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1.
Pharmgenomics Pers Med ; 14: 1303-1313, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629890

RESUMO

Purpose: Severe myelosuppression in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) undergoing 6-MP-based maintenance therapy is attributed to TPMT gene polymorphisms, which is rare in Asian populations. This study aims to evaluate the role of selected polymorphisms in NUDT15, ITPA, and MRP4 genes in addition to TPMT in predicting 6-MP intolerance during ALL maintenance therapy. Patients and Methods: We screened for the presence of NUDT15*3 (c.415 C>T, rs116855232); MRP4 c.2269 C>T (rs3765534), ITPA c.94 C>A (rs1127354) polymorphisms in addition to TPMT *2 (rs1800462), *3A (*3B and *3C; rs1800460 and rs1142345) in ALL patients with documented severe neutropenia (cohort-1; n=42). These polymorphisms were then screened in a prospective cohort of ALL patients (cohort-2; n=133) and compared with 6-MP dose reduction, early/late myelotoxicity. Results: Nineteen (45%) patients in cohort-1 and 18 (14%) in cohort-2 had NUDT15 c.415 C>T variant while 4 (3%) patients in cohort-2 had TPMT*3C variant. Five (12%) in cohort-1 and 30 (24%) in cohort-2 had ITPA c.94 C>A variant while 9 (22%) and 15 (12%) had MRP4 c.2269 C>T variant in cohorts-1 and 2, respectively. All in cohort-1 and 36 (27%) in cohort-2 had severe myelotoxicity. Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) in cohort-1 and 40 (30%) patients in cohort-2 had significant 6-MP dose reduction. NUDT15 c.415 C>T variant explained severe myelotoxicity in 63% and 33% in cohort 1 and 2. TPMT*3C and ITPA c.94 C>A variants also explained myelotoxicity in cohort-2 (Median ANC: 376 vs 1014 mm3; p=0.04 and 776 vs 1023 mm3; p=0.04 respectively). NUDT15 c.415 C>T polymorphism explained significant myelotoxicity (507 vs 1298 mm3; p<0.0001) in the multivariate analysis as well (ß=-0.314, p<0.0001). Conclusion: NUDT15 c.415 C>T (15*3), TPMT*3C, as well as ITPA c.94 C>A and MRP4 c.2269 C>T polymorphisms explain hematotoxicities. Preemptive genotype-based (NUDT15*3, TPMT, ITPA c.94 C>A) 6-MP dosing could improve the outcome after maintenance therapy.

2.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605011

RESUMO

Although telomere shortening is seen frequently in patients with aplastic anaemia (AA), there are no data on its association in matched sibling donor (MSD) transplants. We evaluated the effect of pre-transplant telomere length of patients and donors, measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 163 recipients undergoing MSD transplants. The median age of patients and donors was 24 and 26 years, respectively. Fludarabine and cyclophosphamide was the main conditioning regimen used and all received peripheral blood stem cell grafts. Engraftment occurred in 89% with graft failure (primary and secondary) in 6%. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in 28% and 24%, respectively. At a median follow-up of 37 months, 117 patients (72%) were alive. All patients and donors were divided into short and long telomere length based on their median and quartile values. Patient telomere length was not associated with severity of AA, neutrophil recovery, graft failure, acute GVHD or chronic GVHD. Longer donor telomere length was associated with better overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 0·2, P = 0·006] but did not influence neutrophil recovery, graft failure, acute or chronic GVHD. The five-year overall survival was significantly better (94·9 ± 3·5% vs 65·4 ± 4·3%, P = 0·002) for donors with long (highest quartile, DTL-HQ) versus short (lower three quartiles, DTL-LQ) telomeres, respectively. On multivariate analysis, longer donor telomere length, recipient age and acute GVHD continued to remain significant. This is the first study demonstrating an association of donor telomere length on overall survival following MSD transplant for AA but it needs to be confirmed in larger studies.

