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1.
Blood Adv ; 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533262

RESUMO

Measurable residual disease (MRD) is highly prognostic for relapse and overall survival (OS) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), although many patients with apparent "MRD negativity" by standard assays still relapse. We evaluated the clinical impact of a highly sensitive next-generation sequencing (NGS) MRD assay in 74 adults with ALL undergoing frontline therapy. Among remission samples that were MRD negative by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC), 46% were MRD positive by the NGS assay. After one cycle of induction chemotherapy, MRD negativity by MFC at a sensitivity of 1x10-4 and NGS at a sensitivity of 1x10-6 was achieved in 66% and 23% of patients, respectively. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) among patients who achieved MRD negativity by MFC at CR was 29%; in contrast, no patients who achieved early MRD negativity by NGS relapsed, and their 5-year OS was 90%. NGS MRD negativity at CR was associated with significantly decreased risk of relapse compared with MRD positivity (5-year CIR: 0% versus 45%, respectively, P=0.04). Among patients who were MRD negative by MFC, detection of low levels of MRD by NGS identified patients who still had a significant risk of relapse (5-year CIR: 39%). Early assessment of MRD using a highly sensitive NGS assay adds clinically relevant prognostic information to standard MFC-based approaches and can identify patients with ALL undergoing frontline therapy who have a very low risk of relapse and excellent long-term survival.

2.
Blood Cancer J ; 12(3): 43, 2022 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301276

RESUMO

Protein expression for 384 total and post-translationally modified proteins was assessed in 871 CLL and MSBL patients and was integrated with clinical data to identify strategies for improving diagnostics and therapy, making this the largest CLL proteomics study to date. Proteomics identified six recurrent signatures that were highly prognostic of survival and time to first or second treatment at three levels: individual proteins, when grouped into 40 functionally related groups (PFGs), and systemically in signatures (SGs). A novel SG characterized by hairy cell leukemia like proteomics but poor therapy response was discovered. SG membership superseded other prognostic factors (Rai Staging, IGHV Status) and were prognostic for response to modern (BTK inhibition) and older CLL therapies. SGs and PFGs membership provided novel drug targets and defined optimal candidates for Watch and Wait vs. early intervention. Collectively proteomics demonstrates promise for improving classification, therapeutic strategy selection, and identifying novel therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteômica
3.
Haematologica ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021602

RESUMO

Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a fatal disease for at least 30% of patients, stressing the need for improved therapies and better risk stratification. As proteins are the unifying feature of (epi)genetic and environmental alterations, and are often targeted by novel chemotherapeutic agents, we studied the proteomic landscape of pediatric AML. Protein expression and activation levels were measured in 500 bulk leukemic patient samples and 30 control CD34+ samples, using the reverse phase protein arrays with 296 strictly validated antibodies. The multi-step "MetaGalaxy" analysis methodology was applied and identified nine protein expression signatures (PrSIG), based on strong recurrent protein expression patterns. PrSIGs were associated with cytogenetics and mutational state, and with both favorable or unfavorable prognosis. Analysis based on treatment (i.e., ADE vs. ADE plus bortezomib (ADEB)) identified three PrSIGs that did better with ADEB vs. ADE. When PrSIGs were studied in the context of genetic subgroups, PrSIGs were independently prognostic after multivariate analysis, suggesting a potential value for proteomics in combination with current classification systems. Proteins with universally increased (n=7) or decreased (n=17) expression were observed across PrSIGs. Expression of certain proteins significantly differentially expressed from normal could be identified, forming a hypothetical platform for personalized medicine.

