Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 77
Filtrar
1.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(8): 1510-1518, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence showed that myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) patients are at increased risk of certain cancers, but the risk of benign tumors is unknown. We compared the risk of benign tumors in DM1 patients with matched DM1-free individuals and assessed the association between benign tumors and subsequent cancers. METHODS: We identified 927 DM1 patients and 13,085 DM1-free individuals matched on gender, birth-year, clinic, and clinic-registration year from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a primary care records database. We used Cox regression models for statistical analyses. RESULTS: DM1 patients had elevated risks of thyroid nodules (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 10.4; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 3.91-27.52; P < 0.001), benign tumors of the brain or nervous system (HR = 8.4; 95% CI = 2.48-28.47; P < 0.001), colorectal polyps (HR = 4.3; 95% CI = 1.76-10.41; P = 0.001), and possibly uterine fibroids (HR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.22-5.88; P = 0.01). Pilomatricomas and salivary gland adenomas occurred almost exclusively in DM1 patients (Fisher's exact P < 0.001). The HR for colorectal polyps was elevated in DM1 males but not in females (HR = 8.2 vs. 1.3, respectively; P-heterogeneity < 0.001), whereas endocrine and brain tumors occurred exclusively in females. The data suggested an association between benign tumors and subsequent cancer in classic DM1 patients (HR = 2.7; 95% CI = 0.93-7.59; P = 0.07). INTERPRETATION: Our study showed a similar site-specific benign tumor profile to that previously reported for DM1-associated cancers. The possible association between benign tumors and subsequent cancer in classic DM1 patients warrants further investigation as it may guide identifying patients at elevated risk of cancer. Our findings underscore the importance of following population-based screening recommendations in DM1 patients, for example, for colorectal cancer.

2.
Hepatology ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318976

RESUMO

Exposure to metals may promote the risk for cancers. We aimed to evaluate the associations of a broad spectrum of metals with gallbladder cancer (GBC) and gallstones. A total of 259 GBC patients, 701 gallstone patients, and 851 population-based controls were enrolled in Shanghai, China. A metallome panel was used to simultaneously detect 18 metals in serum through inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Logistic regression models were used to estimate crude or adjusted odds ratios (ORadj ) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between metal levels and gallbladder disease. Among the 18 metals tested, 12 were significantly associated with GBC and 6 with gallstones (Pcorrected < 0.002). Boron, lithium, molybdenum, and arsenic levels were associated with GBC compared to gallstones as well as gallstones compared to population-based controls. Elevated levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, molybdenum, and vanadium were positively associated with GBC versus gallstones, and the ORadj for the highest tertile (T3) compared to the lowest tertile (T1) ranged from 1.80 to 7.28 with evidence of dose-response trends (P < 0.05). Arsenic, boron, iron, lithium, magnesium, selenium, and sulfur were inversely associated with GBC, with the T3 versus T1 ORadj ranging from 0.20 to 0.69. Arsenic, boron, calcium, lithium, molybdenum, and phosphorous were negatively associated with gallstones, with the T3 versus T1 ORadj ranging from 0.50 to 0.75 (P < 0.05). Conclusion:Metals were associated with both GBC and gallstones, providing cross-sectional evidence of association across the natural history of disease. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the temporality of metal exposure and gallbladder diseases and investigate mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Virchows Arch ; 475(1): 59-66, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177317