3.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625794

RESUMO

Acquired genetic mutations can confer resistance to arsenic trioxide (ATO) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, such resistance-conferring mutations are rare and do not explain most disease recurrence seen in the clinic. We have generated stable ATO-resistant promyelocytic cell lines that are also less sensitive to ATRA and the combination of ATO and ATRA compared to the sensitive cell line. Characterization of these in-house generated resistant cell lines showed significant differences in immunophenotype, drug transporter expression, anti-apoptotic protein dependence, and PML-RARA mutation. Gene expression profiling revealed prominent dysregulation of the cellular metabolic pathways in these ATO resistant APL cell lines. Glycolytic inhibition by 2-DG was sufficient and comparable to the standard of care (ATO) in targeting the sensitive APL cell line. 2-DG was also effective in the in vivo transplantable APL mouse model; however, it did not affect the ATO resistant cell lines. In contrast, the resistant cell lines were significantly affected by compounds targeting the mitochondrial respiration when combined with ATO, irrespective of the ATO resistance-conferring genetic mutations or the pattern of their anti-apoptotic protein dependency. Our data demonstrate that the addition of mitocans in combination with ATO can overcome ATO resistance. We further show that this combination has the potential in the treatment of non-M3 AML and relapsed APL. The translation of this approach in the clinic needs to be explored further.

4.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607073

RESUMO

Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (SCT) using post-transplantation cyclophosphamide for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis is a reasonable therapeutic option for patients who do not have a matched sibling donor. Between 2010 and June 2020, 257 patients underwent 269 Haploidentical transplantations, including 122 children. Indications included both malignant (56.8%) and non-malignant (43.2%) diseases. Conditioning regimens included both myeloablative (57.6%) and nonmyeloablative regimens (42.4%). Peripheral blood stem cells were the predominant graft source (96.2%). Based on the disease risk index, patients were classified into early-, intermediate-, and late-stage disease. Engraftment was seen in 205 patients (76.2%) whereas 39 (14.4%) died before engraftment and 23 (8.6%) had primary graft failure. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 47.8% with a 23.9% incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD. Chronic GVHD was seen in 41.9% with a 15.4% incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. More than 90% had at least 1 documented infection with a 44% incidence of bacterial, 71% viral, and 38% fungal infection. The 2-year overall survival is 40.5% ± 3.2% with a higher survival among children (48.2% ± 3.4%) compared to adults (34.2% ± 4.1%). Survival was poor with late-stage disease (23.6% ± 4.3%) compared to early- (62.5% ± 7.5%) and intermediate-stage (50.3% ± 4.3%). Factors adversely affecting survival included older age of patient (P = .007), late disease status (P = .000), nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen (P = .003), bone marrow as graft source (P = .006), presence of acute GVHD (P = .069), primary graft failure (P = .000), and presence of a documented bacterial (P = .000) and fungal infection (P = .000). On multivariate analysis, older age (P = .027), presence of acute GVHD (P = .033), documented bacterial infection (P = .000), documented fungal infection (P = .000) and primary graft failure (P = .012) continued to remain significant. Haploidentical SCT offers a reasonable chance of cure for patients with both malignant and nonmalignant hematological diseases. Strategies to reduce aGVHD and infection related mortality needs to be explored further. © 20XX American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

5.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 409.e1-409.e6, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965181

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using fludarabine (Flu)-based conditioning regimens are being increasingly being used in patients with aplastic anemia (AA). We describe an antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-free conditioning regimen consisting of Flu and cyclophosphamide (Cy) in patients undergoing matched related donor (MRD) HSCT for AA. Between 2004 and 2019, 212 patients underwent MRD HSCT using Flu (30 mg/m2/day for 6 days) and Cy (60 mg/kg/day for 2 days) for conditioning. The graft source was peripheral blood stem cells in all patients. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted mainly of cyclosporine and methotrexate, although 41 patients received post-transplantation Cy as part of a study. Engraftment occurred in 91% of patients at a median of 16 days, whereas 4 patients (1.8%) experienced primary graft failure and 15 (7.1%) died before achieving engraftment. Toxicity was minimal. The incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) was 27.9%, and that of grade III-IV aGVHD was 11.3%. Chronic GVHD occurred in 41.6%. 80% were free of immunosuppression at 60 months and long-term complications were seen in 8.4%. At a median of 46 months, 158 patients were alive and well, with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 75.3 ± 3.0%. The 5-year OS was 80.6 ± 4.1% for patients age <20 years (n = 93), 74.5 ± 4.6% for those age 20 to 40 years (n = 91), and 59.7 ± 9.5% for those age >40 years (n = 28) (P = .11). Patients classified as low risk had better OS compared with those at high risk (93.2 ± 2.9% versus 65.7 ± 4.1%; P = .000). Factors affecting OS on multivariate analysis included aGVHD (P = .02) and graft failure (P = .000). This large series using Flu/Cy for conditioning before MRD HSCT confirms good outcomes in patients with AA, with excellent outcomes in low-risk patients. Suitable modifications are needed to improve outcomes in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica , Adulto , Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(4): 658-663, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988307

