provides a novel approach for the study of element translocation in plants.

2.
Anal Chem ; 94(11): 4584-4593, 2022 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276040

RESUMO

Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) analysis is a powerful technique that can be used to visualize elemental distributions across a broad range of sample types. Compared to conventional mapping techniques such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or benchtop XFM, synchrotron-based XFM provides faster and more sensitive analyses. However, access to synchrotron XFM beamlines is highly competitive, and as a result, these beamlines are often oversubscribed. Therefore, XFM experiments that require many large samples to be scanned can penalize beamline throughput. Our study was largely driven by the need to scan large gels (170 cm2) using XFM without decreasing beamline throughput. We describe a novel approach for acquiring two sets of XFM data using two fluorescence detectors in tandem; essentially performing two separate experiments simultaneously. We measured the effects of tandem scanning on beam quality by analyzing a range of contrasting samples downstream while simultaneously scanning different gel materials upstream. The upstream gels were thin (<200 µm) diffusive gradients in thin-film (DGT) binding gels. DGTs are passive samplers that are deployed in water, soil, and sediment to measure the concentration and distribution of potentially bioavailable nutrients and contaminants. When deployed on soil, DGTs are typically small (2.5 cm2), so we developed large DGTs (170 cm2), which can be used to provide extensive maps to visualize the diffusion of fertilizers in soil. Of the DGT gel materials tested (bis-acrylamide, polyacrylamide, and polyurethane), polyurethane gels were most suitable for XFM analysis, having favorable handling, drying, and analytical properties. This gel type enabled quantitative (>99%) transmittance with minimal (<3%) flux variation during raster scanning, whereas the other gels had a substantial effect on the beam focus. For the first time, we have (1) used XFM for mapping analytes in large DGTs and (2) developed a tandem probe analysis mode for synchrotron-based XFM, effectively doubling throughput. The novel tandem probe analysis mode described here is of broad applicability across many XFM beamlines as it could be used for future experiments where any uniform, highly transmissive sample could be analyzed upstream in the "background" of downstream samples.


Assuntos
Poliuretanos , Síncrotrons , Difusão , Géis , Solo/química
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(6): 3575-3586, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35174706

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice is of global concern for human health and international trade. Rice is typically reported to contain inorganic As (iAs) and dimethylated arsenate (DMA), with current food guidelines limiting toxic iAs but not less-toxic DMA. Here, we show that the highly toxic dimethylated monothioarsenate (DMMTA) is also found in rice worldwide and has been unknowingly determined as less-toxic DMA by previous routine analytical methods. Using enzymatic extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) analysis with a C18 column, DMMTA was detected in rice grains (n = 103) from a field survey from China and in polished rice grains (n = 140) from a global market-basket survey. Concentration ranged from <0.20 to 34.8 µg/kg (median 10.3 µg/kg), accounting for 0 to 21% of total As. A strong linear correlation was observed in all rice samples between DMA and DMMTA (being 30 ± 8% of DMA) concentrations. This robust relationship allows an estimation of DMMTA in rice grains from the DMA data reported in previous market-basket surveys, showing a general global geographical pattern with DMMTA concentration increasing from the equator toward high-latitude regions. Based on the global occurrence and potential high toxicity, DMMTA in rice should be considered in health risk assessments and for setting food regulations.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Arsenicais , Oryza , Arsenicais/química , Ácido Cacodílico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Comércio , Humanos , Internacionalidade
4.
Physiol Plant ; 174(1): e13612, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970752

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn) is an important micronutrient in the human body, and health complications associated with insufficient dietary intake of Zn can be overcome by increasing the bioavailable concentrations in edible parts of crops (biofortification). Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) is the most consumed cereal crop in the world; therefore, it is an excellent target for Zn biofortification programs. Knowledge of the physiological and molecular processes that regulate Zn concentration in the wheat grain is restricted, inhibiting the success of genetic Zn biofortification programs. This review helps break this nexus by advancing understanding of those processes, including speciation regulated uptake, root to shoot transport, remobilisation, grain loading and distribution of Zn in wheat grain. Furthermore, new insights to genetic Zn biofortification of wheat are discussed, and where data are limited, we draw upon information for other cereals and Fe distribution. We identify the loading and distribution of Zn in grain as major bottlenecks for biofortification, recognising anatomical barriers in the vascular region at the base of the grain, and physiological and molecular restrictions localised in the crease region as major limitations. Movement of Zn from the endosperm cavity into the modified aleurone, aleurone and then to the endosperm is mainly regulated by ZIP and YSL transporters. Zn complexation with phytic acid in the aleurone limits Zn mobility into the endosperm. These insights, together with synchrotron-X-ray-fluorescence microscopy, support the hypothesis that a focus on the mechanisms of Zn loading into the grain will provide new opportunities for Zn biofortification of wheat.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Triticum , Grão Comestível , Endosperma , Triticum/genética , Zinco
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148927, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271385

