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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1255, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Ghana in 2005 there has been a surveillance system by the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) and the University of Ghana Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (UG-NMIMR) to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of ACTs for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the country. We report trends and determinants of failure following treatment of Ghanaian children with artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) combinations. METHODS: Per protocol analyses as well as cumulative incidence of day 28 treatment failure from Kaplan Meier survival analyses were used to describe trends of failure over the surveillance period of 2005-2018. Univariable and multivariable cox regression analyses were used to assess the determinants of treatment failure over the period. RESULTS: Day 28 PCR-corrected failure, following treatment with ASAQ, significantly increased from 0.0% in 2005 to 2.0% (95% CI: 1.1-3.6) in 2015 (p = 0.013) but significantly decreased to 0.4% (95% CI: 0.1-1.6) in 2018 (p = 0.039). Failure, following treatment with AL, decreased from 4.5% (95% CI: 2.0-9.4) in 2010 to 2.7% (95% CI: 1.4-5.1) in 2018, though not statistically significant (p = 0.426). Risk of treatment failure, from multivariable cox regression analyses, was significantly lower among children receiving ASAQ compared with those receiving AL (HR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.11-0.53; p < 0.001); lower among children with no parasitaemia on day 3 compared with those with parasitaemia on day 3 (HR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.01-0.13; p < 0.001); and higher among children who received ASAQ and had axillary temperature ≥ 37.5 °C on day 1 compared with those with axillary temperature < 37.5 °C (HR = 3.96; 95% CI: 1.61-9.75; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment failures for both ASAQ and AL have remained less than 5% (below WHO's threshold of 10%) in Ghana since 2005. Predictors of treatment failure that need to be considered in the management of uncomplicated malaria in the country should include type of ACT, day 3 parasitaemia, and day 1 axillary temperature of patients being treated.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Artemisininas , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Amodiaquina/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemeter/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Combinação de Medicamentos , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Falha de Tratamento
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13945, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230563

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis associated with diarrhea is considered a serious disease in Africa and South Asia. In this study, we examined the trends in the causative pathogens of diarrhea and the corresponding gut microbiota in Ghana using microbiome analysis performed on diarrheic stools via 16S rRNA sequencing. In total, 80 patients with diarrhea and 34 healthy adults as controls, from 2017 to 2018, were enrolled in the study. Among the patients with diarrhea, 39 were norovirus-positive and 18 were rotavirus-positive. The analysis of species richness (Chao1) was lower in patients with diarrhea than that in controls. Beta-diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several diarrhea-related pathogens (e.g., Escherichia-Shigella, Klebsiella and Campylobacter) were detected in patients with diarrhea. Furthermore, co-infection with these pathogens and enteroviruses (e.g., norovirus and rotavirus) was observed in several cases. Levels of both Erysipelotrichaceae and Staphylococcaceae family markedly differed between norovirus-positive and -negative diarrheic stools, and the 10 predicted metabolic pathways, including the carbohydrate metabolism pathway, showed significant differences between rotavirus-positive patients with diarrhea and controls. This comparative study of diarrheal pathogens in Ghana revealed specific trends in the gut microbiota signature associated with diarrhea and that pathogen-dependent dysbiosis occurred in viral gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Rotavirus/fisiologia
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 13-22, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively investigate the cause of recurring tuberculosis (rcTB) among participants with pulmonary TB recruited from a prospective population-based study conducted between July 2012 and December 2015. METHODS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates obtained from rcTB cases were characterized by standard mycobacterial genotyping tools, whole-genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis carried out to assess strain relatedness. RESULTS: The majority (58.3%, 21/36) of study participants with rcTB episodes had TB recurrence within 12 months post treatment. TB strains with isoniazid (INH) resistance were found in 19.4% (7/36) of participants at the primary episode, of which 29% (2/7) were also rifampicin-resistant. On TB recurrence, an INH-resistant strain was found in a larger proportion of participants, 27.8% (10/36), of which 40% (4/10) were MDR-TB strains. rcTB was attributed to relapse (same strain) in 75.0% (27/36) of participants and 25.0% (9/36) to re-infection. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that previous unresolved infectiondue to inadequate treatment, may be the major cause of rcTB.