RESUMO

Sarcomatoid carcinomas recently came into the spotlight through genetic profiling studies and also as a distinct model of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The literature on sarcomatoid carcinomas of gallbladder is limited. In this study, 656 gallbladder carcinomas (GBC) were reviewed. Eleven (1.7%) with a sarcomatoid component were identified and analyzed in comparison with ordinary GBC (O-GBC). Patients included 9 females and 2 males (F/M = 4.5 vs. 3.9) with a mean age-at-diagnosis of 71 (vs. 64). The median tumor size was 4.6 cm (vs. 2.5; P = 0.01). Nine patients (84%) presented with advanced stage (pT3/4) tumor (vs. 48%). An adenocarcinoma component constituting 1-75% of the tumor was present in nine, and eight had surface dysplasia/CIS; either in situ or invasive carcinoma was present in all cases. An intracholecystic papillary-tubular neoplasm was identified in one. Seven showed pleomorphic-sarcomatoid pattern, and four showed subtle/bland elongated spindle cells. Three had an angiosarcomatoid pattern. Two had heterologous elements. One showed few osteoclast-like giant cells, only adjacent to osteoid. Immunohistochemically, vimentin, was positive in six of six; P53 expression was > 60% in six of six, keratins in six of seven, and p63 in two of six. Actin, desmin, and S100 were negative. The median Ki67 index was 40%. In the follow-up, one died peri-operatively, eight died of disease within 3 to 8 months (vs. 26 months median survival for O-GBC), and two were alive at 9 and 15 months. The behavior overall was worse than ordinary adenocarcinomas in general but was not different when grade and stage were matched. In summary, sarcomatoid component is identified in < 2% of GBC. Unlike sarcomatoid carcinomas in the remainder of pancreatobiliary tract, these are seldom of the "osteoclastic" type and patients present with large/advanced stage tumors. Limited data suggests that these tumors are aggressive with rapid mortality unlike pancreatic osteoclastic ones which often have indolent behavior.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma in Situ/patologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Neoplasias Complexas Mistas/patologia , Sarcoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/química , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Carcinoma in Situ/química , Carcinoma in Situ/mortalidade , Carcinoma in Situ/cirurgia , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/química , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Complexas Mistas/química , Neoplasias Complexas Mistas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Complexas Mistas/cirurgia , Sarcoma/química , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 799-811, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069578

RESUMO

An important premise of epidemiology is that individuals with the same disease share similar underlying etiologies and clinical outcomes. In the past few decades, our knowledge of disease pathogenesis has improved, and disease classification systems have evolved to the point where no complex disease processes are considered homogenous. As a result, pathology and epidemiology have been integrated into the single, unified field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE). Advancing integrative molecular and population-level health sciences and addressing the unique research challenges specific to the field of MPE necessitates assembling experts in diverse fields, including epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, computational biology, bioinformatics, genomics, immunology, and nutritional and environmental sciences. Integrating these seemingly divergent fields can lead to a greater understanding of pathogenic processes. The International MPE Meeting Series fosters discussion that addresses the specific research questions and challenges in this emerging field. The purpose of the meeting series is to: discuss novel methods to integrate pathology and epidemiology; discuss studies that provide pathogenic insights into population impact; and educate next-generation scientists. Herein, we share the proceedings of the Fourth International MPE Meeting, held in Boston, MA, USA, on 30 May-1 June, 2018. Major themes of this meeting included 'integrated genetic and molecular pathologic epidemiology', 'immunology-MPE', and 'novel disease phenotyping'. The key priority areas for future research identified by meeting attendees included integration of tumor immunology and cancer disparities into epidemiologic studies, further collaboration between computational and population-level scientists to gain new insight on exposure-disease associations, and future pooling projects of studies with comparable data.

5.
Cancer ; 125(9): 1489-1498, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are rare but deadly cancers (gallbladder cancer [GBC], intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [ICC], extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [ECC], and ampulla of Vater cancer [AVC]). A recent US study reported increasing GBC incidence among people younger than 45 years and blacks; however, it did not examine trends for other biliary tract sites. METHODS: This study characterized demographic differences in BTC incidence rates and time trends by anatomic site. Population-based North American Association of Central Cancer Registries data were used to calculate age-adjusted incidence rates, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and estimated annual percent changes (eAPCs) for 1999-2013 by site and demographic group. For sites with significant differences in eAPC by age group, IRRs were compared by age group. RESULTS: GBC incidence rates declined among women (eAPC, -0.5%/y; P = .01) and all racial/ethnic groups except for non-Hispanic blacks, among whom rates increased (1.8%/y; P < .0001). Although GBC rates increased among 18- to 44-year-olds (eAPC, 1.8%/y; P = .01), they decreased among people 45 years old or older (-0.4%/y; P = .009). Sex (P < .0001) and racial/ethnic differences (P = .003 to .02) in GBC incidence were larger for younger people than older people. During this period, ICC (eAPC, 3.2%/y; P < .0001) and ECC rates (1.8%/y; P = .001) steadily increased across sex and racial/ethnic groups. Although AVC incidence rates increased among younger adults (eAPC, 1.8%/y; P = .03) but not older adults (-0.20%/y; P = .30), sex and racial/ethnic IRRs did not differ by age. CONCLUSIONS: Differential patterns of BTC rates and temporal trends have been identified by anatomic site and demographic groups. These findings highlight the need for large pooling projects to evaluate BTC risk factors by anatomic site.