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the biotransformation of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in maize grown in hydroponics for ecotoxicity assessment. Maize seedlings grown for 14 days were exposed to a solution of 9 nm ZnO NPs, 40 nm ZnO NPs, and ZnSO4 at a Zn concentration of 300 mg L-1 for 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively. The results of in-situ Zn distribution in maize (Zea mays) showed that 9 nm ZnO NPs could quickly enter the roots of maize and reach the center column transport system of the stem. The results of transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that ZnO NPs were accumulated in the vacuoles of the roots, and then transformed and transported through vesicles. Simulated studies showed that low pH (5.6) played a critical role in the transformation of ZnO NPs, and organic acids (Kf = 1011.4) could promote particle dissolution. Visual MINTEQ software simulated the species of Zn after the entry of ZnO NPs or Zn2+ into plants and found that the species of Zn was mainly Zn2+ when the Zn content of plants reached 200-300 ppm. Considering that the lowest Zn content of the roots in treatments was 1920 mg kg-1, combination of the result analysis of root effects showed that the toxicity of roots in most treatments had a direct relationship with Zn2+. However, treatment with 9 nm ZnO NPs exhibited significantly higher toxicity than ZnSO4 treatment on day 1 when the Zn2+ concentration difference was not significant, which was mainly due to the large amount of ZnO NPs deposited in the roots. To the authors' knowledge, this study was the first to confirm the process of biotransformation and explore the factors affecting the toxicity of ZnO NPs in depth.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Biotransformação , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas , Zea mays , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 8665-8674, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110124

RESUMO

Arsenic species transformation in paddy soils has important implications for arsenic accumulation in rice grains and its safety to the consumers. Methylated thioarsenates including highly toxic dimethylated monothioarsenate (DMMTA) have been detected in paddy soils, but their production and dynamics remain poorly understood. In the present study, we first optimized a HPLC-ICP-MS method to quantify methylated thioarsenate species. Using this method together with 10 mM diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) to preserve As speciation, we investigated methylated thioarsenate species in porewaters of seven As-contaminated soils incubated under flooded conditions and of two paddy fields. DMMTA was the main methylated thioarsenate species in the porewaters in both incubated soils and paddy fields, with concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 36.2 µg/L and representing ca. 58% of its precursor dimethylarsenate (DMA). The temporal production and dynamics of DMMTA were linked with the DMA concentrations. When soils were drained, DMMTA was converted to DMA. In the two paddy fields, DMMTA concentrations in rice grains were 0.4-10.1 µg/kg. Addition of sulfur fertilizer and rice straw incorporation increased grain DMMTA by 9-28%. These results suggest that DMMTA is an important As species in paddy soils and can accumulate in rice grains, presenting a risk to food safety and human health.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Ácido Cacodílico , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(20): 13523-13531, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037394

RESUMO

Using zinc (Zn) foliar fertilizers to enhance the grain quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum) can be an effective alternative or supplement to Zn soil fertilizers. However, knowledge about the mechanisms of Zn absorption and translocation following foliar application is scarce. Here, autoradiography and γ-spectrometry were used to investigate the behavior of 65Zn applied to wheat leaves as soluble 65Zn chloride (65ZnCl2), chelated 65Zn (65ZnEDTA), 65Zn oxide nanoparticle (65ZnO-NP) suspensions, and 65ZnO microparticle (65ZnO-MP) suspensions. The largest amount of 65Zn absorption occurred in 65ZnCl2 treated leaves. However, this treatment (65ZnCl2) also had the lowest proportion of absorbed 65Zn translocated away from the treated leaf after 15 d due to leaf scorching (p = 0.0007). Foliar-applied 65ZnO-NPs and 65ZnO-MPs had the lowest absorption, but 65ZnO-NPs had the highest relative translocation. 65Zinc EDTA was intermediate, with higher 65Zn absorption than 65ZnO treatments but similar translocation. Regardless, the majority of the foliar-applied 65Zn remained in the treated leaf for all treatments. Furthermore, 65ZnO-NPs and 65ZnO-MPs accumulated in plant nodes, suggesting that Zn was absorbed as dissolved 65Zn and particulate 65ZnO. Overall, the form and amount of absorbed 65Zn affected translocation.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Grão Comestível/química , Fertilizantes/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Solo , Triticum , Zinco/análise
8.
J Exp Bot ; 72(13): 5079-5092, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33944939

