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1.
Circulation ; 141(2): 100-111, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure) showed that dapagliflozin added to other guideline-recommended therapies reduced the risk of mortality and heart failure hospitalization and improved symptoms in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. We examined the effects of dapagliflozin according to age, given potential concerns about the efficacy and safety of therapies in the elderly. METHODS: Patients in New York Heart Association functional class II or greater with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% and a modest elevation of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) were eligible. Key exclusion criteria included systolic blood pressure <95 mm Hg and estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure (heart failure hospitalization or urgent heart failure visit) or cardiovascular death, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 4744 patients 22 to 94 years of age (mean age, 66.3 [SD 10.9] years) were randomized: 636 patients (13.4%) were <55 years of age, 1242 (26.2%) were 55 to 64 years of age, 1717 (36.2%) were 65 to 74 years of age, and 1149 (24.2%) were ≥75 years of age. The rate of the primary outcome (per 100 person-years, placebo arm) in each age group was 13.6 (95% CI, 10.4-17.9), 15.7 (95% CI, 13.2-18.7), 15.1 (95% CI, 13.1-17.5), and 18.0 (95% CI, 15.2-21.4) with corresponding dapagliflozin/placebo hazard ratios of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.60-1.28), 0.71 (95% CI, 0.55-0.93), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.95), and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.53-0.88; P for interaction=0.76). Consistent benefits were observed for the components of the primary outcome, all-cause mortality, and symptoms. Although adverse events and study drug discontinuation increased with age, neither was significantly more common with dapagliflozin in any age group. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of death and worsening heart failure and improved symptoms across the broad spectrum of age studied in DAPA-HF. There was no significant imbalance in tolerability or safety events between dapagliflozin and placebo, even in elderly individuals. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03036124.

2.
Circulation ; 141(2): 90-99, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Goals of management in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction include reducing death and hospitalizations, and improving health status (symptoms, physical function, and quality of life). In the DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, reduced death and hospitalizations, and improved symptoms in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. In this analysis, we examine the effects of dapagliflozin on a broad range of health status outcomes, using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). METHODS: KCCQ was evaluated at randomization, 4 and 8 months. Patients were divided by baseline KCCQ total symptom score (TSS); Cox proportional hazards models examined the effects of dapagliflozin on clinical events across these subgroups. We also evaluated the effects of dapagliflozin on KCCQ-TSS, clinical summary score, and overall summary score. Responder analyses were performed to compare proportions of dapagliflozin versus placebo-treated patients with clinically meaningful changes in KCCQ at 8 months. RESULTS: A total of 4443 patients had available KCCQ at baseline (median KCCQ-TSS, 77.1 [interquartile range, 58.3-91.7]). The effects of dapagliflozin vs placebo on reducing cardiovascular death or worsening heart failure were consistent across the range of KCCQ-TSS (lowest to highest tertile: hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.86]; hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.98]; hazard ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.46-0.83]; P for heterogeneity=0.52). Patients treated with dapagliflozin had greater improvement in mean KCCQ-TSS, clinical summary score, and overall summary score at 8 months (2.8, 2.5 and 2.3 points higher versus placebo; P<0.0001 for all). Fewer patients treated with dapagliflozin had a deterioration in KCCQ-TSS (odds ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.78-0.90]; P<0.0001); and more patients had at least small, moderate, and large improvements (odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.08-1.23]; odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.08-1.22]; odds ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.07-1.22]; number needed to treat=14, 15, and 18, respectively; P<0.0001 for all; results consistent for KCCQ clinical summary score and overall summary score). CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced cardiovascular death and worsening heart failure across the range of baseline KCCQ, and improved symptoms, physical function, and quality of life in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Furthermore, dapagliflozin increased the proportion of patients experiencing at least small, moderate, and large improvements in health status; these effects were clinically important. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03036124.

