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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3686, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574564

RESUMO

Chile has high incidence rates of gallbladder cancer globally, particularly among Amerindian women, who also have a high prevalence of gallstones. We examined differences in inflammatory biomarkers between Mapuche and non-Mapuche women from the Chile Biliary Longitudinal Study, a cohort of women with ultrasound-detected gallstones. We randomly selected 200 Mapuche women frequency matched to non-Mapuche women on age and statin use Inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed using a multiplex assay and linear regression to assess associations of a priori markers (CCL20, CXCL10, IL-6, and IL-8) with ethnicity. Novel biomarkers were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and sufficient dimension reduction (SDR) to identify correlated marker groups, followed by linear regression to examine their association with ethnicity. The mean values of IL-8 were higher in Mapuche than non-Mapuche women (P = 0.04), while CCL20, CXCL10, and IL-6 did not differ significantly by ethnicity. EFA revealed two marker groups associated with ethnicity (P = 0.03 and P < 0.001). SDR analysis confirmed correlation between the biomarkers and ethnicity. We found higher IL-8 levels among Mapuche than non-Mapuche women. Novel inflammatory biomarkers were correlated with ethnicity and should be studied further for their role in gallbladder disease. These findings may elucidate underlying ethnic disparities in gallstones and carcinogenesis among Amerindians.

2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(2): 196-206, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524121

RESUMO

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a highly fatal cancer that can be cured through cholecystectomy if identified early. The presence of gallstones is the primary risk factor for GBC, but few people with gallstones develop GBC. A key question is what drives the development of GBC among persons with gallstones. We initiated the Chile Biliary Longitudinal Study (Chile BiLS) to address this question. From 2016 to 2019, Chile BiLS enrolled 4,726 women aged 50-74 years with ultrasound-detected gallstones from southern-central Chile, accounting for an estimated 36% of eligible women with gallstones in the study area. The median age was 59 years; 25% of the women were Amerindian (Mapuche), 60% were obese, 25% had diabetes, and 6% had cardiovascular disease. Participants will be followed for gallbladder dysplasia or cancer for 6 years. As of April 30, 2020, over 91% of those eligible completed the year 2 follow-up visit. Data being collected include epidemiologic and sociodemographic information, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and tooth counts. Biosamples being taken include baseline plasma, buffy coat, red blood cells, serum, blood clot from serum, and PAXgene whole blood (PreAnalytiX GmbH, Hombrechtikon, Switzerland). Complete gallbladder sampling is conducted for most participants undergoing cholecystectomy. The Chile BiLS cohort study will increase our understanding of GBC etiology and could identify potential risk stratification and early detection strategies in high-risk areas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Cálculos Biliares/epidemiologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Chile , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/etnologia , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Biliares/etnologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia
3.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411027

RESUMO

Published data on survival of T2 gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) from different countries show a wide range of 5-year survival rates from 30-> 70%. Recently, studies have demonstrated substantial variation between countries in terms of their approach to sampling gallbladders, and furthermore, that pathologists from different continents apply highly variable criteria in determining stage of invasion in this organ. These findings raised the question of whether these variations in pathologic evaluation could account for the vastly different survival rates of T2 GBC reported in the literature. In this study, survival of 316 GBCs from three countries (Chile n = 137, South Korea n = 105, USA n = 74), all adequately sampled (with a minimum of five tumor sections examined) and histopathologically verified as pT2 (after consensus examination by expert pathologists from three continents), was analyzed. Chilean patients had a significantly worse prognosis based on 5-year all-cause mortality (HR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.27-2.83, p = 0.002) and disease-specific mortality (HR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.51-3.84, p < 0.001), compared to their South Korean counterparts, even when controlled for age and sex. Comparing the USA to South Korea, the survival differences in all-cause mortality (HR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12-2.75, p = 0.015) and disease-specific mortality (HR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.14-3.31, p = 0.015) were also pronounced. The 3-year disease-specific survival rates in South Korea, the USA, and Chile were 75%, 65%, and 55%, respectively, the 5-year disease-specific survival rates were 60%, 50%, and 50%, respectively, and the overall 5-year survival rates were 55%, 45%, and 35%, respectively. In conclusion, the survival of true T2 GBC in properly classified cases is neither as good nor as bad as previously documented in the literature and shows notable geographic differences even in well-sampled cases with consensus histopathologic criteria. Future studies should focus on other potential reasons including biologic, etiopathogenetic, management-related, populational, or healthcare practice-related factors that may influence the survival differences of T2 GBC in different regions.