Assuntos
Genômica , Habitação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Filogenia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 978, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misguided prescription of antibiotics is an important contributor towards the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. The absence of effective interventions to control antibiotic use leads to increased consumption beyond the needed requirements. Antibiotic stewardship interventions must be appropriately targeted and assessed to enhance the controlled use of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with antibiotic prescription to febrile outpatients who seek care in health facilities within the Greater Accra region of Ghana. METHODS: Secondary data obtained from the medical records of 2519 febrile outpatients, consecutively sampled at the outpatient department of 6 health facilities in 3 municipalities during the baseline survey of a quasi-experiment in 2015 was used. The primary outcome was prescription of any antibiotic. Independent variables included patients' demographics, symptoms, laboratory investigations (blood film microscopy, malaria rapid diagnostic test, full blood count, urine and stool routine examinations), diagnoses, and prescribers' demographics. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to determine the factors associated with antibiotic prescription. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibiotic prescription was 70.1% (95% CI: 67.7-72.4). Prescribers with more years of practice (> 5 years) were more likely to prescribe antibiotics compared to those with less than 3 years of practice (p <  0.001). Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) training was associated with a 2.3 (95% CI: 1.54, 3.53, p <  0.001) fold odds of antibiotic prescribing. Patients aged 5 years or more were 60% less likely to receive antibiotics compared with those under 5 years (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.51; p <  0.001). Patients referred for laboratory investigations were 29% less likely to be prescribed antibiotics than those not referred. The presence of cough as a presenting symptom was associated with a 3.5 (95% CI: 2.54, 4.92) fold odds of antibiotic prescription. CONCLUSION: Prescription of antibiotics to febrile outpatients was high. Promoting laboratory testing can potentially reduce irrational antibiotic prescription. Prescribing antibiotics for children under five and the prescribing practices of prescribers with longer years of practice should be targeted with interventions to reduce high use of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Adolescente , Adulto , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509791