4.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; 16(2): e2100072, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719869

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The addition of the proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib to standard chemotherapy (ADE: cytarabine [Ara-C], daunorubicin, and etoposide) did not improve overall outcome of pediatric AML patients in the Children's Oncology Group AAML1031 phase 3 randomized clinical trial (AAML1031) . Bortezomib prevents protein degradation, including RelA via the intracellular NF-kB pathway. In this study, we hypothesized that subgroups of pediatric AML patients benefitting from standard therapy plus bortezomib (ADEB) could be identified based on pre-treatment RelA expression and phosphorylation status. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: RelA-total and phosphorylation at serine 536 (RelA-pSer536 ) were measured in 483 patient samples using reverse phase protein array technology. RESULTS: In ADEB-treated patients, low-RelA-pSer536 was favorably prognostic when compared to high-RelA-pSer536 (3-yr overall survival (OS): 81% vs. 68%, p = 0.032; relapse risk (RR): 30% vs. 49%, p = 0.004). Among low-RelA-pSer536 patients, RR significantly decreased with ADEB compared to ADE (RR: 30% vs. 44%, p = 0.035). Correlation between RelA-pSer536 and 295 other assayed proteins identified a strong correlation with HSF1-pSer326 , another protein previously identified as modifying ADEB response. The combination of low-RelA-pSer536 and low-HSF1-pSer326 was a significant predictor of ADEB response (3-yr OS: 86% vs. 67%, p = 0.013). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Bortezomib may improve clinical outcome in a subgroup of AML patients identified by low-RelA-pSer536 and low-HSF1-pSer326 .


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , NF-kappa B , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Criança , Citarabina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/induzido quimicamente , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Fosforilação , Fator de Transcrição RelA/uso terapêutico
5.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 63(3): 672-675, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668451

RESUMO

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(15;17) and the resulting gene PML-RARA, used for measurable residual disease (MRD) monitoring. Despite highly effective therapy for APL, MRD monitoring practices are not fully established. We aimed to assess the value of MRD monitoring by RT-qPCR in patients with APL treated with ATRA and arsenic trioxide +/- GO. We reviewed 223 patients with APL treated with this regimen. RT-qPCR for PML-RARA was measured every 3 months, and at 12, 18, and 24 months after therapy. Seven patients relapsed. Time to relapse was 7.9-12.4 months in 6 patients, and one patient relapsed after 79.5 months. These data show that MRD monitoring may be important for the detection of relapse in patients treated with this regimen within one year after completing therapy, however, since late molecular relapse is rare, our data suggest a low value of MRD monitoring beyond that first year.


Assuntos
Arsenicais , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda , Trióxido de Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/genética , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Óxidos , Recidiva , Translocação Genética , Tretinoína
6.
Leukemia ; 36(3): 712-722, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625713

RESUMO

The chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) armamentarium has evolved significantly, with novel therapies that inhibit Bruton Tyrosine Kinase, PI3K delta and/or the BCL2 protein improving outcomes. Still, the clinical course of CLL patients is highly variable and most previously recognized prognostic features lack the capacity to predict response to modern treatments indicating the need for new prognostic markers. In this study, we identified four epigenetically distinct proteomic signatures of a large cohort of CLL and related diseases derived samples (n = 871) using reverse phase protein array technology. These signatures are associated with clinical features including age, cytogenetic abnormalities [trisomy 12, del(13q) and del(17p)], immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus (IGHV) mutational load, ZAP-70 status, Binet and Rai staging as well as with the outcome measures of time to treatment and overall survival. Protein signature membership was identified as predictive marker for overall survival regardless of other clinical features. Among the analyzed epigenetic proteins, EZH2, HDAC6, and loss of H3K27me3 levels were the most independently associated with poor survival. These findings demonstrate that proteomic based epigenetic biomarkers can be used to better classify CLL patients and provide therapeutic guidance.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Idoso , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Feminino , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteômica
8.
Blood ; 139(6): 907-921, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601571