RESUMO

Trichomes are potentially important for absorption of foliar fertilizers. A study has shown that the non-glandular trichromes (NGTs) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) accumulated high concentrations of foliar-applied zinc (Zn); however, the mechanisms of Zn accumulation in the NGTs and the fate of this Zn are unclear. Here we investigated how foliar-applied Zn accumulates in the NGTs and the subsequent translocation of this Zn. Time-resolved synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and transcriptional analyses were used to probe the movement of Zn in the NGTs, with the cuticle composition of the NGTs examined using confocal Raman microscopy. The accumulation of Zn in the NGTs is both an initial preferential absorption process and a subsequent translocation process. This preferred absorption is likely because the NGT base has a higher hydrophilicity, whilst the subsequent translocation is due to the presence of plasmodesmata, Zn-chelating ligands, and Zn transporters in the NGTs. Furthermore, the Zn sequestered in the NGTs was eventually translocated out of the trichome once the leaf Zn concentration had decreased, suggesting that the NGTs are also important in maintaining leaf Zn homeostasis. This study demonstrates for the first time that trichomes have a key structural and functional role in the absorption and translocation of foliar-applied Zn.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Tricomas , Fertilizantes , Folhas de Planta , Zinco
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 787: 147608, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000558

RESUMO

The physiological disorders in humans resulting from the excess dietary intake of manganese (Mn) via whole-grain food has attracted considerable attention. However, the speciation and bioavailability of Mn in wheat grains and their response to different phosphorus (P) fertilization rates are still unclear. In the current study, using a long-term field trial with P application rates of 0, 21.8, 43.6, 65.5 and 87.3 kg/ha, we examined changes in the concentration, distribution, and speciation of Mn of wheat grains using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The total Mn concentration in grains was found to be increased by phosphorus fertilization, especially in embryo in the form of Mn(II), but this phosphorus fertilization also decreased Mn concentrations in the nucellar projection. In this study, the speciation of Mn in different wheat grain tissues was examined, and results indicate that in calcareous soils, high rates of P fertilizers can increase Mn concentrations in wheat grain, including Mn which is likely to be of high bioavailability, and thus may increase the risk for human to expose to high Mn intake via whole-grain food.


Assuntos
Solo , Triticum , Fertilização , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Manganês , Fósforo
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146286, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725601

RESUMO

Microbial activity strongly influences the stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM), and is affected by the abiotic properties within soil aggregates, which tend to differ between land uses. Here, we assessed the effects of SOM and pore geometry on the diversity and activity of microbial communities within aggregates formed under different land uses (undisturbed, plantation, pasture, and cropping). X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) revealed that macro-aggregates (2-8 mm) of undisturbed soils were porous, highly-connected, and had 200% more macro-pores compared with those from pasture and cropping soils. While the macro-aggregates of undisturbed soils had greater soil organic carbon (SOC) contents and N-acetyl ß-glucosaminidase, ß-glucosidase, and phosphatase activities, those of cropped soils harboured more diverse bacterial communities. Organic carbon was positively associated with the porosity of the macro-aggregates, which was negatively associated with microbial diversity and positively associated with enzyme activity. Thus, the biophysical processes in macro-aggregates may be important for SOC stabilization within the macro-aggregates.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Bactérias , Microbiologia do Solo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145019, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578168