6.
Gut ; 2018 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between statin use and risk of biliary tract cancers (BTC). DESIGN: This is a nested case-control study conducted in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We included cases diagnosed with incident primary BTCs, including cancers of the gall bladder, bile duct (ie, both intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma), ampulla of Vater and mixed type, between 1990 and 2017. For each case, we selected five controls who did not develop BTCs at the time of case diagnosis, matched by sex, year of birth, calendar time and years of enrolment in the general practice using incidence density sampling. Exposures were defined as two or more prescription records of statins 1 year prior to BTC diagnosis or control selection. ORs and 95% CIs for associations between statins and BTC overall and by subtypes were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: We included 3118 BTC cases and 15 519 cancer-free controls. Current statin use versus non-use was associated with a reduced risk of all BTCs combined (adjusted OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.98). The reduced risks were most pronounced among long-term users, as indicated by increasing number of prescriptions (ptrend=0.016) and cumulative dose of statins (ptrend=0.008). The magnitude of association was similar for statin use and risk of individual types of BTCs. The reduced risk of BTCs associated with a record of current statin use versus non-use was more pronounced among persons with diabetes (adjusted OR=0.72, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.91). Among non-diabetics, the adjusted OR for current statin use versus non-use was 0.91 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.03, pheterogeneity=0.007). CONCLUSION: Compared with non-use of statins, current statin use is associated with 12% lower risk of BTCs; no association found with former statin use. If replicated, particularly in countries with a high incidence of BTCs, our findings could pave the way for evaluating the value of statins for BTC chemoprevention.

7.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 113(10): 1494-1505, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and diabetes are associated with an increased liver cancer risk. However, most studies have examined all primary liver cancers or hepatocellular carcinoma, with few studies evaluating intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the second most common type of liver cancer. Thus, we examined the association between obesity and diabetes and ICC risk in a pooled analysis and conducted a systematic review/meta-analysis of the literature. DESIGN: For the pooled analysis, we utilized the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of 13 US-based, prospective cohort studies with data from 1,541,143 individuals (ICC cases n = 414). In our systematic review, we identified 14 additional studies. We then conducted a meta-analysis, combining the results from LCPP with results from the 5 prospective studies identified through September 2017. RESULTS: In the LCPP, obesity and diabetes were associated with a 62% [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.62, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.24-2.12] and an 81% (HR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.33-2.46) increased ICC risk, respectively. In the meta-analysis of prospectively ascertained cohorts and nested case-control studies, obesity was associated with a 49% increased ICC risk [Relative Risk (RR) = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.32-1.70; n = 4 studies; I2 = 0%]. Diabetes was associated with a 53% increased ICC risk (RR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.31-1.78; n = 6 studies). While we noted heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 67%) for diabetes, results were consistent in subgroup analyses. Results from hospital-based case-control studies (n = 9) were mostly consistent, but these studies are potentially subject to reverse causation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that obesity and diabetes are associated with increased ICC risk, highlighting similar etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. However, additional prospective studies are needed to verify these associations.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155920