RESUMO

The majority of RUNX1 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are missense or deletion-truncation and behave as loss-of-function mutations. Following standard therapy, AML patients expressing mtRUNX1 exhibit inferior clinical outcome than those without mutant RUNX1. Studies presented here demonstrate that as compared with AML cells lacking mtRUNX1, their isogenic counterparts harboring mtRUNX1 display impaired ribosomal biogenesis and differentiation, as well as exhibit reduced levels of wild-type RUNX1, PU.1, and c-Myc. Compared with AML cells with only wild-type RUNX1, AML cells expressing mtRUNX1 were also more sensitive to the protein translation inhibitor homoharringtonine (omacetaxine) and BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax. Homoharringtonine treatment repressed enhancers and their BRD4 occupancy and was associated with reduced levels of c-Myc, c-Myb, MCL1, and Bcl-xL. Consistent with this, cotreatment with omacetaxine and venetoclax or BET inhibitor induced synergistic in vitro lethality in AML expressing mtRUNX1. Compared with each agent alone, cotreatment with omacetaxine and venetoclax or BET inhibitor also displayed improved in vivo anti-AML efficacy, associated with improved survival of immune-depleted mice engrafted with AML cells harboring mtRUNX1. These findings highlight superior efficacy of omacetaxine-based combination therapies for AML harboring mtRUNX1.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Mepesuccinato de Omacetaxina/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(24)2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944883

RESUMO

Children with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) tend to present with higher white blood counts and larger spleens than adults with CML, suggesting that the biology of pediatric and adult CML may differ. To investigate whether pediatric and adult CML have unique molecular characteristics, we studied the transcriptomic signature of pediatric and adult CML CD34+ cells and healthy pediatric and adult CD34+ control cells. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing, we found 567 genes (207 up- and 360 downregulated) differentially expressed in pediatric CML CD34+ cells compared to pediatric healthy CD34+ cells. Directly comparing pediatric and adult CML CD34+ cells, 398 genes (258 up- and 140 downregulated), including many in the Rho pathway, were differentially expressed in pediatric CML CD34+ cells. Using RT-qPCR to verify differentially expressed genes, VAV2 and ARHGAP27 were significantly upregulated in adult CML CD34+ cells compared to pediatric CML CD34+ cells. NCF1, CYBB, and S100A8 were upregulated in adult CML CD34+ cells but not in pediatric CML CD34+ cells, compared to healthy controls. In contrast, DLC1 was significantly upregulated in pediatric CML CD34+ cells but not in adult CML CD34+ cells, compared to healthy controls. These results demonstrate unique molecular characteristics of pediatric CML, such as dysregulation of the Rho pathway, which may contribute to clinical differences between pediatric and adult patients.

10.
Expert Rev Proteomics ; 18(12): 1087-1097, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965151

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute leukemia results from a series of mutational events that alter cell growth and proliferation. Mutations result in protein changes that orchestrate growth alterations characteristic of leukemia. Proteomics is a methodology appropriate for study of protein changes found in leukemia. The high-throughput reverse phase protein array (RPPA) technology is particularly well-suited for the assessment of protein changes in samples derived from clinical trials. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the technical, methodological, and analytical issues related to the successful development of acute leukemia RPPAs. EXPERT COMMENTARY: To obtain representative protein sample lysates, samples should be prepared from freshly collected blood or bone marrow material. Variables such as sample shipment, transit time, and holding temperature only have minimal effects on protein expression. CellSave preservation tubes are preferred for cells collected after exposure to chemotherapy, and incorporation of standardized guidelines for antibody validation is recommended. A more systematic biological approach to analyze protein expression is desired, searching for recurrent patterns of protein expression that allow classification of patients into risk groups, or groups of patients that may be treated similarly. Comparing RPPA protein analysis between cell lines and primary samples shows that cell lines are not representative of patient proteomic patterns.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas , Proteômica
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6071, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663807