3.
Am Heart J ; 219: 70-77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines for managing patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) recommend statin therapy initially. Target levels/goals for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were initially included, subsequently de-emphasized in 2013, and then re-introduced as thresholds, leading to confusion in clinical practice. We designed a multicenter, observational registry of patients with ASCVD, to describe and track LDL-C treatment patterns in the United States over time. METHODS: Patients with ASCVD receiving any pharmacologic lipid-lowering therapy were eligible for enrollment in one of three cohorts: 1) currently receiving a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9i), or not receiving PCSK9i with 2) LDL-C 70-99 mg/dL, or 3) LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL. Patients undergo a 1-year retrospective chart review, followed by chart reviews and phone interviews every 6 months for 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 5006 patients were enrolled at 119 centers. Mean age was 68 years, 40% of patients were female, 86% were white, 80% had coronary artery disease, and 33% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among those not on a PCSK9i, high-intensity statins and ezetimibe were utilized in only 44% and 9%, respectively. Among women vs men, only 36.6% vs 48.2% received high-intensity statins (P < .001). Among patients on a PCSK9i, only one-third were receiving a statin, suggesting statin intolerance is a driver of PCSK9i use at present. CONCLUSION: Our data on current practice in the US continue to illustrate that high-intensity statins and ezetimibe are underutilized in at-risk patients outside of clinical trials, particularly women. This study will track temporal changes in treatment patterns and identify opportunities for improvement in lipid management in patients with ASCVD.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 1995-2008, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this phase 3, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 4744 patients with New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive either dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (hospitalization or an urgent visit resulting in intravenous therapy for heart failure) or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Over a median of 18.2 months, the primary outcome occurred in 386 of 2373 patients (16.3%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 502 of 2371 patients (21.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). A first worsening heart failure event occurred in 237 patients (10.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 326 patients (13.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.83). Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 227 patients (9.6%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 273 patients (11.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.98); 276 patients (11.6%) and 329 patients (13.9%), respectively, died from any cause (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97). Findings in patients with diabetes were similar to those in patients without diabetes. The frequency of adverse events related to volume depletion, renal dysfunction, and hypoglycemia did not differ between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, the risk of worsening heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes was lower among those who received dapagliflozin than among those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036124.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Lancet ; 394(10204): 1169-1180, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes with previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), particularly those with previous stenting, are at high risk of ischaemic events. These patients are generally treated with aspirin. In this trial, we aimed to investigate if these patients would benefit from treatment with aspirin plus ticagrelor. METHODS: The Effect of Ticagrelor on Health Outcomes in diabEtes Mellitus patients Intervention Study (THEMIS) was a phase 3 randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, done in 1315 sites in 42 countries. Patients were eligible if 50 years or older, with type 2 diabetes, receiving anti-hyperglycaemic drugs for at least 6 months, with stable coronary artery disease, and one of three other mutually non-exclusive criteria: a history of previous PCI or of coronary artery bypass grafting, or documentation of angiographic stenosis of 50% or more in at least one coronary artery. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either ticagrelor or placebo, by use of an interactive voice-response or web-response system. The THEMIS-PCI trial comprised a prespecified subgroup of patients with previous PCI. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (measured in the intention-to-treat population). FINDINGS: Between Feb 17, 2014, and May 24, 2016, 11 154 patients (58% of the overall THEMIS trial) with a history of previous PCI were enrolled in the THEMIS-PCI trial. Median follow-up was 3·3 years (IQR 2·8-3·8). In the previous PCI group, fewer patients receiving ticagrelor had a primary efficacy outcome event than in the placebo group (404 [7·3%] of 5558 vs 480 [8·6%] of 5596; HR 0·85 [95% CI 0·74-0·97], p=0·013). The same effect was not observed in patients without PCI (p=0·76, pinteraction=0·16). The proportion of patients with cardiovascular death was similar in both treatment groups (174 [3·1%] with ticagrelor vs 183 (3·3%) with placebo; HR 0·96 [95% CI 0·78-1·18], p=0·68), as well as all-cause death (282 [5·1%] vs 323 [5·8%]; 0·88 [0·75-1·03], p=0·11). TIMI major bleeding occurred in 111 (2·0%) of 5536 patients receiving ticagrelor and 62 (1·1%) of 5564 patients receiving placebo (HR 2·03 [95% CI 1·48-2·76], p<0·0001), and fatal bleeding in 6 (0·1%) of 5536 patients with ticagrelor and 6 (0·1%) of 5564 with placebo (1·13 [0·36-3·50], p=0·83). Intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 33 (0·6%) and 31 (0·6%) patients (1·21 [0·74-1·97], p=0·45). Ticagrelor improved net clinical benefit: 519/5558 (9·3%) versus 617/5596 (11·0%), HR=0·85, 95% CI 0·75-0·95, p=0·005, in contrast to patients without PCI where it did not, pinteraction=0·012. Benefit was present irrespective of time from most recent PCI. INTERPRETATION: In patients with diabetes, stable coronary artery disease, and previous PCI, ticagrelor added to aspirin reduced cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, although with increased major bleeding. In that large, easily identified population, ticagrelor provided a favourable net clinical benefit (more than in patients without history of PCI). This effect shows that long-term therapy with ticagrelor in addition to aspirin should be considered in patients with diabetes and a history of PCI who have tolerated antiplatelet therapy, have high ischaemic risk, and low bleeding risk. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(11): 1402-1411, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to: (i) report the baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial, (ii) compare DAPA-HF patients to participants in contemporary heart failure (HF) registries and in other recent HF trials, and (iii) compare individuals with diabetes, pre-diabetes and a normal glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in DAPA-HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults with HF in New York Heart Association functional class ≥ II, a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, an elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration and receiving standard treatment were eligible for DAPA-HF, which is comparing dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily to matching placebo. In patients without a history of diabetes, previously undiagnosed diabetes was defined as a confirmed HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. Among patients without known or undiagnosed diabetes, pre-diabetes was defined as a HbA1c ≥ 5.7% The remainder of patients, with a HbA1c < 5.7%, were defined as normoglycaemic. Of the 4744 patients (mean age 66 years; 23% women) randomized, 42% had known diabetes and 3% undiagnosed diabetes. Of the remainder, 67% had pre-diabetes and 33% normal HbA1c. Overall, DAPA-HF patients were generally similar to those in recent registries and in relevant trials and had high levels of background therapy: 94% angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker/angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, 96% beta-blocker, and 71% mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; 26% had a defibrillator. Patients with diabetes had worse HF status, more co-morbidity, and greater renal impairment but received similar HF therapy. Patients with diabetes received non-insulin hypoglycaemic therapy alone in 49%, insulin alone in 11%, both in 14%, and none in 26%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients randomized in DAPA-HF were similar to those in other contemporary HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) registries and trials. These patients were receiving recommended HFrEF therapy and those with diabetes were also treated with conventional glucose-lowering therapy. Consequently, DAPA-HF will test the incremental efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in HFrEF patients with and without diabetes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03036124.