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that people with autoimmune conditions may be at increased risk of hepatobiliary tumors. In the present study, we evaluated associations between autoimmune conditions and hepatobiliary cancers among adults aged ≥66 in the United States. We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data (1992-2013) to conduct a population-based, case-control study. Cases (n = 32,443) had primary hepatobiliary cancer. Controls (n = 200,000) were randomly selected, cancer-free adults frequency-matched to cases by sex, age and year of selection. Using multivariable logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with 39 autoimmune conditions identified via Medicare claims. We also conducted separate analyses for diagnoses obtained via inpatient versus outpatient claims. Sixteen conditions were associated with at least one hepatobiliary cancer. The strongest risk estimates were for primary biliary cholangitis with hepatocellular carcinoma (OR: 31.33 [95% CI: 23.63-41.56]) and primary sclerosing cholangitis with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (7.53 [5.73-10.57]), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (5.59 [4.03-7.75]), gallbladder cancer (2.06 [1.27-3.33]) and ampulla of Vater cancer (6.29 [4.29-9.22]). Associations with hepatobiliary-related conditions as a group were observed across nearly all cancer sites (ORs ranging from 4.53 [95% CI: 3.30-6.21] for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma to 7.18 [5.94-8.67] for hepatocellular carcinoma). Restricting to autoimmune conditions diagnosed via inpatient claims, 6 conditions remained associated with at least one hepatobiliary cancer, and several risk estimates increased. In the outpatient restricted analysis, 12 conditions remained associated. Multiple autoimmune conditions are associated with hepatobiliary cancer risk in the US Medicare population, supporting a shared immuno-inflammatory etiology to these cancers.

9.
Hum Pathol ; 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30036595

RESUMO

Gallbladder dysplasia can progress to cancer and may be associated with increased cancer risk at other biliary tract sites. Thus, its accurate identification is relevant both for etiologic understanding and for clinical purposes. Data on the frequency and distribution of gallbladder dysplasia are lacking due to limited gallbladder sampling and inability to visualize dysplasia grossly. An expert pathology group used consensus criteria to review 140 totally sampled consecutive cholecystectomy specimens from Chilean women. Three cases (2%) revealed incidental invasive carcinoma, all T2, along with high-grade dysplasia (HGD). The surface area covered by dysplasia or cancer in these cases was 9%, 37%, and 87%. Although the first longitudinal ("diagnostic") section of the whole gallbladder captured HGD or cancer in all three cases, the deepest focus of invasive carcinoma was not present in this section. Fourteen additional cases (10%) had low-grade dysplasia (LGD), which was typically very focal (covering <5% of the surface) and most often occurred in the fundus. LGD was not present in the diagnostic section of five cases (38%) and would have been missed without additional sampling. None of the cancers or dysplasias were grossly visible. Although HGD and carcinoma are likely to be identified in "diagnostic" sections, accurate staging requires total sampling. LGD is typically very focal and would often be missed in routine practice. To identify cancer precursors, additional sampling, particularly of the fundus, may be warranted. The predominance of LGD in the fundus also provides etiologic insight, supporting the contribution of gallstones and chronic inflammation.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974477

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Associations with other cancers are not established. We systematically assessed associations between HBV infection and cancers in the US elderly population. We conducted a case-control study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database in US adults aged ≥66 years. Cases (N = 1,825,316) were people with first cancers diagnosed in SEER registries (1993-2013). Controls (N = 200,000) were randomly selected, cancer-free individuals who were frequency-matched to cases on age, sex, race and calendar year. Associations with HBV infection (ascertained by Medicare claims) were assessed by logistic regression. HBV prevalence was higher in cases than controls (0.6% vs. 0.5%). HBV was positively associated with cancers of the stomach (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.03-1.37), anus (1.66; 1.17-2.33), liver (10.6; 9.66-11.6), intrahepatic bile ducts (1.67; 1.18-2.37), nasopharynx (2.08; 1.33-3.25), as well as myelodysplastic syndrome (1.26; 1.07-1.49) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (1.24; 1.06-1.46). Inverse associations were observed with female breast (aOR = 0.86; 95%CI = 0.76-0.98) and prostate (0.81; 0.73-0.91) cancers and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (0.77; 0.62-0.96). Associations were maintained in sensitivity analyses conducted in people without claims for cirrhosis or hepatitis C or human immunodeficiency virus infections. HBV infection is associated with increased risk of cancers other than HCC, such as bile duct cancers and DLBCL. The biological mechanisms by which HBV may lead to these cancers need to be explored.