RESUMO

In contrast to the curative effect of allogenic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia via T cell activity, only modest responses are achieved with checkpoint-blockade therapy, which might be explained by T cell phenotypes and T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires. Here, we show by paired single-cell RNA analysis and TCR repertoire profiling of bone marrow cells in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia patients pre/post azacytidine+nivolumab treatment that the disease-related T cell subsets are highly heterogeneous, and their abundance changes following PD-1 blockade-based treatment. TCR repertoires expand and primarily emerge from CD8+ cells in patients responding to treatment or having a stable disease, while TCR repertoires contract in therapy-resistant patients. Trajectory analysis reveals a continuum of CD8+ T cell phenotypes, characterized by differential expression of granzyme B and a bone marrow-residing memory CD8+ T cell subset, in which a population with stem-like properties expressing granzyme K is enriched in responders. Chromosome 7/7q loss, on the other hand, is a cancer-intrinsic genomic marker of PD-1 blockade resistance in AML. In summary, our study reveals that adaptive T cell plasticity and genomic alterations determine responses to PD-1 blockade in acute myeloid leukemia.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Blood Adv ; 5(22): 4569-4574, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555853

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a difficult disease to treat disease. In a phase 2 clinical trial in patients with relapsed/refractory AML, combining the hypomethylating agent, azacitidine, with the PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab, demonstrated encouraging response rates (33%), median event-free, and overall survival, compared with a historical cohort of contemporary patients treated with azacitidine-based therapies, with an acceptable safety profile. Biomarkers of response are yet to be determined. In this study, we leveraged a multiplexed immune assay to assess the functional states of CD4+ and CD8+ cells at a single-cell level in pretherapy bone marrows in 16 patients with relapsed/refractory AML treated with azacitidine/nivolumab. Effector CD4+ but not CD8+ cells had distinct polyfunctional groups and were associated with responses and better outcomes. Further evaluation of the polyfunctional strength index composition across cell types revealed that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were the major drivers of enhanced polyfunctionality index of pretherapy CD4+ subset, whereas Granzyme B, IFN-γ, MIP-1b, and TNF-α drove the nonsignificantly enhanced pretreatment Polyfunctional Strength Index of CD8+ subset in the responders. Single-cell polyfunctional assays were predictive of response in AML and may have a potential role as a biomarker in the wider sphere of immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Proteômica , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Oncogene ; 40(43): 6166-6179, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535769

RESUMO

The transcription factors PAX5, IKZF1, and EBF1 are frequently mutated in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). We demonstrate that compound heterozygous loss of multiple genes critical for B and T cell development drives transformation, including Pax5+/-xEbf1+/-, Pax5+/-xIkzf1+/-, and Ebf1+/-xIkzf1+/- mice for B-ALL, or Tcf7+/-xIkzf1+/- mice for T-ALL. To identify genetic defects that cooperate with Pax5 and Ebf1 compound heterozygosity to initiate leukemia, we performed a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon screen that identified cooperating partners including gain-of-function mutations in Stat5b (~65%) and Jak1 (~68%), or loss-of-function mutations in Cblb (61%) and Myb (32%). These findings underscore the role of JAK/STAT5B signaling in B cell transformation and demonstrate roles for loss-of-function mutations in Cblb and Myb in transformation. RNA-Seq studies demonstrated upregulation of a PDK1>SGK3>MYC pathway; treatment of Pax5+/-xEbf1+/- leukemia cells with PDK1 inhibitors blocked proliferation in vitro. In addition, we identified a conserved transcriptional gene signature between human and murine leukemias characterized by upregulation of myeloid genes, most notably involving the GM-CSF pathway, that resemble a B cell/myeloid mixed-lineage leukemia. Thus, our findings identify multiple mechanisms that cooperate with defects in B cell transcription factors to generate either progenitor B cell or mixed B/myeloid-like leukemias.


