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1.
Bone ; 130: 115062, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678489

RESUMO

Although inactivating mutations of PLS3, encoding the actin-bundling protein plastin-3, have been identified to cause X-linked osteoporosis, the cellular and molecular influence of PLS3 on bone remodeling is poorly defined. Moreover, although a previous study has demonstrated moderate osteopenia in 12 week-old Pls3-deficient mice based on µCT scanning, there is no reported analysis of such a model on the basis of undecalcified histology and bone-specific histomorphometry. To fill this knowledge gap we applied a deep phenotyping approach and studied Pls3-deficient mice at different ages. Surprisingly, we did not detect significant differences between wildtype and Pls3-deficient littermates with respect to trabecular bone mass, and the same was the case for all histomorphometric parameters determined at 12 weeks of age. Remarkably however, the cortical thickness in both, tibia and femur, was significantly reduced in Pls3-deficient mice in all age groups. We additionally studied the ex vivo behavior of Pls3-deficient primary osteoblasts, which displayed moderately impaired mineralization capacity. Of note, while most osteoblastogenesis markers were not differentially expressed between wildtype and Pls3-deficient cultures, the expression of Sfrp4 was significantly reduced in the latter, a potentially relevant finding, since Sfrp4 inactivation, in mice and humans, specifically causes cortical thinning. We finally addressed the question, if Pls3-deficiency would impair the osteoanabolic influence of parathyroid hormone (PTH). For this purpose we applied daily injection of PTH into wildtype and Pls3-deficient mice and found a similar response regardless of the genotype. Taken together, our data reveal that Pls3-deficiency in mice only recapitulates the cortical bone phenotype of individuals with X-linked osteoporosis by negatively affecting the early stage of cortical bone acquisition.

2.
Bone ; 128: 115065, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561010
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 631-639, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353024

RESUMO

Notch signaling is an established developmental pathway for brain morphogenesis. Given that Delta-like 1 (DLL1) is a ligand for the Notch receptor and that a few individuals with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and brain malformations have microdeletions encompassing DLL1, we hypothesized that insufficiency of DLL1 causes a human neurodevelopmental disorder. We performed exome sequencing in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. The cohort was identified using known Matchmaker Exchange nodes such as GeneMatcher. This method identified 15 individuals from 12 unrelated families with heterozygous pathogenic DLL1 variants (nonsense, missense, splice site, and one whole gene deletion). The most common features in our cohort were intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, seizures, variable brain malformations, muscular hypotonia, and scoliosis. We did not identify an obvious genotype-phenotype correlation. Analysis of one splice site variant showed an in-frame insertion of 12 bp. In conclusion, heterozygous DLL1 pathogenic variants cause a variable neurodevelopmental phenotype and multi-systemic features. The clinical and molecular data support haploinsufficiency as a mechanism for the pathogenesis of this DLL1-related disorder and affirm the importance of DLL1 in human brain development.

4.
J Hum Genet ; 64(9): 867-873, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285555

RESUMO

Craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS) (OMIM #304110) is a very rare, X-linked developmental disorder characterized by facial stigmata, including hypertelorism, frontonasal dysplasia, craniosynostosis, bifid nasal tip, and digital abnormalities. CFNS is caused by mutations in the Ephrin 1 gene (EFNB1) located at Xq13.1, which encodes the transmembrane protein Ephrin B1. Interestingly, heterozygous females are more severely affected than hemizygous males. We report on four individuals from four unrelated Indian families with mild-to-severe CFNS. All patients had variable degrees of hypertelorism and nasal bridge depression, which did not correlate with changes in other tissues. Although patients 3 and 4 showed the most severe facial dysmorphism and syndactyly, there were no structural CNS changes or developmental delay. In contrast, patient 1 displayed agenesis of corpus callosum and developmental delay, although facial and finger abnormalities were milder. Patients 1, 2, and 4 showed different degrees of clefting. DNA sequencing revealed four previously undescribed heterozygous mutations in exons 1 and 2 of EFNB1. Patient 1 carried the second single amino acid deletion reported up to date. The other three affected individuals harbored frameshift mutations, leading to premature termination codons. Our findings broaden the spectrum of EFNB1 mutations and illustrate the absence of an obvious correlation between mutation type, severity, and expression of symptoms.