11.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(11): 1920-1924, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Inflammation plays a role in the development of both gallstones and gallbladder cancer; however, few studies have investigated the association of circulating inflammation proteins with risk of gallstones. METHODS: This study measured 13 cytokines (including 10 interleukins [ILs]) that have been associated with cancer in serum samples collected from 150 gallstone patients and 149 population-based controls from Shanghai, China, in 1997-2001. This study estimated the associations of each cytokine, categorized into quartiles and coded as a trend, with risk of gallstones using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Higher levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), and IL-13 were associated with increased risk of gallstones (i.e. Ptrend  < 0.003, Bonferroni corrected), with odds ratios (ORs) that ranged from ORhighest quartile [Q4] versus lowest quartile [Q1]  = 3.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 7.5) for IL-13 to ORQ4 versus Q1  = 5.7 (95% confidence interval: 2.5, 13.5) for IL-12 (p70). In a regression model including all four ILs, only IL-12 retained statistical significance (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study found four circulating ILs that were associated with gallstones. Future studies are needed to validate the findings and evaluate the common pathway or mechanism in the development of gallbladder diseases associated with these cytokine signatures.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Cálculos Biliares/etiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5671, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618736

RESUMO

Although inflammation is central to gallbladder cancer (GBC) development and proliferation, no study has systematically investigated circulating inflammatory proteins and patient survival. We aimed to examine whether the circulating levels of inflammatory proteins is associated with all-cause mortality among such patients. We recruited 134 patients with newly diagnosed with GBC from 1997 to 2001 in a population-based study in Shanghai and an independent set of 35 patients from 2012 to 2013 in Chile. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for covariates were used to evaluate the hazard ratios (HRs) for death by serum levels of 49 inflammatory proteins (quartiles). Of 49 evaluable proteins, eight were significantly associated with overall survival. Seven were associated with a poorer survival, while the highest levels of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) were associated with an increase in survival (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.14, 0.47). No substantial difference in the magnitude of the association was observed between early- and late-stages of GBC. Of seven proteins, five were validated in the patients from Chile. Reducing inflammation and targeting pathways associated with increased survival might improve GBC outcomes. The potential for using a TRAIL-related anticancer drug for GBC treatment merits further investigation.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 54: 25-30, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory proteins could help identify individuals most likely to have gallbladder cancer (GBC) among those waiting for cholecystectomy. METHODS: We analyzed 49 circulating inflammation-related proteins in 144 patients with GBC and 150 patients with gallstones. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for protein quantiles and GBC versus gallstones. Using proteins associated with early GBC (stage 1-2) that were selected in stepwise logistic regression, we created an inflammation score and explored the potential utility for risk stratification. RESULTS: 26 proteins (53%) had P values for the trend across categories ≤0.001, with associations for a one category increase ranging from 1.52 (95% CI: 1.20-1.94) for CC motif ligand 4 to 4.00 (95% CI: 2.76-5.79) for interleukin (IL)-8. Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2), IL-6, sTNFR1, CC motif ligand 20 (CCL20), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, IL-16, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor had P values ≤0.001 for early GBC. Of those, IL-6, IL-16, CCL20, and STNFR1 were included in the inflammation score. In a high-risk setting with a pre-test disease risk of 10% (e.g., elderly patients) and using an inflammation score cutoff that provides 90% sensitivity, 39% of patients on the waiting list would be predicted to be positive, and 23% of those would be predicted to have GBC. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the strong associations of inflammatory proteins with GBC risk and their potential clinical utility. Larger studies are needed to identify the most effective combinations of inflammatory proteins for detecting early GBC and precursor lesions.

14.
Br J Cancer ; 118(7): 1005-1012, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While tobacco and alcohol are established risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer, it is unknown whether they also increase the risk of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Thus, we examined the association between tobacco and alcohol use by primary liver cancer type. METHODS: The Liver Cancer Pooling Project is a consortium of 14 US-based prospective cohort studies that includes data from 1,518,741 individuals (HCC n = 1423, ICC n = 410). Multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Current smokers at baseline had an increased risk of HCC (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57-2.20) and ICC (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.07-2.02). Among individuals who quit smoking >30 years ago, HCC risk was almost equivalent to never smokers (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.74-1.61). Compared to non-drinkers, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with an 87% increased HCC risk (HR≥7 drinks/day = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.41-2.47) and a 68% increased ICC risk (HR≥5 drinks/day = 1.68, 95% CI: 0.99-2.86). However, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption of <3 drinks/day appeared to be inversely associated with HCC risk (HR>0-<0.5 drinks/day = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.89; HR>0.5-<1 drinks/day = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.44-0.73; HR1-<3 drinks/day = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58-0.87), but not ICC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that, in this relatively healthy population, smoking cessation and light-to-moderate drinking may reduce the risk of HCC.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 53: 195-199, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396075