RESUMO

Soil plays a critical role in the global carbon (C) cycle. However, climate change and associated factors, such as warming, precipitation change, elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, will affect soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks markedly - a decrease in SOC stocks is predicted to drive further planetary warming, although whether changes in climate and associated factors (including atmospheric N deposition) will cause a net increase in SOC or a net decrease is less certain. Using a subtropical soil, we have directly examined how changes over the last three decades are already impacting upon SOC stocks and soil total nitrogen (STN) in a Vertisol supporting native brigalow (Acacia harpophylla L.) vegetation. It was observed that SOC stocks increased under native vegetation by 5.85 Mg C ha-1 (0.177 ± 0.059 Mg C ha-1 y-1) at a depth of 0-0.3 m over 33 years. This net increase in SOC stocks was not correlated with change in precipitation, which did not change during the study period. Net SOC stocks, however, were correlated with an increasing trend in mean annual temperatures, with an average increase of 0.89 °C. This occurred despite a likely co-occurrence of increased decomposition due to higher temperatures, presumably because the increase in the SOC was largely in the stable, mineral-associated fraction. The increases in CO2 from 338 ppmv to 395 ppmv likely contributed to an increase in biomass, especially root biomass, resulting in the net increase in SOC stocks. Furthermore, STN stocks increased by 0.57 Mg N ha-1 (0.0174 ± 0.0041 Mg N ha-1 y-1) at 0-0.3 m depth, due to increased atmospheric N deposition and potential N2 fixation. Since SOC losses are often predicted in many regions due to global warming, these observations are relevant for sustainability of SOC stocks for productivity and climate models in semi-arid subtropical regions.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(3): 1750-1758, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492945

RESUMO

Excessive cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice grain is a global issue that affects human health. The drainage of paddy soils during the grain filling period leads to the remobilization of Cd in soils, resulting in most of the Cd accumulated in rice grain. The rate of Cd remobilization during drainage differs markedly among soils, but the mechanisms underlying these differences remain largely unknown. Using microcosm soil incubation, electrochemical experiments, isotope labeling, and microscopic and spectroscopic analyses, here, we discover the voltaic effect as a novel mechanism controlling the remobilization of Cd during soil drainage. During soil flooding, microbial sulfate reduction results in the formation of various metal sulfides. When the soils are subsequently drained, the various metal sulfides can form within sulfide voltaic cells. The metal sulfides with a lower electrochemical potential act as anodes and are prone to oxidative dissolution, whereas the metal sulfides with a higher potential act as cathodes and are protected from oxidation. This voltaic effect explains why the presence of ZnS (with a low potential) suppresses the oxidative dissolution of Cd sulfides, whereas the presence of CuS (with a high potential) promotes the oxidative dissolution of Cd sulfides. The voltaic effect is applicable to all chalcophile trace metals coupled with the sulfur redox cycle in periodically anoxic-oxic environments, thus playing an important role in the biogeochemistry of trace metals.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Humanos , Oxirredução , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 143046, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121767

RESUMO

Alumina production waste (bauxite refining residue) is highly alkaline, saline, and sodic, and hence cannot support plant growth for revegetation. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) amendment of bauxite residue can lower alkalinity and improve the residue Ca status, but given the large gypsum requirement, efficient gypsum use is imperative. We investigated gypsum amelioration of residue sand (RS), examining changes in RS chemistry, and growth of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana). Furthermore, we examined whether gypsum amelioration of RS should occur before or after seawater neutralization. We found that Ca from gypsum (20 t ha-1) was retained within the surface 0.2 m of RS, regardless of whether the gypsum was applied before or after seawater neutralization. This Ca was retained both as exchangeable Ca and as a precipitate (either calcite or hydrotalcite), with ca. 50% retained as exchangeable Ca in both approaches. Gypsum at 20 t ha-1, or even lower, provided sufficient Ca for maximum growth of Rhodes grass, in the surface, but higher rates would be required to allow Ca movement down the Na-dominated profile to ameliorate a larger rooting depth - this being important in environments where there are prolonged periods of water stress. The information presented will guide the efficient use of gypsum to ameliorate bauxite refining wastes.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio , Sulfato de Cálcio , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Água do Mar , Solo
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 761: 143262, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218811

RESUMO

Consumption of rice (Oryza sativa) grain is a major pathway by which humans are exposed to Cd, especially in non-smoking Asian populations. Although the stable isotope signatures of Cd offer a potential tool for tracing its sources, little is known about the isotopic fractionation of Cd across the entire soil-rice-human continuum. Cadmium isotope ratios were determined in field soils, rice grain, and human urine collected from two Cd-contaminated regions in southern China. Additionally, Cd isotopic fractionation in rice plants was investigated using two transgenic plants differing in Cd uptake and accumulation. Analysis of isotope ratios revealed a preferential enrichment of the heavy Cd isotopes from soil to rice grain (δ114/110Cdgrain-soil = +0.40‰) and from grain to urine (δ114/110Cdurine-grain = +0.40‰) in both regions. The first increase was mainly caused by partitioning between the soil solid phase and the soil solution, with heavier Cd preferentially enriching in the soil solution. Within the rice plant, we identified multiple processes that alter the isotope ratio, but the net effect throughout the plant was comparatively small. Cd fractionation in humans is presumably due to the preferential enrichment of heavier Cd isotopes by metal transporters DMT1 and ZIP8 (responsible for the absorption of Cd into body from the foods). These findings provide important insights into the Cd isotopic fractionation through the soil-rice-human continuum and are helpful for tracing the sources of Cd.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , China , Humanos , Isótopos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
Chemosphere ; 267: 128893, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176911