Assuntos
Mutação , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transposases/genética , Animais , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Camundongos , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Transativadores/genética
14.
Am J Hematol ; 96(11): 1420-1428, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351647

RESUMO

TP53 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with resistance to standard treatments and dismal outcomes. The incidence and prognostic impact of the emergence of newly detectable TP53 mutations over the course of AML therapy has not been well described. We retrospectively analyzed 200 patients with newly diagnosed TP53 wild type AML who relapsed after or were refractory to frontline therapy. Twenty-nine patients (15%) developed a newly detectable TP53 mutation in the context of relapsed/refractory disease. The median variant allelic frequency (VAF) was 15% (range, 1.1%-95.6%). TP53 mutations were more common after intensive therapy versus lower-intensity therapy (23% vs. 10%, respectively; p = 0.02) and in patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplant versus those who had not (36% vs. 12%, respectively; p = 0.005). Lower TP53 VAF was associated with an increased likelihood of complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) compared to higher TP53 VAF (CR/CRi rate of 41% for VAF < 20% vs. 13% for VAF ≥ 20%, respectively). The median overall survival (OS) after acquisition of TP53 mutation was 4.6 months, with a 1-year OS rate of 19%. TP53 VAF at relapse was significantly associated with OS; the median OS of patients with TP53 VAF ≥ 20% was 3.5 months versus 6.1 months for those with TP53 VAF < 20% (p < 0.05). In summary, new TP53 mutations may be acquired throughout the course of AML therapy. Sequential monitoring for TP53 mutations is likely to be increasingly relevant in the era of emerging TP53-targeting therapies for AML.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Frequência do Gene , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(8): e552-e561, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addition of the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax to lower intensity therapy has been shown to improve overall survival in older (aged 75 years or older) and unfit patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of venetoclax combined with intensive chemotherapy in patients aged 65 years or younger with acute myeloid leukaemia. METHODS: This cohort study was done at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in the USA, as part of the single-centre, single arm, phase 2, CLIA trial. Here we report on the independent cohort investigating the safety and activity of venetoclax added to intensive chemotherapy (the CLIA regimen [cladribine, high-dose cytarabine, idarubicin]). Eligible patients were aged 18-65 years with a new diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia, mixed phenotype acute leukaemia, or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (≥10% blasts or International Prognostic Scoring System ≥2 [intermediate]), who received no previous potentially curative therapy for leukaemia. Patients received cladribine (5 mg/m2) and cytarabine (1·5 g/m2 for patients aged <60 years, 1 g/m2 for patients aged ≥60 years) intravenously on days 1-5 and idarubicin (10 mg/m2) intravenously on days 1-3. Consolidation was cladribine (5 mg/m2) and cytarabine (1 g/m2 for patients aged <60 years and 0·75 g/m2 for patients aged ≥60 years) on days 1-3 and idarubicin (8 mg/m2) on days 1-2. Venetoclax (400 mg) was given on days 2-8 with each course. Patients with a known FLT3-ITD or FLT3-TKD mutation received midostaurin or gilteritinib. The primary outcome was composite complete response (complete response plus complete response with incomplete blood count recovery). Secondary outcomes were overall response, duration of response, event-free survival, overall survival, and safety. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02115295. FINDINGS: Between Feb 25, 2019, and March 23, 2021, 77 patients were assessed for eligibility, 50 of whom were enrolled. Median age was 48 years (IQR 37-56). 47 (94% [95% CI 83-98]) patients had composite complete response, with the same proportion also having an overall response; two (4% [1-14]) patients did not respond, and one (2% [0-11]) patient died during induction. 37 (82% [95% CI 68-92]) of 45 patients had undetectable measurable residual disease (MRD). At a median follow-up of 13·5 months (IQR 6·4-19·5), the median duration of response, event-free survival, and overall survival were not reached. At 12 months, the estimated duration of response was 74% (95% CI 60-92), event-free survival was 68% (54-85), and overall survival was 85% (75-97). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or worse were febrile neutropenia (42 [84%] patients), infection (six [12%]), and alanine aminotransferase elevations (six [12%]). There was one death during induction in a patient treated with CLIA-venetoclax plus a FLT3 inhibitor. Two patients died of infectious complications while in complete response in consolidation cycles, both of whom had FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia and were receiving combined therapy with a FLT3 inhibitor. No deaths were deemed to be treatment related. INTERPRETATION: Venetoclax added to CLIA was safe and active in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, producing high rates of durable MRD-negative remissions and encouraging event-free survival and overall survival. FUNDING: MD Anderson Cancer Center.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Cladribina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Idarubicina/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Risco , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
Blood ; 138(23): 2383-2395, 2021 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280258