5.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164752

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Phenotype information is crucial for the interpretation of genomic variants. So far it has only been accessible for bioinformatics workflows after encoding into clinical terms by expert dysmorphologists. METHODS: Here, we introduce an approach driven by artificial intelligence that uses portrait photographs for the interpretation of clinical exome data. We measured the value added by computer-assisted image analysis to the diagnostic yield on a cohort consisting of 679 individuals with 105 different monogenic disorders. For each case in the cohort we compiled frontal photos, clinical features, and the disease-causing variants, and simulated multiple exomes of different ethnic backgrounds. RESULTS: The additional use of similarity scores from computer-assisted analysis of frontal photos improved the top 1 accuracy rate by more than 20-89% and the top 10 accuracy rate by more than 5-99% for the disease-causing gene. CONCLUSION: Image analysis by deep-learning algorithms can be used to quantify the phenotypic similarity (PP4 criterion of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines) and to advance the performance of bioinformatics pipelines for exome analysis.

6.
J Hum Genet ; 64(7): 609-616, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015584

RESUMO

Individuals affected with autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2B and 3 usually show translucent skin with visible veins and abnormal elastic fibers, intrauterine and/or postnatal growth restriction and a typical triangular facial gestalt. Here we describe three unrelated individuals in whom such a cutis laxa syndrome was suspected, especially after electron microscopy revealed immature and less dense dermal elastic fibers in one of them. However, one of these children also displayed optic atrophy and two hypogammaglobulinemia. All had elevated liver enzymes and acute liver failure during febrile episodes leading to early demise in two of them. The only surviving patient had been treated with immunoglobulins. Through exome sequencing we identified mutations in NBAS, coding for a protein involved in Golgi-to-ER transport. NBAS deficiency causes several rare conditions ranging from isolated recurrent acute liver failure to a multisystem disorder mainly characterized by short stature, optic nerve atrophy and Pelger-Huët anomaly (SOPH). Since we subsequently verified Pelger-Huët anomaly in two of the patients the diagnosis SOPH syndrome was unequivocally proven. Our data show that SOPH syndrome can be regarded as a differential diagnosis for the progeroid forms of cutis laxa in early infancy and that possibly treatment of the hypogammaglobulinemia can be of high relevance for the prognosis.

7.
Stem Cell Res ; 35: 101367, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763735

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) is a genetic bone disease that can be caused by mutations in the CLCN7 gene preventing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. We generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line, BIHi002-A, from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an ARO patient carrying the CLCN7 mutations c.875G>A and c.1208G>A using Sendai viral vectors. The pluripotent identity of the BIHi002-A line was confirmed by their expression of typical markers for undifferentiated hiPSCs, their capacity to differentiate into cells of the three germ layers and by PluriTest analysis. The BIHi002-A line provides a tool for disease modelling and therapy development.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular , Canais de Cloreto , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Mutação , Osteopetrose , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Lactente , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Masculino , Osteopetrose/genética , Osteopetrose/metabolismo , Osteopetrose/patologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 127, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631079

RESUMO

COPI is a key mediator of protein trafficking within the secretory pathway. COPI is recruited to the membrane primarily through binding to Arf GTPases, upon which it undergoes assembly to form coated transport intermediates responsible for trafficking numerous proteins, including Golgi-resident enzymes. Here, we identify GORAB, the protein mutated in the skin and bone disorder gerodermia osteodysplastica, as a component of the COPI machinery. GORAB forms stable domains at the trans-Golgi that, via interactions with the COPI-binding protein Scyl1, promote COPI recruitment to these domains. Pathogenic GORAB mutations perturb Scyl1 binding or GORAB assembly into domains, indicating the importance of these interactions. Loss of GORAB causes impairment of COPI-mediated retrieval of trans-Golgi enzymes, resulting in a deficit in glycosylation of secretory cargo proteins. Our results therefore identify GORAB as a COPI scaffolding factor, and support the view that defective protein glycosylation is a major disease mechanism in gerodermia osteodysplastica.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Complexo I de Proteína do Envoltório/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Doenças Ósseas/congênito , Doenças Ósseas/genética , Doenças Ósseas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Células Cultivadas , Complexo I de Proteína do Envoltório/genética , Nanismo/genética , Nanismo/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Interferência de RNA , Dermatopatias Genéticas/genética , Dermatopatias Genéticas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 40, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Target enrichment combined with chromosome conformation capturing methodologies such as capture Hi-C (CHC) can be used to investigate spatial layouts of genomic regions with high resolution and at scalable costs. A common application of CHC is the investigation of regulatory elements that are in contact with promoters, but CHC can be used for a range of other applications. Therefore, probe design for CHC needs to be adapted to experimental needs, but no flexible tool is currently available for this purpose. RESULTS: We present a Java desktop application called GOPHER (Generator Of Probes for capture Hi-C Experiments at high Resolution) that implements three strategies for CHC probe design. GOPHER's simple approach is similar to the probe design of previous approaches that employ CHC to investigate all promoters, with one probe being placed at each margin of a single digest that overlaps the transcription start site (TSS) of each promoter. GOPHER's simple-patched approach extends this methodology with a heuristic that improves coverage of viewpoints in which the TSS is located near to one of the boundaries of the digest. GOPHER's extended approach is intended mainly for focused investigations of smaller gene sets. GOPHER can also be used to design probes for regions other than TSS such as GWAS hits or large blocks of genomic sequence. GOPHER additionally provides a number of features that allow users to visualize and edit viewpoints, and outputs a range of files useful for documentation, ordering probes, and downstream analysis. CONCLUSION: GOPHER is an easy-to-use and robust desktop application for CHC probe design. Source code and a precompiled executable can be downloaded from the GOPHER GitHub page at https://github.com/TheJacksonLaboratory/Gopher .