RESUMO

Rice grains produced on cadmium (Cd) contaminated paddy soils often exceed the maximum permissible limit. A number of mitigation methods have been proposed to decrease Cd accumulation in rice grain in contaminated acidic soils, including altering water management regimes, liming, and genetic engineering. In the present study, we conducted a pot experiment to compare these methods for their effectiveness at decreasing grain Cd concentrations in both acidic (pH 5.1-5.2) and alkaline (pH 7.5-7.9) paddy soils that varied in the degree of Cd contamination. In moderately Cd-contaminated acidic soils (with Cd concentrations lower than the intervention value of Chinese soil standard, GB15618-2018), any of the three methods was effective, reducing grain Cd concentration by 80-90% to levels below the Chinese maximum permissible limit (0.2 mg/kg). However, in the highly Cd-contaminated soils (with soil Cd concentrations exceeding the intervention value) with elevated concentrations of extractable Cd, although both liming and alternation of the water management regime (continuous flooding) was effective at decreasing grain Cd accumulation, grain Cd concentrations still exceeded the Chinese limit. Genetic engineering of rice, such as knockout of OsNramp5 (encoding the plasma membrane transporter responsible for Cd uptake into root cells) or overexpression of OsHMA3 (encoding a tonoplast Cd transporter sequestering Cd into the vacuoles), produced dramatic decreases (≥90%) in grain Cd concentration. Even in seriously contaminated soils, overexpression of OsHMA3 alone produced grain with Cd concentrations below the Chinese limit, offering a highly effective approach to produce Cd-safe rice especially in seriously Cd-contaminated paddy soils without affecting grain biomass or the concentrations of essential micronutrients.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Environ Int ; 146: 106245, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161202

RESUMO

We use soils to provide 98.8% of our food, but we must ensure that the pressure we place on soils to provide this food in the short-term does not inadvertently push the Earth into a less hospitable state in the long-term. Using the planetary boundaries framework, we show that soils are a master variable for regulating critical Earth-system processes. Indeed, of the seven Earth-systems that have been quantified, soils play a critical and substantial role in changing the Earth-systems in at least two, either directly or indirectly, as well as smaller contributions for a further three. For the biogeochemical flows Earth-system process, soils contribute 66% of the total anthropogenic change for nitrogen and 38% for phosphorus, whilst for the land-system change Earth-system process, soils indirectly contribute 80% of global anthropogenic change. Furthermore, perturbations of soils contribute directly to 21% of climate change, 25% to ocean acidification, and 25% to stratospheric ozone depletion. We argue that urgent interventions are required to greatly improve soil management, especially for those Earth-system processes where the planetary boundary has already been exceeded and where soils make an important contribution, with this being for biogeochemical flows (both nitrogen and phosphorus), for climate change, and for land-system change. Of particular importance, it is noted that the highly inefficient use of N fertilizers results in release of excess N into the broader environment, contributes to climate change, and results in release of ozone-depleting substances. Furthermore, the use of soils for agricultural production results not only in land-system change, but also in the loss (mineralization) of organic matter with a concomitant release of CO2 contributing to both climate change and ocean acidification. Thus, there is a need to markedly improve the efficiency of fertilizer applications and to intensify usage of our most fertile soils in order to allow the restoration of degraded soils and limit further areal expansion of agriculture. Understanding, and acting upon, the role of soils is critical in ensuring that planetary boundaries are not transgressed, with no other single variable playing such a strategic role across all of the planetary boundaries.