RESUMO

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is progressively being used to investigate the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). We used WGS analysis to resolve traditional genotype clusters and explored the spatial distribution of confirmed recent transmission clusters. Bacterial genomes from a total of 452 MTBC isolates belonging to large traditional clusters from a population-based study spanning July 2012 and December 2015 were obtained through short read next-generation sequencing using the illumina HiSeq2500 platform. We performed clustering and spatial analysis using specified R packages and ArcGIS. Of the 452 traditional genotype clustered genomes, 314 (69.5%) were confirmed clusters with a median cluster size of 7.5 genomes and an interquartile range of 4-12. Recent tuberculosis (TB) transmission was estimated as 24.7%. We confirmed the wide spread of a Cameroon sub-lineage clone with a cluster size of 78 genomes predominantly from the Ablekuma sub-district of Accra metropolis. More importantly, we identified a recent transmission cluster associated with isoniazid resistance belonging to the Ghana sub-lineage of lineage 4. WGS was useful in detecting unsuspected outbreaks; hence, we recommend its use not only as a research tool but as a surveillance tool to aid in providing the necessary guided steps to track, monitor, and control TB.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1622, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global efforts to scale-up malaria control interventions are gaining steam. These include the use of Long-Lasting Insecticide Nets, Indoor Residual Spraying, Intermittent Preventive Treatment and Test, Treat and Track. Despite these, the drive for malaria elimination is far from being realistic in endemic communities in Africa. This is partly due to the fact that asymptomatic parasite carriage, not specifically targeted by most interventions, remains the bedrock that fuels transmission. This has led to mass testing, treatment and tracking (MTTT) as an alternative strategy to target asymptomatic individuals. We report the impact of MTTT on the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia over a one-year period in Ghana, hypothesizing that implementing MTTT could reduce the rate of asymptomatic parasitaemia. METHODS: A population of about 5000 individuals in seven communities in the Pakro sub-district of Ghana participated in this study. A register was developed for each community following a census. MTTT engaged trained community-based health volunteers who conducted house-to-house testing using RDTs every 4 months and treated positive cases with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy. Between interventions, community-based management of malaria was implemented for symptomatic cases. RESULTS: MTTT Coverage was 98.8% in July 2017 and 79.3% in July 2018. Of those tested, asymptomatic infection with malaria parasites reduced from 36.3% (1795/4941) in July 2017 to 32.9% (1303/3966) in July 2018 (p = 0.001). Prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemia among children under 15 years declined from 52.6% (1043/1984) in July 2017 to 47.5% (820/1728) in July 2018 (p = 0.002). Implementing MTTT significantly reduced asymptomatic parasitaemia by 24% from July 2017 to July 2018 after adjusting for age, ITN use and axillary temperature (OR = 0.76, CI = 0.67, 0.85 p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated that implementing MTTT is feasible and could reduce the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in children under 15 years of age. Furthermore, the use of community-based health volunteers could ensure high coverage at lower cost of implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04167566, Date 14/11/2019. Retrospective registration.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Malária/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1617, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic falciparum and non-falciparum malaria infections are major challenges to malaria control interventions, as they remain a source of continual infection in the community. This becomes even more important as the debate moves towards elimination and eradication. This study sought to quantify the burden of Plasmodium malaria infection in seven communities in the Eastern Region of Ghana. METHODS: The cross-sectional study recruited 729 participants aged 85 years old and below from 7 closely linked communities. Finger pricked blood was used to prepare thick and thin blood smears as well as spot filter paper and an histidine rich protein 2 (HRP2) rapid diagnostic test kit (RDT). Genomic DNA was extracted from the filter paper dry blood spot (DBS) and used in PCR to amplify the Plasmodium 18S rRNA gene using species specific PCR. RESULTS: 96.6% of the participants were identified as afebrile, with axillary temperatures below 37.5 °C. PCR identified 66% of the participants to harbor malaria parasites, with 9 P. malariae and 7 P. ovale mono-infections accounting for 2.2% and P. falciparum combined with either 36 P. malariae or 25 P. ovale infections, accounting for 13.3%. Parasite prevalence by microscopy (32%) was similar to the RDT positivity rate (33%). False positive RDT results ranged from 64.6% in children aged between 5 and 9 years to 10% in adults aged 20 years and above. No significant differences were observed in falciparum and non-falciparum parasite carriage at the community level, however young adults aged between 15 and 19 years had the highest prevalence (34.8% (16/46)) of P. falciparum and P. malariae parasite carriage whilst children aged between 5 and 9 years had the highest level (11.4% (14/123)) of P. ovale carriage. CONCLUSION: The high rate of misidentification of non-falciparum parasites and the total absence of detection of P. ovale by microscopy suggests that more sensitive malaria diagnostic tools including molecular assays are required to accurately determine the prevalence of carriers of non-falciparum parasites and low density P. falciparum infections, especially during national surveillance exercises. Additionally, malaria control interventions targeting the non-falciparum species P. malariae and P. ovale parasites are needed.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Malar J ; 18(1): 331, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Febrile children seen in malaria hypo-endemic settings, such as the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana are more likely to be suffering from a non-malarial febrile illness compared to those seen in hyper-endemic settings. The need for prescribers to rely on malaria test results to guide treatment practices in the GAR is even greater. This study was designed to investigate the factors associated with inappropriate artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) prescription. METHODS: A survey was conducted in six health facilities in the region in 2015. Treatment practices for febrile outpatient department (OPD) patients were obtained from their records. Prescribers were interviewed and availability of malaria commodities were assessed. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients prescribed ACT inappropriately. Independent variables included patient age and access to care, prescriber factors (professional category, work experience, access to guidelines, exposure to training). Data were analysed using Stata at 95% CI (α-value of 0.05). Frequencies and means were used to describe the characteristics of patients and prescribers. To identify the predictors of inappropriate ACT prescription, regression analyses were performed accounting for clustering. RESULTS: Overall, 2519 febrile OPD records were analysed; 45.6% (n = 1149) were younger than 5 years. Only 40.0% of patients were tested. The proportion of patients who were prescribed ACT inappropriately was 76.4% (n = 791 of 1036). Of these 791 patients, 141 (17.8%) were prescribed anti-malarial injections. Patients seen in facilities with rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in stock were less likely to be prescribed ACT inappropriately, (AOR: 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.14, p < 0.001) compared to those seen in facilities with RDT stock-outs. Prescribers who had been trained on malaria case management within the past year were 4 times more likely to prescribe ACT inappropriately compared to those who had not been trained (AOR: 4.1; 95% CI (1.5-11.6); p < 0.01). Patients seen by prescribers who had been supervised were 8 times more likely to be  prescribed ACT inappropriately. CONCLUSION: Inappropriate ACT prescription to OPD febrile cases was high. Training and supervision of health workers appears not to be yielding the desired outcomes. Further research is needed to understand this observation.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/parasitologia , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Injeções , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8621, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197225