Assuntos
Sondas de DNA/genética , Software , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
10.
Bone ; 120: 495-503, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537558

RESUMO

The osteopetroses and related sclerosing bone dysplasias can have a broad range of manifestations. Especially in the milder forms, sandwich vertebrae are an easily recognizable and reliable radiological hallmark. We report on four patients from three families presenting with sandwich vertebrae and platyspondyly. The long bone phenotypes were discordant with one patient showing modeling defects and patchy osteosclerosis, while the second displayed only metaphyseal sclerotic bands, and the third and fourth had extreme metaphyseal flaring with uniform osteosclerosis. Two of the four patients had experienced pathological fractures, two had developmental delay, but none showed cranial nerve damage, hepatosplenomegaly, or bone marrow failure. According to these clinical features the diagnoses ranged between intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis and dysosteosclerosis. After exclusion of mutations in CLCN7 we performed gene panel and exome sequencing. Two novel mutations in SLC29A3 were found in the first two patients. In the third family a TCIRG1 C-terminal frameshift mutation in combination with a mutation at position +4 in intron 2 were detected. Our study adds two cases to the small group of individuals with SLC29A3 mutations diagnosed with dysosteosclerosis, and expands the phenotypic variability. The finding that intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis due to TCIRG1 splice site mutations can also present with platyspondyly further increases the molecular heterogeneity of dysosteosclerosis-like sclerosing bone dysplasias.

11.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(466)2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404864

RESUMO

WNT1 mutations in humans are associated with a new form of osteogenesis imperfecta and with early-onset osteoporosis, suggesting a key role of WNT1 in bone mass regulation. However, the general mode of action and the therapeutic potential of Wnt1 in clinically relevant situations such as aging remain to be established. Here, we report the high prevalence of heterozygous WNT1 mutations in patients with early-onset osteoporosis. We show that inactivation of Wnt1 in osteoblasts causes severe osteoporosis and spontaneous bone fractures in mice. In contrast, conditional Wnt1 expression in osteoblasts promoted rapid bone mass increase in developing young, adult, and aged mice by rapidly increasing osteoblast numbers and function. Contrary to current mechanistic models, loss of Lrp5, the co-receptor thought to transmit extracellular WNT signals during bone mass regulation, did not reduce the bone-anabolic effect of Wnt1, providing direct evidence that Wnt1 function does not require the LRP5 co-receptor. The identification of Wnt1 as a regulator of bone formation and remodeling provides the basis for development of Wnt1-targeting drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371979

RESUMO

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders, characterized by a progressive sensory neuropathy often complicated by ulcers and amputations, with variable motor and autonomic involvement. Several pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal degeneration in HSAN, while recent observations point to an emerging role of cytoskeleton organization and function. Here, we report novel biallelic mutations in the DST gene encoding dystonin, a large cytolinker protein of the plakin family, in an adult form of HSAN type VI. Affected individuals harbored the premature termination codon variant p.(Lys4330*) in trans with the p.(Ala203Glu) change affecting a highly conserved residue in an isoform-specific N-terminal region of dystonin. Functional studies showed defects in actin cytoskeleton organization and consequent delayed cell adhesion, spreading and migration, while recombinant p.Ala203Glu dystonin loses the ability to bind actin. Our data aid in the clinical and molecular delineation of HSAN-VI and suggest a central role for cell-motility and cytoskeletal defects in its pathogenesis possibly interfering with the neuronal outgrowth and guidance processes.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 2028-2033, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194892