Assuntos
Água do Mar , Solo , Agricultura , Fertilizantes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(21): 13538-13547, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052663

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (NPs) are entering soils with biosolids via wastewater treatment, and on-route, undergo changes (e.g., sulfidation) that alter silver bioavailability and toxicity. While additions of fresh Ag-NPs to soil have been show to influence bacterial diversity, it is unclear whether these effects are representative of realistic exposure pathways. To investigate the effects of wastewater treatment processing on the ecotoxicology of Ag-NPs, we ran sequencing batch reactors for 28 d to produce three batches of sludge: (1) a control, (2) Ag-NP sludge, and (3) AgNO3 sludge. The effects of processed silver on the diversity and composition of soil bacterial and fungal communities were compared to those of fresh Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and AgNO3, which were added with the control sludge, at two concentrations (1 and 10 mg Ag kg-1 dry soil) over time (3, 7, 30, and 90 d). The effects of processed Ag-NPs on the composition of soil bacterial communities were larger and more persistent than those of fresh Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and AgNO3. Treatment effects on fungi were relatively minor. These findings suggest that the potential ecological impacts of Ag-NPs entering soils via more realistic exposure pathways (e.g., sludge) are underestimated when extrapolated from studies that focus on applications of fresh Ag-NPs.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Purificação da Água , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/análise , Prata/toxicidade , Compostos de Prata , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(19): 12072-12080, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910856

RESUMO

Consumption of rice (Oryza sativa) is the major dietary source of cadmium (Cd) for populations with rice as the staple. Little is known about the distribution and chemical speciation of Cd in rice grain, which is critical in determining the bioavailability of Cd to humans. We used synchrotron-based techniques for analyses of the speciation and distribution of Cd in rice grain. The majority of the Cd in rice grain was present as Cd-thiolate complexes (66-92%), likely in the form of Cd bound with thiol-rich proteins. The remainder was present as Cd-carboxyl compounds and Cd-histidine. Elemental mapping showed two different patterns of Cd distribution, one with an even distribution throughout the entire grain and the other with a preferential distribution in the outer tissues (aleurone layer and outer starchy endosperm). The distribution pattern is important as it affects the removal of Cd during milling. On average, milling reduced grain Cd concentrations by 23.5% (median of 27.5%), although the range varied widely from a 64.7% decrease to a 22.2% increase, depending upon the concentration of Cd in the bran. We found that the variation in the distribution pattern of Cd in the rice grain was due to a temporal change in the supply of Cd from the soil porewater during grain filling. These results have important implications for Cd bioavailability in human diets.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(18): 11146-11154, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790293

RESUMO

The accumulation of Ag2S in agricultural soil via application of Ag-containing sludge potentially affects the functioning of soil microorganisms and earthworms (EWs) due to the strong antimicrobial properties of Ag. This study examined the effects of Ag2S nanoparticles (Ag2S-NPs) on the EW-mediated (Eisenia fetida and Pontoscolex corethrurus) soil N cycle. We used 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to examine the bacterial community and nitrification/denitrification-related gene abundance. The presence of either EWs or Ag significantly increased denitrification and N2O emissions. However, the addition of Ag2S to EW-inhabited soil reduced N2O emissions by 14-33%. Furthermore, Ag2S caused a low-dose stimulation but a high-dose inhibition to N2O flux from the EW gut itself. Accordingly, an increase in Ag in the EW gut caused a decrease in the relative abundance of denitrifiers in both the soil and the gut, especially for the dominant genus Bacillus. Ag2S also decreased the copy numbers of nitrification gene (nxrB) and denitrification genes (napA, nirS, and nosZ) in EW gut, leading to the observed decrease in N2O emissions. Collectively, applying Ag2S-containing sludge disturbs the denitrification function of the EW gut microbiota and the cycling of N in soil-based systems.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Nanopartículas , Oligoquetos , Animais , Desnitrificação , Nitrificação , Óxido Nitroso/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Compostos de Prata , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(29): 7571-7580, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657588

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is increasingly being applied in concentrated bands to satisfy plant nutrient requirements. To quantify changes in plant-available P in the fertosphere of highly concentrated fertilizer bands, we conducted a soil-fertilizer incubation experiment using seven soil types, three highly water-soluble P sources [monocalcium phosphate (MCP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and diammonium phosphate (DAP)], and coapplication of potassium chloride (KCl). First, we found that soil properties were important in influencing P availability. For a calcareous soil, availability was generally low irrespective of treatment, presumably due to precipitation of the fertilizer as Ca-P minerals. For all six noncalcareous soils, fertosphere pH was critical in determining potential P availability, with decreasing pH values decreasing availability, presumably due to precipitation of Al- and Fe-P minerals. Second, given the importance of pH, we also found that the form of P supplied (MCP, MAP, or DAP) had a pronounced effect on P availability due to associated changes in fertosphere pH. Finally, we also found that the coapplication of K also decreased P availability in some soils. We conclude that the selection of the P source is of utmost importance when fertilizers are placed as highly concentrated bands and that soil properties also need to be considered.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Solo/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Fósforo/química , Potássio/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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