RESUMO

The current global malaria control and elimination agenda requires development of additional effective disease intervention tools. Discovery and characterization of relevant parasite antigens is important for the development of new diagnostics and transmission monitoring tools and for subunit vaccine development. This study assessed the natural antibody response profile of seven novel Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic antigens and their potential association with protection against clinical malaria. Antigen-specific antibody levels in plasma collected at six time points from a longitudinal cohort of one-to-five year old children resident in a seasonal malaria transmission area of northern Ghana were assessed by ELISA. Antibody levels were compared between parasite-positive and parasite-negative individuals and the association of antibody levels with malaria risk assessed using a regression model. Plasma antibody levels against five of the seven antigens were significantly higher in parasite-positive children compared to parasite-negative children, especially during low transmission periods. None of the antigen-specific antibodies showed an association with protection against clinical malaria. The study identified five of the seven antigens as markers of exposure to malaria, and these will have relevance for the development of disease diagnostic and monitoring tools. The vaccine potential of these antigens requires further assessment.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Epitopos/imunologia , Gana , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Parasitemia/imunologia , Parasitemia/parasitologia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 695, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains endemic in Ghana despite several interventions. Studies have demonstrated very high levels of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in both under-five and school-age children. Mass testing, treatment and tracking (MTTT) of malaria in communities is being proposed for implementation with the argument that it can reduce parasite load, amplify gains from the other control interventions and consequently lead to elimination. However, challenges associated with implementing MTTT such as feasibility, levels of coverage to be achieved for effectiveness, community perceptions and cost implications need to be clearly understood. This qualitative study was therefore conducted in an area with on-going MTTT to assess community and health workers' perceptions about feasibility of scale-up and effectiveness to guide scale-up decisions. METHODS: This qualitative study employed purposive sampling to select the study participants. Ten focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in seven communities; eight with community members (n = 80) and two with health workers (n = 14). In addition, two in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted, one with a Physician Assistant and another with a Laboratory Technician at the health facility. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated and analyzed using QSR NVivo 12. RESULTS: Both health workers and community members expressed positive perceptions about the feasibility of implementation and effectiveness of MTTT as an intervention that could reduce the burden of malaria in the community. MTTT implementation was perceived to have increased sensitisation about malaria, reduced the incidence of malaria, reduced household expenditure on malaria and alleviated the need to travel long distances for healthcare. Key challenges to implementation were doubts about the expertise of trained Community-Based Health Volunteers (CBHVs) to diagnose and treat malaria appropriately, side effects of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs) and misconceptions that CBHVs could infect children with epilepsy. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that MTTT was perceived to be effective in reducing malaria incidence and related hospital visits in participating communities. MTTT was deemed useful in breaking financial and geographical barriers to accessing healthcare. The interventions were feasible and acceptable to community members, despite observed challenges to implementation such as concerns about CBHVs' knowledge and skills and reduced revenue from internally generated funds (IGF) of the health facility.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Controle de Infecções , Malária/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Gana/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/psicologia , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 73: 30-42, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Understanding transmission dynamics is useful for tuberculosis (TB) control. A population-based molecular epidemiological study was conducted to determine TB transmission in Ghana. METHODS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates obtained from prospectively sampled pulmonary TB patients between July 2012 and December 2015 were characterized using spoligotyping and standard 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing for transmission studies. RESULTS: Out of 2309 MTBC isolates, 1082 (46.9%) unique cases were identified, with 1227 (53.1%) isolates belonging to one of 276 clusters. The recent TB transmission rate was estimated to be 41.2%. Whereas TB strains of lineage 4 belonging to M. tuberculosis showed a high recent transmission rate (44.9%), reduced recent transmission rates were found for lineages of Mycobacterium africanum (lineage 5, 31.8%; lineage 6, 24.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The study findings indicate high recent TB transmission, suggesting the occurrence of unsuspected outbreaks in Ghana. The observed reduced transmission rate of M. africanum suggests other factor(s) (host/environmental) may be responsible for its continuous presence in West Africa.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Repetições Minissatélites , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Phytother Res ; 32(8): 1617-1630, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733118