RESUMO

Cadherins are cell-adhesion molecules that control morphogenesis, cell migration, and cell shape changes during multiple developmental processes. Until now four distinct cadherins have been implicated in human Mendelian disorders, mainly featuring skin, retinal and hearing manifestations. Branchio-skeleto-genital (or Elsahy-Waters) syndrome (BSGS) is an ultra-rare condition featuring a characteristic face, premature loss of teeth, vertebral and genital anomalies, and intellectual disability. We have studied two sibs with BSGS originally described by Castori et al. in 2010. Exome sequencing led to the identification of a novel homozygous nonsense variant in the first exon of the cadherin-11 gene (CDH11), which results in a prematurely truncated form of the protein. Recessive variants in CDH11 have been recently demonstrated in two other sporadic patients and a pair of sisters affected by BSGS. Although the function of this cadherin (also termed Osteoblast-Cadherin) is not completely understood, its prevalent expression in osteoblastic cell lines and up-regulation during differentiation suggest a specific function in bone formation and development. This study identifies a novel loss-of-function variant in CDH11 as a cause of BSGS and supports the role of cadherin-11 as a key player in axial and craniofacial malformations.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198510, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879182

RESUMO

Gfi1 is a key molecule in hematopoietic lineage development and mutations in GFI1 cause severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). Neutropenia is associated with low bone mass, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized. Using Gfi1 knock-out mice (Gfi1-ko/ko) as SCN model, we studied the relationship between neutropenia and bone mass upon different pathogen load conditions. Our analysis reveals that Gfi1-ko/ko mice kept under strict specific pathogen free (SPF) conditions demonstrate normal bone mass and survival. However, Gfi1-ko/ko mice with early (nonSPF) or late (SPF+nonSPF) pathogen exposure develop low bone mass. Gfi1-ko/ko mice demonstrate a striking rise of systemic inflammatory markers according to elevated pathogen exposure and reduced bone mass. Elevated inflammatory cytokines include for instance Il-1b, Il-6, and Tnf-alpha that regulate osteoclast development. We conclude that low bone mass, due to low neutrophil counts, is caused by the degree of systemic inflammation promoting osteoclastogenesis.

16.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 103(5): 512-521, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946973

RESUMO

Diagnosis and management of adult individuals with low bone mass and increased bone fragility before the age of 50 can be challenging. A number of these patients are diagnosed with mild osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) through detection of COL1A1 or COL1A2 mutations; however, a clinical differentiation from early-onset osteoporosis (EOOP) may be difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the bone microstructural differences between mild OI and EOOP patients. 29 patients showed mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2 and were classified as OI. Skeletal assessment included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), and bone turnover serum analyses. Bone microstructure of 21/29 OI patients was assessed and compared to 23 age- and sex-matched patients clinically classified EOOP but without mutations in the known disease genes as well as to 20 healthy controls. In the OI patients, we did not observe an age-dependent decrease in DXA Z-scores. HR-pQCT revealed a significant reduction in volumetric BMD and microstructural parameters in the distal radius and tibia in both the OI and EOOP cohorts compared to the healthy controls. When comparing the bone microstructure of OI patients with the EOOP cohort, significant differences were found in terms of bone geometry in the radius, while no significant changes were detected in all other HR-pQCT parameters at the radius and tibia. Taken together, adult mild OI patients demonstrate a predominantly high bone turnover trabecular bone loss syndrome that shows minor microstructural differences compared to EOOP without mutation detection.

17.
Bone ; 113: 29-40, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653293

RESUMO

Osteoblastic differentiation is a multistep process characterized by osteogenic induction of mesenchymal stem cells, which then differentiate into proliferative pre-osteoblasts that produce copious amounts of extracellular matrix, followed by stiffening of the extracellular matrix, and matrix mineralization by hydroxylapatite deposition. Although these processes have been well characterized biologically, a detailed transcriptional analysis of murine primary calvaria osteoblast differentiation based on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses has not previously been reported. Here, we used RNA-seq to obtain expression values of 29,148 genes at four time points as murine primary calvaria osteoblasts differentiate in vitro until onset of mineralization was clearly detectable by microscopic inspection. Expression of marker genes confirmed osteogenic differentiation. We explored differential expression of 1386 protein-coding genes using unsupervised clustering and GO analyses. 100 differentially expressed lncRNAs were investigated by co-expression with protein-coding genes that are localized within the same topologically associated domain. Additionally, we monitored expression of 237 genes that are silent or active at distinct time points and compared differential exon usage. Our data represent an in-depth profiling of murine primary calvaria osteoblast differentiation by RNA-seq and contribute to our understanding of genetic regulation of this key process in osteoblast biology.