RESUMO

Asparaginase (ASNase) therapy has been a mainstay of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) protocols for decades and shows promise in the treatment of a variety of other cancers. To improve the efficacy of ASNase treatment, we used a CRISPR/Cas9-based screen to identify actionable signaling intermediates that improve the response to ASNase. Both genetic inactivation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and pharmacological inhibition by the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib strongly synergize with ASNase by inhibiting the amino acid response pathway, a mechanism involving c-Myc-mediated suppression of GCN2 activity. This synthetic lethal interaction was observed in 90% of patient-derived xenografts, regardless of the genomic subtype. Moreover, ibrutinib substantially improved ASNase treatment response in a murine PDX model. Hence, ibrutinib may be used to enhance the clinical efficacy of ASNase in ALL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as # NCT02884453.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Asparaginase/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adenina/farmacologia , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Asparaginase/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Camundongos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Cancer Discov ; 11(11): 2846-2867, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103329

RESUMO

Lineage-ambiguous leukemias are high-risk malignancies of poorly understood genetic basis. Here, we describe a distinct subgroup of acute leukemia with expression of myeloid, T lymphoid, and stem cell markers driven by aberrant allele-specific deregulation of BCL11B, a master transcription factor responsible for thymic T-lineage commitment and specification. Mechanistically, this deregulation was driven by chromosomal rearrangements that juxtapose BCL11B to superenhancers active in hematopoietic progenitors, or focal amplifications that generate a superenhancer from a noncoding element distal to BCL11B. Chromatin conformation analyses demonstrated long-range interactions of rearranged enhancers with the expressed BCL11B allele and association of BCL11B with activated hematopoietic progenitor cell cis-regulatory elements, suggesting BCL11B is aberrantly co-opted into a gene regulatory network that drives transformation by maintaining a progenitor state. These data support a role for ectopic BCL11B expression in primitive hematopoietic cells mediated by enhancer hijacking as an oncogenic driver of human lineage-ambiguous leukemia. SIGNIFICANCE: Lineage-ambiguous leukemias pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges due to a poorly understood molecular and cellular basis. We identify oncogenic deregulation of BCL11B driven by diverse structural alterations, including de novo superenhancer generation, as the driving feature of a subset of lineage-ambiguous leukemias that transcend current diagnostic boundaries.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 2659.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Proteínas Repressoras , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/biossíntese , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/biossíntese , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
18.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 171, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an indolent heme malignancy characterized by the accumulation of CD5+ CD19+ B cells and episodes of relapse. The biological signaling that influence episodes of relapse in CLL are not fully described. Here, we identify gene networks associated with CLL relapse and survival risk. METHODS: Networks were investigated by using a novel weighted gene network co-expression analysis method and examining overrepresentation of upstream regulators and signaling pathways within co-expressed transcriptome modules across clinically annotated transcriptomes from CLL patients (N = 203). Gene Ontology analysis was used to identify biological functions overrepresented in each module. Differential Expression of modules and individual genes was assessed using an ANOVA (Binet Stage A and B relapsed patients) or T-test (SF3B1 mutations). The clinical relevance of biomarker candidates was evaluated using log-rank Kaplan Meier (survival and relapse interval) and ROC tests. RESULTS: Eight distinct modules (M2, M3, M4, M7, M9, M10, M11, M13) were significantly correlated with relapse and differentially expressed between relapsed and non-relapsed Binet Stage A CLL patients. The biological functions of modules positively correlated with relapse were carbohydrate and mRNA metabolism, whereas negatively correlated modules to relapse were protein translation associated. Additionally, M1, M3, M7, and M13 modules negatively correlated with overall survival. CLL biomarkers BTK, BCL2, and TP53 were co-expressed, while unmutated IGHV biomarker ZAP70 and cell survival-associated NOTCH1 were co-expressed in modules positively correlated with relapse and negatively correlated with survival days. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel insights into CLL relapse biology and pathways associated with known and novel biomarkers for relapse and overall survival. The modules associated with relapse and overall survival represented both known and novel pathways associated with CLL pathogenesis and can be a resource for the CLL research community. The hub genes of these modules, e.g., ARHGAP27P2, C1S, CASC2, CLEC3B, CRY1, CXCR5, FUT5, MID1IP1, and URAHP, can be studied further as new therapeutic targets or clinical markers to predict CLL patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B
19.
Nat Cancer ; 2(3): 284-299, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151288