4.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common type of biliary tract cancer, but the molecular mechanisms involved in gallbladder carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we applied integrative genomics approaches to characterize GBC and explore molecular subtypes associated with patient survival. METHODS: We profiled the mutational landscape of GBC tumors (whole-exome sequencing on 92, targeted sequencing on 98, in total 190 patients). In a subset (n=45), we interrogated the matched transcriptomes, DNA methylomes and somatic copy number alterations. We explored molecular subtypes identified through clustering tumors by genes whose expression were associated with survival in 47 tumors and validated subtypes on 34 publicly available GBC cases. RESULTS: Exome analysis revealed TP53 was the most mutated gene. The overall mutation rate was low (median 0.82 Mut/Mb). APOBEC-mediated mutational signatures were more common in tumors with higher mutational burden. Aflatoxin-related signatures tended to be highly clonal (present in ≥50% of cancer cells). Transcriptome-wide survival association analysis revealed a 95-gene signature that stratified all GBC patients into three subtypes that suggested an association with overall survival post-resection. The two poor-survival subtypes were associated with adverse clinicopathologic features (advanced stage, pN1, pM1), immunosuppressive microenvironments (myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation, extensive desmoplasia, hypoxia) and T cell dysfunction, while the good-survival subtype showed the opposite features. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the tumor microenvironment and immune profiles could play an important role in gallbladder carcinogenesis and should be evaluated in future clinical studies, along with mutational profiles.

5.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations of pancreatobiliary maljunction (PBM) in the West. BACKGROUND: PBM (anomalous union of common bile duct and pancreatic duct) is mostly regarded as an Asian-only disorder, with 200X risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC), attributed to reflux of pancreatic enzymes. METHODS: Radiologic images of 840 patients in the U.S. who underwent pancreatobiliary resections were reviewed for PBM and contrasted with 171 GBC cases from Japan. RESULTS: Eight % of the US GBCs (24/300) had PBM (similar to Japan; 15/171, 8.8%), in addition to 1/42 bile duct carcinomas and 5/33 choledochal cysts. None of the 30 PBM cases from the US had been diagnosed as PBM in the original work-up. PBM was not found in other pancreatobiliary disorders. Clinicopathologic features of the 39 PBM-associated GBCs (US:24, Japan:15) were similar; however, comparison with non-PBM GBCs revealed that they occurred predominantly in females (F/M = 3); at younger (<50-year-old) age (21% vs. 6.5% in non-PBM GBCs; p = 0.01); were uncommonly associated with gallstones (14% vs. 58%; p < 0.001); had higher rate of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (69% vs. 44%; p = 0.04); arose more often through adenoma-carcinoma sequence (31% vs. 12%; p = 0.02); and had a higher proportion of non-conventional carcinomas (21% vs. 7%; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: PBM accounts for 8% of GBCs also in the West but is typically undiagnosed. PBM-GBCs tend to manifest in younger age and often through adenoma-carcinoma sequence, leading to unusual carcinoma types. If PBM is encountered, cholecystectomy and surveillance of bile ducts is warranted. PBM-associated GBCs offer an invaluable model for variant anatomy-induced chemical (reflux-related) carcinogenesis.

6.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(12): 1649-1657, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060404