RESUMO

The 1981 Lancet paper by Beasley et al., "Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. A prospective study of 22707 men in Taiwan" is a seminal publication that clearly demonstrated that chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), as measured by seropositivity for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), preceded the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In doing so, this study paved the way for liver cancer prevention efforts through the implementation of hepatitis B vaccination programs. In this commentary, we will describe the discovery of HBV, which led to the study by Beasley et al.; summarize the major findings of the Beasley paper and its implications; discuss the importance of well-designed cohort studies for prevention activities; and consider the ramifications of the Beasley study and the work that has followed since.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(3): 348-351, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339358

RESUMO

Background: Although some familial cancer syndromes include biliary tract cancers (BTCs; cancers of the gallbladder, intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater), the few studies that have examined the relationships between family history of cancer (FHC) and BTCs have reported inconclusive findings. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of FHC with risk of BTC in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project (BiTCaPP).Methods: We used Cox proportional hazards regressions models to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals for associations between FHC (any, first-degree, in female relative, in male relative, relative with gastrointestinal cancer, and relative with hormonally related cancer) and BTC risk by anatomic site within the biliary tract, adjusting for sex and race/ethnicity. Sensitivity analyses were conducted that restricted to studies reporting cholecystectomy data and to people without a history of cholecystectomy.Results: Data on FHC were available from 12 prospective studies within BiTCaPP, which collectively contributed 2,246 cases (729 gallbladder, 345 intrahepatic and 615 extrahepatic bile duct, and 385 ampulla of Vater cancers) with 21,706,107 person-years of follow-up. A marginal, inverse association between FHC and gallbladder cancer was driven to the null when analysis was restricted to studies reporting cholecystectomy data and to people without a history of cholecystectomy. FHC was not associated with risk of BTC at the other anatomic sites.Conclusions: These findings do not support an association between FHC and BTCs.Impact: In a study of 1.5 million people, FHC is not a risk factor for BTCs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(3); 348-51. ©2018 AACR.

17.
Gastroenterology ; 154(1): 260-261, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178970
18.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0186643, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intrahepatic (ICC) and extrahepatic (ECC) cholangiocarcinomas are rare tumors that arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts, and the etiology of both cancer types is poorly understood. Thus, we utilized the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare resource to examine risk factors and novel preexisting medical conditions that may be associated with these cancer types. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2011, 2,092 ICC and 2,981 ECC cases and 323,615 controls were identified using the SEER-Medicare database. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with approximately 3-fold increased risks of ICC (OR = 3.52, 95% CI: 2.87-4.32) and ECC (OR = 2.93, 95% CI: 2.42-3.55). Other metabolic conditions, including obesity and type 2 diabetes, were also associated with increased risks of both cancer types. Smoking was associated with a 46% and 77% increased ICC and ECC risk, respectively. Several autoimmune/inflammatory conditions, including type 1 diabetes and gout, were associated with increased risks of ICC/ECC. As anticipated, viral hepatitis, alcohol-related disorders, and bile duct conditions were associated with both cancer types. However, thyrotoxicosis and hemochromatosis were associated with an increased risk of ICC but not ECC, but did not remain significantly associated after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, risk factors for ICC and ECC were similar, with the exceptions of thyrotoxicosis and hemochromatosis. Notably, metabolic conditions were associated with both cancer types. As metabolic conditions are increasing in prevalence, these could be increasingly important risk factors for both types of cholangiocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Medicare , Programa de SEER , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0182359, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753646