18.
Bone ; 110: 368-377, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499418

RESUMO

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Although differential diagnosis is greatly facilitated by next generation sequencing, its availability can vary considerably. In this study, we compared targeted gene panel or exome sequencing with clinical scoring and grouping in a cohort of 50 OI index patients recruited by a single Indian clinical center in an unselected fashion. In 48 patients we observed a total of 24 novel mutations and 24 known OI mutations, of which several were recurrent. In one patient neither gene panel nor exome sequencing revealed any significant mutation and another patient harbored a class III COL1A1 intronic variant. The percentage of autosomal recessive forms due to mutations in BMP1, FKBP10, LEPRE1, SERPINF1, and WNT1 was unusually high (48%). Grouping according to phenotypic and radiographic features revealed four individuals with Bruck syndrome due to FKBP10 mutations, three patients with hypertrophic callus caused by IFITM5 mutations, and twenty with pronounced bone bowing, of which eight carried WNT1 mutations. There was a clear correlation between genotype and phenotype severity: IFITM5=LEPRE1>WNT1>SERPINF1>COL1A1 (qualitative)>BMP1>FKBP10>COL1A2 (qualitative)>COL1A1 (quantitative)>COL1A2 (quantitative). In one patient we found heterozygous variants in COL1A1 and COL1A2 inherited from parents without an obvious bone phenotype indicating that both variants might contribute to the phenotype. Our findings demonstrate the clinical utility of gene panel testing for OI, but in cases with contractures, hypertrophic callus formation, or - to some extent - extensive bowing single gene analysis might still be more cost-effective.

19.
PLoS Genet ; 14(3): e1007242, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561836

RESUMO

Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO) is characterized by skin laxity and early-onset osteoporosis. GORAB, the responsible disease gene, encodes a small Golgi protein of poorly characterized function. To circumvent neonatal lethality of the GorabNull full knockout, Gorab was conditionally inactivated in mesenchymal progenitor cells (Prx1-cre), pre-osteoblasts (Runx2-cre), and late osteoblasts/osteocytes (Dmp1-cre), respectively. While in all three lines a reduction in trabecular bone density was evident, only GorabPrx1 and GorabRunx2 mutants showed dramatically thinned, porous cortical bone and spontaneous fractures. Collagen fibrils in the skin of GorabNull mutants and in bone of GorabPrx1 mutants were disorganized, which was also seen in a bone biopsy from a GO patient. Measurement of glycosaminoglycan contents revealed a reduction of dermatan sulfate levels in skin and cartilage from GorabNull mutants. In bone from GorabPrx1 mutants total glycosaminoglycan levels and the relative percentage of dermatan sulfate were both strongly diminished. Accordingly, the proteoglycans biglycan and decorin showed reduced glycanation. Also in cultured GORAB-deficient fibroblasts reduced decorin glycanation was evident. The Golgi compartment of these cells showed an accumulation of decorin, but reduced signals for dermatan sulfate. Moreover, we found elevated activation of TGF-ß in GorabPrx1 bone tissue leading to enhanced downstream signalling, which was reproduced in GORAB-deficient fibroblasts. Our data suggest that the loss of Gorab primarily perturbs pre-osteoblasts. GO may be regarded as a congenital disorder of glycosylation affecting proteoglycan synthesis due to delayed transport and impaired posttranslational modification in the Golgi compartment.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/congênito , Nanismo/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/patologia , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Dermatopatias Genéticas/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Ósseas/metabolismo , Doenças Ósseas/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Decorina/metabolismo , Dermatan Sulfato/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Nanismo/patologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Glicosilação , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Dermatopatias Genéticas/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(3): 668-675, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341480

RESUMO

The cutis laxa syndromes are multisystem disorders that share loose redundant inelastic and wrinkled skin as a common hallmark clinical feature. The underlying molecular defects are heterogeneous and 13 different genes have been involved until now, all of them being implicated in elastic fiber assembly. We provide here molecular and clinical characterization of three unrelated patients with a very rare phenotype associating cutis laxa, facial dysmorphism, severe growth retardation, hyperostotic skeletal dysplasia, and intellectual disability. This disorder called Lenz-Majewski syndrome (LMS) is associated with gain of function mutations in PTDSS1, encoding an enzyme involved in phospholipid biosynthesis. This report illustrates that LMS is an unequivocal cutis laxa syndrome and expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of this group of disorders. In the neonatal period, brachydactyly and facial dysmorphism are two early distinctive signs, later followed by intellectual disability and hyperostotic skeletal dysplasia with severe dwarfism allowing differentiation of this condition from other cutis laxa phenotypes. Further studies are needed to understand the link between PTDSS1 and extra cellular matrix assembly.

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