RESUMO

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy, and novel therapeutics are much needed. Profiling patient leukemia' drug sensitivities ex vivo, we discovered that 44.4% of childhood and 16.7% of adult T-ALL cases exquisitely respond to dasatinib. Applying network-based systems pharmacology analyses to examine signal circuitry, we identified preTCR-LCK activation as the driver of dasatinib sensitivity, and T-ALL-specific LCK dependency was confirmed in genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screens. Dasatinib-sensitive T-ALLs exhibited high BCL-XL and low BCL2 activity and venetoclax resistance. Discordant sensitivity of T-ALL to dasatinib and venetoclax is strongly correlated with T-cell differentiation, particularly with the dynamic shift in LCK vs. BCL2 activation. Finally, single-cell analysis identified leukemia heterogeneity in LCK and BCL2 signaling and T-cell maturation stage, consistent with dasatinib response. In conclusion, our results indicate that developmental arrest in T-ALL drives differential activation of preTCR-LCK and BCL2 signaling in this leukemia, providing unique opportunities for targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Linfócitos T
20.
Cancer ; 127(20): 3761-3771, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have limited treatment options. In preclinical models of AML, inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis demonstrated antileukemic activity. Avelumab is an anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) approved in multiple solid tumors. The authors conducted a phase 1b/2 clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of azacitidine with avelumab in patients with R/R AML. METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years who had R/R AML received azacitidine 75 mg/m2 on days 1 through 7 and avelumab on days 1 and 14 of 28-day cycles. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were treated. The median age was 66 years (range, 22-83 years), 100% had European LeukemiaNet 2017 adverse-risk disease, and 63% had prior exposure to a hypomethylating agent. Avelumab was dosed at 3 mg/kg for the first 7 patients and at 10 mg/kg for the subsequent 12 patients. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia and anemia in 2 patients each. Two patients experienced immune-related adverse events of grade 2 and grade 3 pneumonitis, respectively. The overall complete remission rate was 10.5%, and both were complete remission with residual thrombocytopenia. The median overall survival was 4.8 months. Bone marrow blasts were analyzed for immune-related markers by mass cytometry and demonstrated significantly higher expression of PD-L2 compared with PD-L1 both pretherapy and at all time points during therapy, with increasing PD-L2 expression on therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Although the combination of azacitidine and avelumab was well tolerated, clinical activity was limited. High expression of PD-L2 on bone marrow blasts may be an important mechanism of resistance to anti-PD-L1 therapy in AML. LAY SUMMARY: This report describes the results of a phase 1b/2 study of azacitidine with the anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor avelumab for patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The clinical activity of the combination therapy was modest, with an overall response rate of 10.5%. However, mass cytometry analysis revealed significantly higher expression of PD-L2 compared with PD-L1 on AML blasts from all patients who were analyzed at all time points. These data suggest a novel potential role for PD-L2 as a means of AML immune escape.


Assuntos
Azacitidina , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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