RESUMO

Inflammation is increasingly thought to be associated with diabetes; however, only a few inflammation markers have been assessed concurrently in relation to history of diabetes. In the most comprehensive evaluation of inflammation markers and diabetes to date using a Luminex bead-based assay, we measured 78 inflammation-, immune-, and metabolic-related markers detectable in at least 10% of serum samples collected from participants from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) screening trial (n = 1,814). At baseline, 6.6% (n = 120) of PLCO participants self-reported a history of diabetes. Cross-sectional associations between these markers and self-reported diabetes were assessed using weighted logistic regression adjusting for sex, smoking status, blood draw age and year, body mass index, and cohort sub-study. Including chemokines [C-C motif ligand (CCL) 19, CCL20, CCL21, C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) 6, CXCL10, and CXCL11] and soluble cytokine and chemokine receptors [soluble (s) interleukin (IL) 6 receptor (R), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) 1, sTNFR2, and sIL-R2], ten inflammation-related markers, were nominally associated with diabetes (P<0.05). In addition to these associations, higher levels of insulin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and pancreatic polypeptide remained significantly associated with self-reported diabetes with a false discovery rate <5%, indicating that the assay was able to detect markers associated with diabetes. In summary, self-reported diabetes was nominally associated with circulating cytokines, chemokines, and soluble cytokine and chemokine receptors in the most expansive examination of diabetes and inflammation- and immune-related markers to date. These results highlight the need to explore in future prospective studies the role of inflammation markers in diabetes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/sangue , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos
20.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 41(9): 1167-1177, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28622182

RESUMO

Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is the anomalous union of the main pancreatic duct and common bile duct outside the Oddi-sphincter, allowing the reflux of pancreatic juice to the gallbladder. There is only limited awareness and understanding of the pathologic correlates of this condition, mostly from Japan; this entity is largely unrecognized in the West. In this study, 76 gallbladders from patients with PBM (64 from Japan; 12 from the United States) were analyzed and contrasted with 66 from non-PBM patients. These were predominantly females (54 vs. 22), mean age, 53 (range: 14 to 81). Cholelithiasis was uncommon (16% vs. 80% in non-PBM, P<0.01) whereas cholesterolosis was more common (49% vs. 29%, P=0.02) suggesting an altered chemical milieu. There was a distinctive diffuse mucosal hyperplasia (82% vs. 42%, P<0.01) with markedly elongated folds (mean: 1.1 vs. 0.7 mm, P<0.01) composed of compact villoglandular proliferation, often showing broad-based pushing into muscle, accompanied by prominent and more complex Rokitansky-Aschoff sinus formation (2.0 vs. 1.0/cm, P<0.01) at the base. At the tips, this villiform hyperplasia displayed frequent horizontal bridging of the folds (68% vs. 47%, P=0.01), bulbous dilatation (52% vs. 21%, P<0.01) as well as deposition of a peculiar amyloid-like hyaline material (56% vs. 15%, P<0.01). Despite paucity of inflammation and gallstones, findings attributed to mucosal injury were common including: pyloric gland metaplasia (70% vs. 48%, P=0.01) and intestinal metaplasia (24% vs. 6%, P<0.01). Invasive gallbladder carcinoma was present in 22 (29%) of the cases with 6 of these (27%) arising in association with intracholecystic papillary tubular neoplasm. Five cases had bile duct carcinoma at the time of cholecystectomy and 1 developed it 4 years after. In conclusion, gallbladders with patients with PBM display a distinctive pattern of mucosal hyperplasia with distinguishing features, which in constellation render it a microscopically diagnosable specific entity. We propose to refer to this entity as "reflux-associated cholecystopathy." Recognition of the pathologic characteristics of this entity is important so that investigation for, as well as treatment and prevention of, PBM-associated complications (biliary tract cancers and pancreatitis) can be instituted. This group also offers a distinct model of carcinogenesis (chemical rather than inflammatory) in the gallbladder for cancer researchers to scrutinize.


Assuntos
Ducto Colédoco/anormalidades , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/etiologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico , Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Ductos Pancreáticos/anormalidades , Suco Pancreático , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia/diagnóstico , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esfíncter da Ampola Hepatopancreática , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA