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2.
JCI Insight ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of an early repolarization pattern (ERP) on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is associated with risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Family studies have shown that ERP is a highly heritable trait but molecular genetic determinants are unknown. METHODS: To identify genetic susceptibility loci for ERP, we performed a GWAS and meta-analysis in 2,181 cases and 23,641 controls of European ancestry. RESULTS: We identified a genome-wide significant (p<5E-8) locus in the KCND3 (potassium voltage gated channel subfamily D member 3) gene that was successfully replicated in additional 1,124 cases and 12,510 controls. A subsequent joint meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts identified rs1545300 as the lead SNP at the KCND3 locus (OR 0.82 per minor T allele, p=7.7E-12), but did not reveal additional loci. Co-localization analyses indicate causal effects of KCND3 gene expression levels on ERP in both cardiac left ventricle and tibial artery. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we identified for the first time a genome-wide significant association of a genetic variant with ERP. Our findings of a locus in the KCND3 gene not only provide insights into the genetic determinants but also into the pathophysiological mechanism of ERP, discovering a promising candidate for functional studies. FUNDING: For detailed information per study, see Acknowledgments.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 40(37): 3097-3107, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504448

RESUMO

AIMS: Sodium-channel blockers (SCBs) are associated with arrhythmia, but variability of cardiac electrical response remains unexplained. We sought to identify predictors of ajmaline-induced PR and QRS changes and Type I Brugada syndrome (BrS) electrocardiogram (ECG). METHODS AND RESULTS: In 1368 patients that underwent ajmaline infusion for suspected BrS, we performed measurements of 26 721 ECGs, dose-response mixed modelling and genotyping. We calculated polygenic risk scores (PRS) for PR interval (PRSPR), QRS duration (PRSQRS), and Brugada syndrome (PRSBrS) derived from published genome-wide association studies and used regression analysis to identify predictors of ajmaline dose related PR change (slope) and QRS slope. We derived and validated using bootstrapping a predictive model for ajmaline-induced Type I BrS ECG. Higher PRSPR, baseline PR, and female sex are associated with more pronounced PR slope, while PRSQRS and age are positively associated with QRS slope (P < 0.01 for all). PRSBrS, baseline QRS duration, presence of Type II or III BrS ECG at baseline, and family history of BrS are independently associated with the occurrence of a Type I BrS ECG, with good predictive accuracy (optimism-corrected C-statistic 0.74). CONCLUSION: We show for the first time that genetic factors underlie the variability of cardiac electrical response to SCB. PRSBrS, family history, and a baseline ECG can predict the development of a diagnostic drug-induced Type I BrS ECG with clinically relevant accuracy. These findings could lead to the use of PRS in the diagnosis of BrS and, if confirmed in population studies, to identify patients at risk for toxicity when given SCB.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6281, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000794

RESUMO

Compounds that are candidates for drug repurposing can be ranked by leveraging knowledge available in the biomedical literature and databases. This knowledge, spread across a variety of sources, can be integrated within a knowledge graph, which thereby comprehensively describes known relationships between biomedical concepts, such as drugs, diseases, genes, etc. Our work uses the semantic information between drug and disease concepts as features, which are extracted from an existing knowledge graph that integrates 200 different biological knowledge sources. RepoDB, a standard drug repurposing database which describes drug-disease combinations that were approved or that failed in clinical trials, is used to train a random forest classifier. The 10-times repeated 10-fold cross-validation performance of the classifier achieves a mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 92.2%. We apply the classifier to prioritize 21 preclinical drug repurposing candidates that have been suggested for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Mozavaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist is predicted to be the drug most likely to be approved after a clinical trial, and belongs to the same drug class as tolvaptan, the only treatment for ADPKD that is currently approved. We conclude that semantic properties of concepts in a knowledge graph can be exploited to prioritize drug repurposing candidates for testing in clinical trials.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 285: 32-39, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported changes in electrocardiographic variables after atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. However no temporal electro-and vectorcardiographic changes have been described from acute to long-term follow-up at different ages. We aimed to study electrical remodeling after percutaneous ASD closure in pediatric and adult patients. METHODS: ECGs of 69 children and 75 adults (median age 6 [IQR 4-11] years and 45 [IQR 33-54] years, respectively) were retrospectively selected before percutaneous ASD closure and at acute (1-7 days), intermediate (4-14 weeks) and late (6-18 months) follow-up. Apart from electrocardiographic variables, spatial QRS-T angle and ventricular gradient (VG) were derived from mathematically-synthesized vectorcardiograms. RESULTS: In both pediatric and adult patients, the heart rate decreased immediately post-closure, which persisted to late follow-up. The P-wave amplitude also decreased acutely post-closure, but remained unchanged at later follow-up. The PQ duration shortened immediately in children and at intermediate follow-up in adults. The QRS duration and QTc interval decreased at intermediate-term follow-up in both children and adults. In both groups the spatial QRS-T angle decreased at late follow-up. The VG magnitude increased at intermediate follow-up in children and at late follow-up in adults, after an initial decrease in children. CONCLUSION: In both pediatric and adult ASD patients, electrocardiographic changes mainly occurred directly after ASD closure except for shortening of QRS duration and QTc interval, which occurred at later follow-up. Adults also showed late changes in PQ duration. At 6-to-18 month post-closure, the spatial QRS-T angle decreased, reflecting increased electrocardiographic concordance. The initial acute decrease in VG in children, which was followed by a significant increase, may be the effect of action potential duration dynamics directly after percutaneous ASD closure.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212999, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Propensity score (PS) methods are commonly used to control for confounding in comparative effectiveness studies. Electronic health records (EHRs) contain much unstructured data that could be used as proxies for potential confounding factors. The goal of this study was to assess whether the unstructured information can also be used to construct PS models that would allow to properly deal with confounding. We used an example of coxibs (Cox-2 inhibitors) vs. traditional NSAIDs and the risk of upper gastro-intestinal bleeding as example, since this association is often confounded due to channeling of coxibs to patients at higher risk of upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. METHODS: In a cohort study of new users of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) from the Dutch Integrated Primary Care Information (IPCI) database, we identified all patients who experienced an upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). We used a large-scale regularized regression to fit two PS models using all structured and unstructured information in the EHR. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) to estimate the risk of UGIB among selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor users compared to nonselective NSAID (nsNSAID) users. RESULTS: The crude hazard ratio of UGIB for COX-2 inhibitors compared to nsNSAIDs was 0.50 (95% confidence interval 0.18-1.36). Matching only on age resulted in an HR of 0.36 (0.11-1.16), and of 0.35 (0.11-1.11) when further adjusted for sex. Matching on PS only, the first model yielded an HR of 0.42 (0.13-1.38), which reduced to 0.35 (0.96-1.25) when adjusted for age and sex. The second model resulted in an HR of 0.42 (0.13-1.39), which dropped to 0.31 (0.09-1.08) after adjustment for age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: PS models can be created using unstructured information in EHRs. An incremental benefit was observed by matching on PS over traditional matching and adjustment for covariates.

7.
Database (Oxford) ; 20192019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698776

RESUMO

In commercial research and development projects, public disclosure of new chemical compounds often takes place in patents. Only a small proportion of these compounds are published in journals, usually a few years after the patent. Patent authorities make available the patents but do not provide systematic continuous chemical annotations. Content databases such as Elsevier's Reaxys provide such services mostly based on manual excerptions, which are time-consuming and costly. Automatic text-mining approaches help overcome some of the limitations of the manual process. Different text-mining approaches exist to extract chemical entities from patents. The majority of them have been developed using sub-sections of patent documents and focus on mentions of compounds. Less attention has been given to relevancy of a compound in a patent. Relevancy of a compound to a patent is based on the patent's context. A relevant compound plays a major role within a patent. Identification of relevant compounds reduces the size of the extracted data and improves the usefulness of patent resources (e.g. supports identifying the main compounds). Annotators of databases like Reaxys only annotate relevant compounds. In this study, we design an automated system that extracts chemical entities from patents and classifies their relevance. The gold-standard set contained 18 789 chemical entity annotations. Of these, 10% were relevant compounds, 88% were irrelevant and 2% were equivocal. Our compound recognition system was based on proprietary tools. The performance (F-score) of the system on compound recognition was 84% on the development set and 86% on the test set. The relevancy classification system had an F-score of 86% on the development set and 82% on the test set. Our system can extract chemical compounds from patents and classify their relevance with high performance. This enables the extension of the Reaxys database by means of automation.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados/métodos , Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos , Patentes como Assunto , Curadoria de Dados
8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 952-962, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679814

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of quantitative electrocardiographic (ECG) traits in large consortia have identified more than 130 loci associated with QT interval, QRS duration, PR interval, and heart rate (RR interval). In the current study, we meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 30,000 mostly Dutch samples on four ECG traits: PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval, and RR interval. SNP genotype data was imputed using the Genome of the Netherlands reference panel encompassing 19 million SNPs, including millions of rare SNPs (minor allele frequency < 5%). In addition to many known loci, we identified seven novel locus-trait associations: KCND3, NR3C1, and PLN for PR interval, KCNE1, SGIP1, and NFKB1 for QT interval, and ATP2A2 for QRS duration, of which six were successfully replicated. At these seven loci, we performed conditional analyses and annotated significant SNPs (in exons and regulatory regions), demonstrating involvement of cardiac-related pathways and regulation of nearby genes.

9.
J Biomed Semantics ; 9(1): 23, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomedical knowledge graphs have become important tools to computationally analyse the comprehensive body of biomedical knowledge. They represent knowledge as subject-predicate-object triples, in which the predicate indicates the relationship between subject and object. A triple can also contain provenance information, which consists of references to the sources of the triple (e.g. scientific publications or database entries). Knowledge graphs have been used to classify drug-disease pairs for drug efficacy screening, but existing computational methods have often ignored predicate and provenance information. Using this information, we aimed to develop a supervised machine learning classifier and determine the added value of predicate and provenance information for drug efficacy screening. To ensure the biological plausibility of our method we performed our research on the protein level, where drugs are represented by their drug target proteins, and diseases by their disease proteins. RESULTS: Using random forests with repeated 10-fold cross-validation, our method achieved an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 78.1% and 74.3% for two reference sets. We benchmarked against a state-of-the-art knowledge-graph technique that does not use predicate and provenance information, obtaining AUCs of 65.6% and 64.6%, respectively. Classifiers that only used predicate information performed superior to classifiers that only used provenance information, but using both performed best. CONCLUSION: We conclude that both predicate and provenance information provide added value for drug efficacy screening.

10.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 27(11): 1249-1256, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postmarketing drug safety surveillance relies upon measures of disproportionate reporting in spontaneous reporting systems. It has been hypothesized that products or events reported frequently may "mask" signals. METHODS: We analyzed the masking effect of vaccines in pediatrics in the EudraVigilance database by conducting disproportionality analysis in the full database (containing vaccine exposures) and in a restricted set (excluding vaccine exposures). We measured performance of the reporting odds ratio (ROR) in both data sets using a pediatric-specific drug reference set and in the absence of a reference set. We assessed masking effects across age groups and conducted a classification tree (CART) analysis. RESULTS: Removal of vaccines decreased the ROR values both in negative and positive controls. Exceptions were drug-event combinations including outcomes frequent in vaccine reports. When restricted to positive control associations, removal of vaccine-related events resulted in increased ROR values for events commonly reported following vaccination. For events rarely associated with vaccination, ROR values decreased for all age groups, especially infants. Analysis in the absence of a reference set showed decrease in ROR following vaccine removal and CART revealed that change in ROR with vaccine removal depended upon age and proportion of reports including a vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Removal of vaccines for signal detection in a pediatric population has an impact on ROR, dependent upon the reporting frequency of the event of interest in combination with vaccines. We recommend stratification by age and removal of vaccine exposures if the investigated adverse drug reactions include those typically reported in association with vaccines for the age strata.

11.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(1): e001758, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: QT interval, measured through a standard ECG, captures the time it takes for the cardiac ventricles to depolarize and repolarize. JT interval is the component of the QT interval that reflects ventricular repolarization alone. Prolonged QT interval has been linked to higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an ExomeChip-wide analysis for both QT and JT intervals, including 209 449 variants, both common and rare, in 17 341 genes from the Illumina Infinium HumanExome BeadChip. We identified 10 loci that modulate QT and JT interval duration that have not been previously reported in the literature using single-variant statistical models in a meta-analysis of 95 626 individuals from 23 cohorts (comprised 83 884 European ancestry individuals, 9610 blacks, 1382 Hispanics, and 750 Asians). This brings the total number of ventricular repolarization associated loci to 45. In addition, our approach of using coding variants has highlighted the role of 17 specific genes for involvement in ventricular repolarization, 7 of which are in novel loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses show a role for myocyte internal structure and interconnections in modulating QT interval duration, adding to previous known roles of potassium, sodium, and calcium ion regulation, as well as autonomic control. We anticipate that these discoveries will open new paths to the goal of making novel remedies for the prevention of lethal ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest.

12.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(5): e002037, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrical conduction from the cardiac sinoatrial node to the ventricles is critical for normal heart function. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than a dozen common genetic loci that are associated with PR interval. However, it is unclear whether rare and low-frequency variants also contribute to PR interval heritability. METHODS: We performed large-scale meta-analyses of the PR interval that included 83 367 participants of European ancestry and 9436 of African ancestry. We examined both common and rare variants associated with the PR interval. RESULTS: We identified 31 genetic loci that were significantly associated with PR interval after Bonferroni correction (P<1.2×10-6), including 11 novel loci that have not been reported previously. Many of these loci are involved in heart morphogenesis. In gene-based analysis, we found that multiple rare variants at MYH6 (P=5.9×10-11) and SCN5A (P=1.1×10-7) were associated with PR interval. SCN5A locus also was implicated in the common variant analysis, whereas MYH6 was a novel locus. CONCLUSIONS: We identified common variants at 11 novel loci and rare variants within 2 gene regions that were significantly associated with PR interval. Our findings provide novel insights to the current understanding of atrioventricular conduction, which is critical for cardiac activity and an important determinant of health.

13.
Front Physiol ; 9: 424, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755366

RESUMO

Purpose: Heart-rate variability (HRV) measured on standard 10-s electrocardiograms (ECGs) has been associated with increased risk of cardiac and all-cause mortality, but age- and sex-dependent normal values have not been established. Since heart rate strongly affects HRV, its effect should be taken into account. We determined a comprehensive set of normal values of heart-rate corrected HRV derived from 10-s ECGs for both children and adults, covering both sexes. Methods: Five population studies in the Netherlands (Pediatric Normal ECG Study, Leiden University Einthoven Science Project, Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Study, Utrecht Health Project, Rotterdam Study) provided 10-s, 12-lead ECGs. ECGs were stored digitally and analyzed by well-validated analysis software. We included cardiologically healthy participants, 42% being men. Their ages ranged from 11 days to 91 years. After quality control, 13,943 ECGs were available. Heart-rate correction formulas were derived using an exponential model. Two time-domain HRV markers were analyzed: the corrected standard deviation of the normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNNc) and corrected root mean square of successive RR-interval differences (RMSSDc). Results: There was a considerable age effect. For both SDNNc and RMSSDc, the median and the lower limit of normal decreased steadily from birth until old age. The upper limit of normal decreased until the age of 60, but increased markedly after that age. Differences of the median were minimal between men and women. Conclusion: We report the first comprehensive set of normal values for heart-rate corrected 10-s HRV, which can be of value in clinical practice and in further research.

14.
BMC Med Genomics ; 11(1): 22, 2018 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiographic measures of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are used as predictors of cardiovascular risk. We combined linkage and association analyses to discover novel rare genetic variants involved in three such measures and two principal components derived from them. METHODS: The study was conducted among participants from the Erasmus Rucphen Family Study (ERF), a Dutch family-based sample from the southwestern Netherlands. Variance components linkage analyses were performed using Merlin. Regions of interest (LOD > 1.9) were fine-mapped using microarray and exome sequence data. RESULTS: We observed one significant LOD score for the second principal component on chromosome 15 (LOD score = 3.01) and 12 suggestive LOD scores. Several loci contained variants identified in GWAS for these traits; however, these did not explain the linkage peaks, nor did other common variants. Exome sequence data identified two associated variants after multiple testing corrections were applied. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find common SNPs explaining these linkage signals. Exome sequencing uncovered a relatively rare variant in MAPK3K11 on chromosome 11 (MAF = 0.01) that helped account for the suggestive linkage peak observed for the first principal component. Conditional analysis revealed a drop in LOD from 2.01 to 0.88 for MAP3K11, suggesting that this variant may partially explain the linkage signal at this chromosomal location. MAP3K11 is related to the JNK pathway and is a pro-apoptotic kinase that plays an important role in the induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in various pathologies, including LVH.

15.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 10(4)2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28794112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The P wave on an ECG is a measure of atrial electric function, and its characteristics may serve as predictors for atrial arrhythmias. Increased mean P-wave duration and P-wave terminal force traditionally have been used as markers for left atrial enlargement, and both have been associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Here, we explore the genetic basis of P-wave morphology through meta-analysis of genome-wide association study results for P-wave duration and P-wave terminal force from 12 cohort studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 44 456 individuals, of which 6778 (16%) were of African ancestry. Genotyping, imputation, and genome-wide association study were performed at each study site. Summary-level results were meta-analyzed centrally using inverse-variance weighting. In meta-analyses of P-wave duration, we identified 6 significant (P<5×10-8) novel loci and replicated a prior association with SCN10A. We identified 3 loci at SCN5A, TBX5, and CAV1/CAV2 that were jointly associated with the PR interval, PR segment, and P-wave duration. We identified 6 novel loci in meta-analysis of P-wave terminal force. Four of the identified genetic loci were significantly associated with gene expression in 329 left atrial samples. Finally, we observed that some of the loci associated with the P wave were linked to overall atrial conduction, whereas others identified distinct phases of atrial conduction. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 6 novel genetic loci associated with P-wave duration and 6 novel loci associated with P-wave terminal force. Future studies of these loci may aid in identifying new targets for drugs that may modify atrial conduction or treat atrial arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Caveolina 1/genética , Caveolina 2/genética , Genótipo , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Humanos , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética
16.
J Biomed Inform ; 71: 178-189, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28579531

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Biomedical literature and databases contain important clues for the identification of potential disease biomarkers. However, searching these enormous knowledge reservoirs and integrating findings across heterogeneous sources is costly and difficult. Here we demonstrate how semantically integrated knowledge, extracted from biomedical literature and structured databases, can be used to automatically identify potential migraine biomarkers. METHOD: We used a knowledge graph containing more than 3.5 million biomedical concepts and 68.4 million relationships. Biochemical compound concepts were filtered and ranked by their potential as biomarkers based on their connections to a subgraph of migraine-related concepts. The ranked results were evaluated against the results of a systematic literature review that was performed manually by migraine researchers. Weight points were assigned to these reference compounds to indicate their relative importance. RESULTS: Ranked results automatically generated by the knowledge graph were highly consistent with results from the manual literature review. Out of 222 reference compounds, 163 (73%) ranked in the top 2000, with 547 out of the 644 (85%) weight points assigned to the reference compounds. For reference compounds that were not in the top of the list, an extensive error analysis has been performed. When evaluating the overall performance, we obtained a ROC-AUC of 0.974. DISCUSSION: Semantic knowledge graphs composed of information integrated from multiple and varying sources can assist researchers in identifying potential disease biomarkers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Semântica , Automação , Humanos , Publicações
17.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 26(8): 998-1005, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28657162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of drug and vaccine effects by combining information from different healthcare databases in the European Union requires extensive efforts in the harmonization of codes as different vocabularies are being used across countries. In this paper, we present a web application called CodeMapper, which assists in the mapping of case definitions to codes from different vocabularies, while keeping a transparent record of the complete mapping process. METHODS: CodeMapper builds upon coding vocabularies contained in the Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical Language System. The mapping approach consists of three phases. First, medical concepts are automatically identified in a free-text case definition. Second, the user revises the set of medical concepts by adding or removing concepts, or expanding them to related concepts that are more general or more specific. Finally, the selected concepts are projected to codes from the targeted coding vocabularies. We evaluated the application by comparing codes that were automatically generated from case definitions by applying CodeMapper's concept identification and successive concept expansion, with reference codes that were manually created in a previous epidemiological study. RESULTS: Automated concept identification alone had a sensitivity of 0.246 and positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.420 for reproducing the reference codes. Three successive steps of concept expansion increased sensitivity to 0.953 and PPV to 0.616. CONCLUSIONS: Automatic concept identification in the case definition alone was insufficient to reproduce the reference codes, but CodeMapper's operations for concept expansion provide an effective, efficient, and transparent way for reproducing the reference codes.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Unified Medical Language System/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(12): 2346-2363, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379579

RESUMO

Resting heart rate is a heritable trait, and an increase in heart rate is associated with increased mortality risk. Genome-wide association study analyses have found loci associated with resting heart rate, at the time of our study these loci explained 0.9% of the variation. This study aims to discover new genetic loci associated with heart rate from Exome Chip meta-analyses.Heart rate was measured from either elecrtrocardiograms or pulse recordings. We meta-analysed heart rate association results from 104 452 European-ancestry individuals from 30 cohorts, genotyped using the Exome Chip. Twenty-four variants were selected for follow-up in an independent dataset (UK Biobank, N = 134 251). Conditional and gene-based testing was undertaken, and variants were investigated with bioinformatics methods.We discovered five novel heart rate loci, and one new independent low-frequency non-synonymous variant in an established heart rate locus (KIAA1755). Lead variants in four of the novel loci are non-synonymous variants in the genes C10orf71, DALDR3, TESK2 and SEC31B. The variant at SEC31B is significantly associated with SEC31B expression in heart and tibial nerve tissue. Further candidate genes were detected from long-range regulatory chromatin interactions in heart tissue (SCD, SLF2 and MAPK8). We observed significant enrichment in DNase I hypersensitive sites in fetal heart and lung. Moreover, enrichment was seen for the first time in human neuronal progenitor cells (derived from embryonic stem cells) and fetal muscle samples by including our novel variants.Our findings advance the knowledge of the genetic architecture of heart rate, and indicate new candidate genes for follow-up functional studies.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175087, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28403196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased variability of beat-to-beat QT-interval durations on the electrocardiogram (ECG) has been associated with increased risk for fatal and non-fatal cardiac events. However, techniques for the measurement of QT variability (QTV) have not been validated since a gold standard is not available. In this study, we propose a validation method and illustrate its use for the validation of two automatic QTV measurement techniques. METHODS: Our method generates artificial standard 12-lead ECGs based on the averaged P-QRS-T complexes from a variety of existing ECG signals, with simulated intrinsic (QT interval) and extrinsic (noise, baseline wander, signal length) variations. We quantified QTV by a commonly used measure, short-term QT variability (STV). Using 28,800 simulated ECGs, we assessed the performance of a conventional QTV measurement algorithm, resembling a manual QTV measurement approach, and a more advanced algorithm based on fiducial segment averaging (FSA). RESULTS: The results for the conventional algorithm show considerable median absolute differences between the simulated and estimated STV. For the highest noise level, median differences were 4-6 ms in the absence of QTV. Increasing signal length generally yields more accurate STV estimates, but the difference in performance between 30 or 60 beats is small. The FSA algorithm proved to be very accurate, with most median absolute differences less than 0.5 ms, even for the highest levels of disturbance. CONCLUSIONS: Artificially constructed ECGs with a variety of disturbances allow validation of QTV measurement procedures. The FSA algorithm provides highly accurate STV estimates under varying signal conditions, and performs much better than traditional beat-by-beat analysis. The fully automatic operation of the FSA algorithm enables STV measurement in large sets of ECGs.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Contração Miocárdica , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
20.
Europace ; 19(12): 2027-2035, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28371898

RESUMO

Aims: To assess the value of cardiac structure/function in predicting heart rate variability (HRV) and the possibly predictive value of HRV on cardiac parameters. Methods and results: Baseline and 4-year follow-up data from the population-based CARLA cohort were used (790 men, 646 women, aged 45-83 years at baseline and 50-87 years at follow-up). Echocardiographic and HRV recordings were performed at baseline and at follow-up. Linear regression models with a quadratic term were used. Crude and covariate adjusted estimates were calculated. Missing values were imputed by means of multiple imputation. Heart rate variability measures taken into account consisted of linear time and frequency domain [standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), high-frequency power (HF), low-frequency power (LF), LF/HF ratio] and non-linear measures [detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA1), SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2 ratio]. Echocardiographic parameters considered were ventricular mass index, diastolic interventricular septum thickness, left ventricular diastolic dimension, left atrial dimension systolic (LADS), and ejection fraction (Teichholz). A negative quadratic relation between baseline LADS and change in SDNN and HF was observed. The maximum HF and SDNN change (an increase of roughly 0.02%) was predicted at LADS of 3.72 and 3.57 cm, respectively, while the majority of subjects experienced a decrease in HRV. There was no association between further echocardiographic parameters and change in HRV, and there was no evidence of a predictive value of HRV in the prediction of changes in cardiac structure. Conclusion: In the general population, LADS predicts 4-year alteration in SDNN and HF non-linearly. Because of the novelty of the result, analyses should be replicated in other populations.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Frequência Cardíaca , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/fisiopatologia , Periodicidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Remodelamento Atrial , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica não Linear , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular
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