RESUMO

Trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and malaria are protozoan infections of public health importance with thousands of new cases recorded annually. Control of these infection(s) with existing chemotherapy is limited by drug toxicity, lengthy parenteral treatment, affordability, and/or the emergence of resistant strains. Medicinal plants on the other hand are used in the treatment of various infectious diseases although their chemical properties are not fully evaluated. In this study, we screened 112 crude extracts from 72 selected Ghanaian medicinal plants for anti-Trypanosoma, anti-Leishmania, and anti-Plasmodium activities in vitro and investigated their mechanisms of action. Twenty-three extracts from 20 plants showed significant antiprotozoan activity against at least 1 of 3 protozoan parasites screened with IC50 values less than 20 µg/ml. Eleven extracts showed high anti-Trypanosoma activity with Bidens pilosa whole plant and Morinda lucida leaf extracts recording the highest activities. Their IC50 (selectivity index [SI]) values were 5.51 µg/ml (35.00) and 5.96 µg/ml (13.09), respectively. Nine extracts had high anti-Leishmania activity with Annona senegalensis and Cassia alata leaf extracts as the most active. Their IC50 (SI) values were 10.8 µg/ml (1.50) and 10.1 µg/ml (0.37), respectively. Six extracts had high anti-Plasmodium activity with the leaf and stem-bark extracts of Terminalia ivorensis recording the highest activity. Their IC50 (SI) values were 7.26 µg/ml (129.36) and 17.45 µg/ml (17.17), respectively. Only M. lucida at 25 µg/ml induced significant apoptosis-like cell death in Trypanosoma parasites. Anti-Leishmania active extracts induced varying morphological changes in Leishmania parasites such as multiple nuclei and/or kinetoplast, incomplete flagella division, or nuclear fragmentation. Active extracts may be potential sources for developing new chemotherapy against these infections.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plasmodium/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose , Gana , Humanos , Células Jurkat
14.
Parasitol Int ; 65(3): 238-44, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26775819

RESUMO

There are three major clonal lineages, types I, II, and III, of Toxoplasma gondii known to cause human toxoplasmosis worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii infections have, however, not been genotyped in Ghana. This study detected the clonal types infecting immune compromised and immune competent individuals in Accra, Ghana. Blood samples were obtained from 148 HIV seropositive pre-antiretroviral therapy individuals (0 ≤ CD4(+) T-cell count/µl blood ≤ 200) at the Fevers Unit and 149 HIV seronegative apparently healthy blood donors at the blood bank, all of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Genomic DNA was extracted and multilocus genotyping conducted by nested PCR-RFLP analysis using GRA6, SAG3, and BTUB gene markers. Among the HIV seropositive participants, 54.7% (81/148) were T. gondii DNA positive for any of the markers. Out of the 81, 42.0% (34) were positive for SAG3 only, 30.9% (25) for GRA6 only, 24.7% (20) for both SAG3 and GRA6, and 2.5% (2) for SAG3, GRA6, and BTUB. Overall, 93.8% of the positives were of clonal type II, 1.2% type I, while 4.9% (4) were atypical or mixed types (I and II). In the healthy blood donors, prevalence of T. gondii DNA positivity was 3.4% (5/149) by SAG3 and/or GRA6; among them, 60.0% (3/5) were type I, and the remaining 40.0%, type II. This study showed a relatively high prevalence of active T. gondii infections in immune compromised patients and low prevalence in immune competent individuals in Accra. Type II was highly prevalent. Detection of T. gondii in blood donors raises public health concerns and screening for T. gondii should be considered.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 8: 251, 2015 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25928847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seroepidemiology provides robust estimates for tracking malaria transmission when intensity is low and useful when there is no baseline entomological data. Serological evidence of exposure to malaria vectors and parasite contribute to our understanding of the risk of pathogen transmission, and facilitates implementation of targeted interventions. Ab to Anopheles gambiae salivary peptide (gSG6-P1) and merozoite surface protein one (MSP-1(19)) reflect human exposure to malaria vectors and parasites. This study estimated malaria transmission dynamics using serological evidence of vector and parasite exposure in southern Ghana. METHODS: Total IgG responses to both antigens in an age stratified cohort (<5, 5-14, >14) were measured from South-eastern Ghana. 295 randomly selected sera were analyzed from archived samples belonging to a cohort study that were followed at 3 consecutive survey months (n = 885); February, May and August 2009. Temporal variations in seroprevalence of both antigens as well as differences between the age-stratified cohorts were determined by χ (2) test with p < 0.05 statistically significant. Non-parametric repeated ANOVA - Friedman's test was used to test differences in antibody levels. Seroprevalence data were fitted to reversible catalytic model to estimate sero-conversion rates. RESULTS: Whereas parasite prevalence was generally low 2.4%, 2.7% and 2.4% with no apparent trends with season, seroprevalence to both gSG6-P1 and MSP1(19) were high (59%, 50.9%, 52.2%) and 57.6%, 52.3% and 43.6% in respective order from Feb. to August. Repeated measures ANOVA showed differences in median antibody levels across surveys with specific significant differences between February and May but not August by post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison tests for gSG6-P1. For MSP1(19), no differences were observed in antibody levels between February and May but a significant decline was observed from May to August. Seroconversion rates for gSG6-P1 increased by 1.5 folds from February to August and 3 folds for MSP1(19). CONCLUSION: Data suggests exposure to infectious bites may be declining whereas mosquito bites remains high. Sustained malaria control efforts and surveillance are needed to drive malaria further down and to prevent catastrophic rebound. Operational factors for scaling up have been discussed.


Assuntos
Anopheles/metabolismo , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Malária/sangue , Malária/transmissão , Proteína 1 de Superfície de Merozoito/sangue , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anopheles/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 10: 35, 2010 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20102620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged 6-10 years in 8 out of 10 regions of Ghana between 2004 and 2006. METHODS: Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools. RESULTS: Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2%) were tested of which 21,861 (92.6%) were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p < 0.001). BCG scar was visible in 89.3% of the children. The percentage of children with a BCG scar differed by district and by age. The percentage of children with a BCG scar decreased with increasing age in all districts, reflecting increasing BCG vaccination coverage in Ghana in the last ten years. The risk of tuberculosis infection was low in the northern savannah zones compared to the southern coastal zones. Using a cut-off of 15 mm, the prevalence of infection ranged from 0.0% to 5.4% and the Annual Risks of Tuberculosis Infection 0.0% to 0.6%. There was an increase in the proportion of infected children after the age of 7 years. Children attending low and middle-class schools had a higher risk of infection than children attending upper-class schools. CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.


Assuntos
Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Vacina BCG , Criança , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
17.
PLoS Med ; 6(1): e1000007, 2009 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19127975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delays in accessing care for malaria and other diseases can lead to disease progression, and user fees are a known barrier to accessing health care. Governments are introducing free health care to improve health outcomes. Free health care affects treatment seeking, and it is therefore assumed to lead to improved health outcomes, but there is no direct trial evidence of the impact of removing out-of-pocket payments on health outcomes in developing countries. This trial was designed to test the impact of free health care on health outcomes directly. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 2,194 households containing 2,592 Ghanaian children under 5 y old were randomised into a prepayment scheme allowing free primary care including drugs, or to a control group whose families paid user fees for health care (normal practice); 165 children whose families had previously paid to enrol in the prepayment scheme formed an observational arm. The primary outcome was moderate anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] < 8 g/dl); major secondary outcomes were health care utilisation, severe anaemia, and mortality. At baseline the randomised groups were similar. Introducing free primary health care altered the health care seeking behaviour of households; those randomised to the intervention arm used formal health care more and nonformal care less than the control group. Introducing free primary health care did not lead to any measurable difference in any health outcome. The primary outcome of moderate anaemia was detected in 37 (3.1%) children in the control and 36 children (3.2%) in the intervention arm (adjusted odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.66-1.67). There were four deaths in the control and five in the intervention group. Mean Hb concentration, severe anaemia, parasite prevalence, and anthropometric measurements were similar in each group. Families who previously self-enrolled in the prepayment scheme were significantly less poor, had better health measures, and used services more frequently than those in the randomised group. CONCLUSIONS: In the study setting, removing out-of-pocket payments for health care had an impact on health care-seeking behaviour but not on the health outcomes measured.


Assuntos
Honorários e Preços , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Pré-Pagamento em Saúde , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Gana/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Planos de Pré-Pagamento em Saúde/economia , Planos de Pré-Pagamento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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