RESUMO

Intracholecystic neoplasms (ICNs) (pyloric gland adenomas and intracholecystic papillary neoplasms, collectively also called intracholecystic papillary/tubular neoplasms) form multifocal, extensive proliferations on the gallbladder mucosa and have a high propensity for invasion (>50%). In this study, 19 examples of a poorly characterized phenomenon, mural papillary mucinous lesions that arise in adenomyomatous nodules and form localized ICNs, were analyzed. Two of these were identified in 1750 consecutive cholecystectomies reviewed specifically for this purpose, placing its incidence at 0.1%. Median age was 68 years. Unlike other gallbladder lesions, these were slightly more common in men (female/male=0.8), and 55% had documented cholelithiasis. All were characterized by a compact multilocular, demarcated, cystic lesion with papillary proliferations and mucinous epithelial lining. The lesions' architecture, distribution, location, and typical size were suggestive of evolution from an underlying adenomyomatous nodule. All had gastric/endocervical-like mucinous epithelium, but 5 also had a focal intestinal-like epithelium. Cytologic atypia was graded as 1 to 3 and defined as 1A: mucinous, without cytoarchitectural atypia (n=3), 1B: mild (n=7), 2: moderate (n=2), and 3: severe atypia (n=7, 3 of which also had invasive carcinoma, 16%). Background gallbladder mucosal involvement was absent in all but 2 cases, both of which had multifocal papillary mucosal nodules. In conclusion, these cases highlight a distinct clinicopathologic entity, that is, mural ICNs arising in adenomyomatous nodules, which, by essentially sparing the "main" mucosa, not displaying "field-effect/defect" phenomenon, and only rarely (16%) showing carcinomatous transformation, are analogous to pancreatic branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.

8.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935837

RESUMO

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a highly fatal cancer that can be cured through cholecystectomy if identified early. The presence of gallstones is the primary risk factor for GBC, but few individuals with gallstones develop GBC. A key question is what drives the development of GBC among individuals with gallstones. We initiated the Chile Biliary Longitudinal Study (Chile BiLS) to address this question. From 2016-2019, Chile BiLS enrolled 4,726 women aged 50-74 with ultrasound-detected gallstones from Southern-central Chile, accounting for an estimated 36% of eligible women with gallstones in the study area. The median age was 59 years, 25% were Amerindian (Mapuche), 60% were obese, 25% had diabetes, and 6% had cardiovascular disease. Participants will be followed for gallbladder dysplasia or cancer for six years. As of April 30, 2020, over 91% of those eligible completed the year-2 follow-up visit. Data include epidemiological and sociodemographic information, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and teeth count. Biosamples include baseline plasma, buffy coat, red blood cells, serum, blood clot, and PaxGene whole blood. Complete gallbladder sampling is conducted for most participants undergoing cholecystectomy. The Chile BiLS cohort will inform understanding of GBC etiology and could identify potential risk stratification and early detection strategies in high-risk areas.

9.
Br J Cancer ; 123(6): 909-911, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32595210

RESUMO

Helicobacter has been suggested to play a possible role in hepatitis, gallstones, and hepatobiliary tumours. We assessed whether seropositivity to 15 H. pylori proteins was associated with subsequent incidence of 74 biliary tract and 105 liver cancer cases vs. 357 matched controls in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed by conditional logistic regression after adjustment for known hepatobiliary cancer risk factors. H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either biliary tract (1.76, 0.90-3.46) or liver cancer (0.87, 0.46-1.65). CagA seropositivity was associated with both endpoints, although the latter association was not statistically significant (biliary tract: 2.16, 1.03-4.50; liver cancer: 1.96, 0.98-3.93) and neither association was statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Together, these results suggest possible associations between H. pylori and hepatobiliary cancer and suggest the value of future studies investigating the association.Trial registration number: NCT00339495.

10.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 863-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study. RESULTS: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography. LAY SUMMARY: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.

11.
Br J Cancer ; 123(2): 316-324, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from cholangiocytes in the intrahepatic bile duct and is the second most common type of liver cancer. Cholangiocytes express both oestrogen receptor-α and -ß, and oestrogens positively modulate cholangiocyte proliferation. Studies in women and men have reported higher circulating oestradiol is associated with increased ICC risk, further supporting a hormonal aetiology. However, no observational studies have examined the associations between exogenous hormone use and reproductive factors, as proxies of endogenous hormone levels, and risk of ICC. METHODS: We harmonised data from 1,107,498 women who enroled in 12 North American-based cohort studies (in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, LCPP) and the UK Biobank between 1980-1998 and 2006-2010, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence internals (CI). Then, meta-analytic techniques were used to combine the estimates from the LCPP (n = 180 cases) and the UK Biobank (n = 57 cases). RESULTS: Hysterectomy was associated with a doubling of ICC risk (HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.27-3.09), compared to women aged 50-54 at natural menopause. Long-term oral contraceptive use (9+ years) was associated with a 62% increased ICC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55). There was no association between ICC risk and other exogenous hormone use or reproductive factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hysterectomy and long-term oral contraceptive use may be associated with an increased ICC risk.

12.
Int J Surg Pathol ; 28(8): 826-834, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423360

RESUMO

CONTEXT.: Follicular cholecystitis (FC) is a poorly characterized entity. OBJECTIVE.: To determine its frequency/clinicopathologic associations. DESIGN.: A total of 2550 cholecystectomy specimens were examined. Two hundred three of these were consecutive routine cholecystectomies submitted entirely for microscopic examination to determine the relative frequency of incidental pathologies in gallbladders (GBs). The remainder had representative sampling. Underlying conditions were nonobstructive pathologies (1270 nonspecific cholecystitis), obstructive (62 distal biliary tract tumors, 35 primary sclerosing cholangitis, and 31 autoimmune pancreatitis), and neoplastic (n = 949). FC was defined as 3 distinct lymphoid follicles (LFs)/centimeter. RESULTS.: In the GBs totally submitted for microscopic examination, the true frequency of FC was found to be 2.5% (5/203), and in the representatively sampled group, it was 1.9%, with similar frequencies in nonobstructive, obstructive, and neoplastic cases (2.3%, 3.1%, and 1.3%, respectively, P = .77). When the 39 FC in nonneoplastic GBs contrasted with ordinary chronic cholecystitis, they were associated with older age (68 vs 49 years, P < .0001), similar gallstone frequency (68 vs 81%), female/male ratio (2.7 vs 2.6), and wall thickness (4 mm for both). None had lymphoma/parasites/Salmonella infection. Of 17 cases who had undergone gastric biopsy, 5 had chronic gastritis (2 with Helicobacter pylori). Microscopically, the LFs were the main inflammatory process often with minimal intervening inflammation. IgG4-positive plasma cell density was low (<10/high-power field) in 21/24(87.5%) cases. CONCLUSIONS.: Follicular cholecystitis is seen in 2% of cholecystectomies, typically in significantly older patients, suggesting a deranged immune response. A third of the patients reveal biopsy-proven gastritis. FC does not seem to be associated with autoimmunity, lymphoma, or obstructive pathologies.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2743-2753, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406072

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the dominant histologic type of liver cancer, accounting for 75% of cases. Growing evidence suggests that the cross-talk between the gut microbiome and metabolome (ie, gut-liver axis) are related to the development of hepatic inflammation, and ultimately, HCC. Bile acids are metabolites, derived from cholesterol and synthesized in the liver, which may have a critical role in regulation of the gut-liver axis. We investigated whether prediagnostic circulating bile acids were associated with HCC risk, using the Risk Evaluation of Viral Load Elevation and Associated Liver Disease/Cancer (REVEAL)-Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and REVEAL-Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) cohorts from Taiwan. Fifteen bile acids were quantitated using liquid chromatography, from 185 cases and 161 matched controls in REVEAL-HBV and 96 cases and 96 matched controls in REVEAL-HCV. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between bile acid levels and HCC were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. Higher levels of glycine and taurine conjugated primary bile acids were associated with a 2- to 8-fold increased risk of HBV- (eg, glycocholic acid ORQ4vsQ1 = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.48-7.71, Ptrend < .003) and HCV-related HCC (eg, OR = 8.16, 95% CI: 2.21-30.18, Ptrend < .001). However, higher levels of the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid were inversely associated with HBV-related HCC risk (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19-0.88, Ptrend = .02). Our study provides evidence that higher concentrations of bile acids-specifically, conjugated primary bile acids-are associated with increased HCC risk. However, our study does not support the hypothesis that higher levels of secondary bile acids increase liver cancer risk; indeed, deoxycholic acid may be associated with a decreased HCC risk.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 147(4): 978-989, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922259

RESUMO

Trends in gallbladder cancer incidence and mortality in populations across the Americas can provide insight into shifting epidemiologic patterns and the current and potential impact of preventative and curative programs. Estimates of gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancer incidence and mortality for the year 2018 were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) GLOBOCAN database for 185 countries. Recorded registry-based incidence from 13 countries was extracted from IARCs Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series and corresponding national deaths from the WHO mortality database. Among females, the highest estimated incidence for gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancer in the Americas were found in Bolivia (21.0 per 100,000), Chile (11.7) and Peru (6.0). In the US, the highest incidence rates were observed among Hispanics (1.8). In the Chilean population, gallbladder cancer rates declined in both females and males between 1998 and 2012. Rates dropped slightly in Canada, Costa Rica, US Whites and Hispanics in Los Angeles. Gallbladder cancer mortality rates also decreased across the studied countries, although rising trends were observed in Colombia and Canada after 2010. Countries within Southern and Central America tended to have a higher proportion of unspecified biliary tract cancers. In public health terms, the decline in gallbladder cancer incidence and mortality rates is encouraging. However, the slight increase in mortality rates during recent years in Colombia and Canada warrant further attention. Higher proportions of unspecified biliary tract cancers (with correspondingly higher mortality rates) suggest more rigorous pathology procedures may be needed after surgery.

19.
Hepatology ; 72(2): 535-547, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In almost all countries, incidence rates of liver cancer (LC) are 100%-200% higher in males than in females. However, this difference is predominantly driven by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which accounts for 75% of LC cases. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) accounts for 12% of cases and has rates only 30% higher in males. Hormones are hypothesized to underlie observed sex differences. We investigated whether prediagnostic circulating hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were associated with LC risk, overall and by histology, by leveraging resources from five prospective cohorts. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Seven sex steroid hormones and SHBG were quantitated using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively, from baseline serum/plasma samples of 191 postmenopausal female LC cases (HCC, n = 83; ICC, n = 56) and 426 controls, matched on sex, cohort, age, race/ethnicity, and blood collection date. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between a one-unit increase in log2 hormone value (approximate doubling of circulating concentration) and LC were calculated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. A doubling in the concentration of 4-androstenedione (4-dione) was associated with a 50% decreased LC risk (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.30-0.82), whereas SHBG was associated with a 31% increased risk (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.05-1.63). Examining histology, a doubling of estradiol was associated with a 40% increased risk of ICC (OR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.05-1.89), but not HCC (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.81-1.54). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that higher levels of 4-dione may be associated with lower, and SHBG with higher, LC risk in women. However, this study does not support the hypothesis that higher estrogen levels decrease LC risk. Indeed, estradiol may be associated with an increased ICC risk.

20.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(4): 467-476, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725469

RESUMO

There is no systematic histopathologic analysis of non-neoplastic polyps in the gallbladder. In this study, in addition to a computer search for cases designated as "polyp," a systematic review of 2533 consecutive routinely sampled archival and 203 totally submitted prospective cholecystectomies were analyzed for >2 mm polyps (cut-off was based on radiologic sensitivity). A total of 447 non-neoplastic polyps were identified. The frequency was 3% in archival cases and 5% in totally submitted cases. Only 21 (5%) were ≥1 cm. The average age was 52 years, and the female to male ratio was 3.1. Two distinct categories were delineated: (1) injury-related polyps (n=273): (a) Fibro(myo)glandular polyps (n=214) were small (mean=0.4 cm), broad-based, often multiple (45%), almost always (98%) gallstone-associated, and were composed of a mixture of (myo)fibroblastic tissue/lobular glandular units with chronic cholecystitis. Dysplasia seen in 9% seemed to be secondary involvement. (b) Metaplastic pyloric glands forming polypoid collections (n=42). (c) Inflammatory-type polyps associated with acute/subacute injury (11 granulation tissue, 3 xanthogranulomatous, 3 lymphoid). (2) Cholesterol polyps (n=174) occurred in uninjured gallbladders, revealing a very thin stalk, edematous cores devoid of glands but with cholesterol-laden macrophages in 85%, and cholesterolosis in the uninvolved mucosa in 60%. Focal low-grade dysplasia was seen in 3%, always confined to the polyp, unaccompanied by carcinoma. In conclusion, non-neoplastic polyps are seen in 3% of cholecystectomies and are often small. Injury-related fibromyoglandular polyps are the most common. Cholesterol polyps have distinctive cauliflower architecture, often in a background of uninjured gallbladders with cholesterolosis and may lack the cholesterol-laden macrophages in the polyp itself. Although dysplastic changes can involve non-neoplastic polyps, they do not seem to be the cause of invasive carcinoma by themselves.


Assuntos
Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Pólipos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/análise , Chile/epidemiologia , Colecistectomia , Colesterol/análise , Feminino , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Metaplasia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pólipos/química , Pólipos/epidemiologia , Pólipos/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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