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ZNF384 gene fusions resulting from translocations with several partner genes have been described in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with a characteristic immunophenotype (aberrant CD13 and or CD33 with dim CD10). The prognosis of patients with this rearrangement appears to depend on the fusion partner. ZNF384 rearrangements have been identified by high through put technologies such as RNA sequencing in most of the studies published. We tested the feasibility of using the characteristic immunophenotype as a tool to screen for patients with ZNF384 translocations which can be subsequently confirmed by cytogenetic / molecular methodologies. METHODS: ZNF384 rearrangements in B-ALL patients at diagnosis with CD10 <80% and were negative for the BCR-ABL1 fusion (n = 109) were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization followed by confirmation by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. The end of induction measurable residual disease evaluated by flow cytometry for these patients was obtained from patient records. RESULTS: ZNF384 translocations were identified in 14 patients and were cytogenetically cryptic in 13. EP300-ZNF384 was the most common fusion partner (n = 12), while TAF15-ZNF384 and TCF3-ZNF384 were identified in 1 patient each. End of induction MRD by flow cytometry was positive in 5 of 8 patients with the EP300-ZNF384 fusion treated at our center. CONCLUSION: Our findings show a practical approach for the identification of ZNF384 gene rearrangements by widely available technologies and indicate that the response to therapy may be heterogeneous even in this subset, which has been reported as having a favorable prognosis.


Assuntos
Rearranjo Gênico , Imunofenotipagem , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Transativadores/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/tratamento farmacológico
7.
AACE Clin Case Rep ; 7(1): 69-71, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851024

RESUMO

Objective: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has varied clinical presentations. Hematologic abnormalities secondary to PHPT have been described before. However, pancytopenia as the initial presentation has rarely been reported. We report a patient with PHPT who presented for evaluation of pancytopenia. Methods: Histopathology of the bone marrow at presentation is described. Bone biochemistry results and the hematologic profile before and after curative parathyroidectomy are presented. Results: A 48-year-old woman presented with pancytopenia (hemoglobin, 6.3 g/dL; total leucocyte count, 3000 cells/mm3; and platelet count, 60 000 cells/mm3), and her bone marrow study showed marrow fibrosis. Biochemical evaluation revealed hypercalcemia (15.5 mg/dL), hypophosphatemia (2.2 mg/dL), and elevated total alkaline phosphatase (4132 U/L). Bone mineral density assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan revealed osteoporosis at all 3 sites, which was more severe in the distal one third of the forearm. Further investigations confirmed the diagnosis of PHPT (serum parathyroid hormone, 2082 pg/mL). Following curative parathyroidectomy, in addition to normalization of calcium, there was restoration of all 3 hematologic cell lines at 3 months. Conclusion: Pancytopenia may be a rare manifestation of PHPT. Thus, it may be prudent to evaluate the calcium profile in patients with chronic refractory anemia and pancytopenia.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Recurrent somatic mutations in the JAK2, calreticulin (CALR), and the MPL genes are described as drivers of BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) that includes polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF), and MPN unclassified (MPN-U). METHODS: We describe the mutation profile and clinical features of MPN cases diagnosed at a tertiary care center. JAK2V617F and MPL (S505/W515) mutations were screened by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, while CALR exon 9 and JAK2 exon 12 mutations were screened by fragment analysis/Sanger sequencing. Among the 1,570 patients tested for these mutations during the study period, 407 were classified as MPN with a diagnosis of PV, ET, PMF, and MPN-U seen in 30%, 17%, 36%, and 17%, respectively, screened. RESULTS: Similar to previous reports from Asian countries, the incidence of PMF was the highest among the classic MPN. JAK2V617F mutation was detected in 90% of PV, 38% of ET, 48% of PMF, and 65% of MPN-U. JAK2 exon 12 mutations were seen in 5.7% of PV and 1.4% of PMF. CALR exon 9 mutations were seen in 33% of ET, 33% of PMF, and 12% of MPN-U. MPL mutations were detected in 2.8%, 2.7%, and 2.9% of ET, PMF, and MPN-U, respectively. Fifteen % of PMF, 26% of ET, and 22% of MPN-U were triple negative. CONCLUSION: There was a significantly higher incidence of CALR mutation in PMF and ET cases. Our study highlights the challenges in the diagnosis of JAK2-negative PV and the need for harmonization of criteria for the same.

9.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus ; 37(1): 157-161, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707850

RESUMO

Sitosterolemia is a rare autosomal recessively inherited lipid metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyper absorption of plant sterols from the intestinal mucosa leading to toxic levels in the blood. Four patients of age ranging from 11 to 29 years presented to the outpatient department with clinical features of hemolytic anemia. There were no features of hypercholesterolemia in any of the patients. Peripheral smear examination of all four patients showed stomatocytes and macrothrombocytopenia. Qualitative testing for plant sterols was performed in one case. Next generation sequencing revealed a compound heterozygous mutation in ABCG5 gene (c.1222C>T and c.1255C>T) in one case and homozygous mutations in ABCG5 gene (c.727C>T), (c.332G>A (p.G111E)), (c.1222C>T) in the other three cases. Ezetimibe (10 mg/day) was administered in one case, with complete resolution of symptoms. All patients were advised a low plant sterol diet and regular monitoring of hemoglobin and lipid profile. Our cases highlight a rare but important cause of hemolytic anemia that can be suspected from careful peripheral blood examination but only conclusively established by molecular genetic diagnosis.

10.
Br J Haematol ; 193(1): e1-e4, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656752
11.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0238793, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481797

RESUMO

There is limited data on iron reduction therapy (IRT) after successful allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) for patients with thalassemia major (TM). We present the long term outcome of IRT in 149 patients with TM who underwent aHSCT during January, 2001-December, 2012. The median age was 7 years (range:1-18) and 92 (61.7%) belonged to Pesaro class 3 with a median ferritin at aHSCT of 2480ng/ml (range:866-8921). IRT was reinitiated post-aHSCT at a median of 14 months (range:5-53) post aHSCT with phlebotomy alone in 10 (6.7%) patients or iron chelation alone in 60 (40.3%) patients while 79 (53%) were treated with the combination. Reduction in serum ferritin/month [absolute quantity (ng/ml/month) was as follows: 87 (range:33-195), 130 (range:17-1012) and 147 (range:27.7-1427) in the phlebotomy, chelation and combination therapy groups, respectively (p = 0.038). With a median follow up of 80 months (range:37-182), target ferritin level of <300ng/ml was achieved in 59(40%) while a level <500ng/ml was achieved in 88 patients (59%) in a median duration of 41 months of IRT (range: 3-136). Patients in class III risk category and higher starting serum ferritin levels (>2500ng/ml) were associated with delayed responses to IRT. Our data shows that IRT may be needed for very long periods in ex-thalassaemics to achieve target ferritin levels and should therefore be carefully planned and initiated as soon as possible after aHSCT. A combination of phlebotomy and iron chelators is more effective in reducing iron overload.


Assuntos
Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Talassemia beta/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Aloenxertos/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoatos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deferasirox/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Ferritinas/análise , Ferritinas/sangue , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quelantes de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Sobrecarga de Ferro/etiologia , Masculino , Flebotomia/métodos , Triazóis/administração & dosagem
12.
Br J Haematol ; 192(2): 292-299, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216980

RESUMO

The standard of care for patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) relapsing after front-line treatment with arsenic trioxide (ATO)-based regimens remains to be defined. A total of 67 patients who relapsed after receiving ATO-based up-front therapy and were also salvaged using an ATO-based regimen were evaluated. The median (range) age of patients was 28 (4-54) years. While 63/67 (94%) achieved a second molecular remission (MR) after salvage therapy, three (4·5%) died during salvage therapy. An autologous stem cell transplant (auto-SCT) was offered to all patients who achieved MR, 35/63 (55·6%) opted for auto-SCT the rest were administered an ATO + all-trans retinoic acid maintenance regimen. The mean (SD) 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival and event-free survival of those who received auto-SCT versus those who did not was 90·3 (5·3)% versus 58·6 (10·4)% (P = 0·004), and 87·1 (6·0)% versus 47·7 (10·3)% (P = 0·001) respectively. On multivariate analysis, failure to consolidate MR with an auto-SCT was associated with a significantly increased risk of relapse [hazard ratio (HR) 4·91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·56-15·41; P = 0·006]. MR induction with ATO-based regimens followed by an auto-SCT in children and young adults with relapsed APL who were treated with front-line ATO-based regimens was associated with excellent long-term survival.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Trióxido de Arsênio/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gerenciamento Clínico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Salvação , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(1): 102962, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051092

RESUMO

The use of cytokine mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) for stem cell transplantation offers early engraftment, and less early transplant related mortality and morbidity. This can be done easily in the out-patient setting in an adult donor, but is difficult in children. The safety and efficacy of general anaesthesia outside the controlled operation room setting is quite challenging and demanding. We present our experience with paediatric PBSC harvest done under anaesthesia in the out-patient setting between January 2009 to June 2017. A total of 158 children underwent 164 PBSC harvests during the study period. Donors were predominantly females with a median age of 5 years (1-12) and a median weight of 17.5 kg (9.4-51). In 50% of the cases, induction of anaesthesia was by sevoflurane followed by total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) while in 32% it was sevoflurane induction followed by sedation. Hudson mask (48.5%) and laryngeal mask airway (50%) were the most common modes of airway and all patients were ventilated in the spontaneous mode. Propofol was the most commonly used maintenance agent (67%). There were no major complications except for acute pulmonary edema secondary to infusion of blood products requiring a short stay in ICU for one donor. All donors were discharged on the next day of harvest. No long term complications have been reported in any of these donors. Paediatric PBSC harvest can be safely done under anaesthesia with due precautions in the day care setting.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/métodos , Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Hospital Dia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
J Clin Pathol ; 74(3): 157-162, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605921

RESUMO

AIMS: Congenital sideroblastic anaemias (CSAs) are a group of rare disorders with the presence of ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow. Pathogenic variants are inherited in an autosomal recessive/X-linked fashion. The study was aimed at characterising the spectrum of mutations in SLC25A38 and ALAS2 genes in sideroblastic anaemia patients, exploring the genotype-phenotype correlation and identifying the haplotype associated with any recurrent mutation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty probable CSA patients were retrospectively analysed for genetic variants in ALAS2 and SLC25A38 genes by direct bidirectional sequencing. Real-time PCR was used to quantify gene expression in a case with promoter region variant in ALAS2. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to establish the haplotype associated with a recurrent variant in the SLC25A38 gene. RESULTS: Six patients had causative variants in ALAS2 (30%) and 11 had variants in SLC25A38 (55%). The ALAS2 mutated cases presented at a significantly later age than the SLC25A38 cases. A frameshift variant in SLC25A38 (c.409dupG) was identified in six unrelated patients and was a common variant in our population exhibiting 'founder effect'. CONCLUSION: This is the largest series of sideroblastic anaemia cases with molecular characterisation from the Indian subcontinent.


Assuntos
5-Aminolevulinato Sintetase/genética , Anemia Sideroblástica/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Sideroblástica/patologia , Ásia Ocidental , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(2): 393-413, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225392

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders showing ethnic and geographic diversities. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a comprehensive tool to diagnose PID. Although PID is common in India, data on the genetic spectrum of PIDs are limited due to financial restrictions. The study aims to characterize the clinical and genetic spectrum of PID patients in India and highlight the importance of a cost-effective targeted gene panel sequencing approach for PID in a resource-limited setting. The study includes 229 patients with clinical and laboratory features suggestive of PIDs. Mutation analysis was done by Sanger sequencing and NGS targeting a customized panel of genes. Pathogenic variants were identified in 97 patients involving 42 different genes with BTK and IL12RB1 being the most common mutated genes. Autosomal recessive and X-linked recessive inheritance were seen in 51.6% and 23.7% of patients. Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) and IL12RB1 mutations was more common in our population compared to the Western world and the Middle East. Two patients with hypomorphic RAG1 mutations and one female with skewed CYBB mutation were also identified. Another 40 patients had variants classified as variants of uncertain significance (VUS). The study shows that targeted NGS is an effective diagnostic strategy for PIDs in countries with limited diagnostic resources. Molecular diagnosis of PID helps in genetic counseling and to make therapeutic decisions including the need for a stem cell transplantation.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20640, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244077

RESUMO

Achieving early molecular response (EMR) has been shown to be associated with better event free survival in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) on Imatinib therapy. We prospectively evaluated the factors influencing the 2-year failure free survival (FFS) and EMR to imatinib therapy in these patients including day29 plasma Imatinib levels, genetic variants and the gene expression of target genes in imatinib transport and biotransformation. Patients with low and intermediate Sokal score had better 2-year FFS compared to those with high Sokal Score (p = 0.02). Patients carrying ABCB1-C1236T variants had high day29 plasma imatinib levels (P = 0.005), increased EMR at 3 months (P = 0.044) and a better 2 year FFS (P = 0.003) when compared to those with wild type genotype. This translates to patients with lower ABCB1 mRNA expression having a significantly higher intracellular imatinib levels (P = 0.029). Higher day29 plasma imatinib levels was found to be strongly associated with patients achieving EMR at 3 months (P = 0.022), MMR at 12 months (P = 0.041) which essentially resulted in better 2-year FFS (p = 0.05). Also, patients who achieved EMR at 3 months, 6 months and MMR at 12 months had better FFS when compared to those who did not. This study suggests the incorporation of these variables in to the imatinib dosing algorithm as predictive biomarkers of response to Imatinib therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/sangue , Mesilato de Imatinib/sangue , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/sangue , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
EJHaem ; 1(1): 219-229, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885223

RESUMO

Early complications post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) such as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) and graft versus host disease (GVHD) can be life threatening. Although several biomarkers have been identified to correlate with these complications and their response to treatment, these are yet to be used in clinical practice. Here, we evaluated circulating endothelial cells (CECs) (n = 26) and plasma biomarkers (ST2, REG3α, VCAM1, ICAM1, TIM3) (N = 210) at early time points, to determine their association with early complications post-HSCT. Elevated CEC counts at the end of conditioning was associated with GVHD, indicating endothelial damage during HSCT. Plasma levels of REG3α, VCAM1, ICAM1, and TIM3 on day 14 (D14) and D14 ICAM1 and D28 ST2 were significantly higher in patients with SOS and aGVHD, respectively. Upon sub-group analysis, D28 ST2, D14/D28 REG3α, and D14ICAM1 levels were significantly higher in patients with gastrointestinal GVHD, while D28ST2 was higher in those with skin/liver GVHD. High ST2 levels on D28 was significantly associated with non-relapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival. Our results suggest that elevated ST2 levels on D28 could predict the likelihood of developing aGVHD and could influence NRM and OS.

18.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(14): 3468-3475, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852239

RESUMO

Assessment of measurable residual disease (MRD) has emerged as a powerful prognostic tool in pediatric and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this single-centre retrospective study, we evaluated the prognostic relevance of MRD based on BCR-ABL1 copy numbers in Ph + ALL patients between 2006 and 2018. Molecular responses were evaluated at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the initiation of treatment. Patients who had their MRD assessed at three or more time points were categorized into MRD good risk or poor risk based on BCR-ABL1/ABL1 copy number ratio. MRD positive patients consistently showed a trend toward poor survival and on multivariate analysis, MRD poor risk patients had adverse outcomes when compared to MRD good risk patients in terms of overall (OS; p = .031) and event-free (EFS; p < .001) survival. In conclusion, molecular MRD based on BCR-ABL1 copy number ratio is an ideal prognostic indicator in Ph + ALL patients undergoing treatment.


Assuntos
Cromossomo Filadélfia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adulto , Criança , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Humanos , Neoplasia Residual , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847868

RESUMO

Extranodal presentation in lymphoproliferative disorders is a well-recognised entity. However, musculoskeletal involvement is extremely rare. We describe the case of a 64-year-old farmer who presented to us with constitutional symptoms of fever, loss of weight and loss of appetite for 2 years and physical examination revealing generalised lymphadenopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. Biopsy of an axillary lymph node showed mixed cellularity variant of Hodgkin's lymphoma. CT of the thorax and abdomen revealed a collection in the right psoas muscle. Guided biopsy of the psoas deposit was suggestive of Hodgkin's lymphoma. PCR and cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis tested negative. Here we describe a rare presentation of Hodgkin's lymphoma with intramuscular involvement.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Musculares/diagnóstico , Evolução Fatal , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Musculares/tratamento farmacológico
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