8.
Circulation ; 140(7): e294-e324, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167558

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for incident heart failure and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with established disease. Secular trends in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and heart failure forecast a growing burden of disease and underscore the need for effective therapeutic strategies. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the shared pathophysiology between diabetes mellitus and heart failure, the synergistic effect of managing both conditions, and the potential for diabetes mellitus therapies to modulate the risk of heart failure outcomes. This scientific statement on diabetes mellitus and heart failure summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and impact of diabetes mellitus and its control on outcomes in heart failure; reviews the approach to pharmacological therapy and lifestyle modification in patients with diabetes mellitus and heart failure; highlights the value of multidisciplinary interventions to improve clinical outcomes in this population; and outlines priorities for future research.

9.
J Card Fail ; 25(8): 584-619, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174952

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for incident heart failure and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with established disease. Secular trends in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and heart failure forecast a growing burden of disease and underscore the need for effective therapeutic strategies. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the shared pathophysiology between diabetes mellitus and heart failure, the synergistic effect of managing both conditions, and the potential for diabetes mellitus therapies to modulate the risk of heart failure outcomes. This scientific statement on diabetes mellitus and heart failure summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and impact of diabetes mellitus and its control on outcomes in heart failure; reviews the approach to pharmacological therapy and lifestyle modification in patients with diabetes mellitus and heart failure; highlights the value of multidisciplinary interventions to improve clinical outcomes in this population; and outlines priorities for future research.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 665-675, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been shown to reduce the risk of incident heart failure hospitalization in individuals with type 2 diabetes who have, or are at high risk of, cardiovascular disease. Most patients in these trials did not have heart failure at baseline and the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on outcomes in individuals with established heart failure (with or without diabetes) is unknown. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF) is an international, multicentre, parallel group, randomized, double-blind, study in patients with chronic heart failure, evaluating the effect of dapagliflozin 10 mg, compared with placebo, given once daily, in addition to standard care, on the primary composite outcome of a worsening heart failure event (hospitalization or equivalent event, i.e. an urgent heart failure visit) or cardiovascular death. Patients with and without diabetes are eligible and must have a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, a moderately elevated N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide level, and an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 . The trial is event-driven, with a target of 844 primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes include the composite of total heart failure hospitalizations (including repeat episodes), and cardiovascular death and patient-reported outcomes. A total of 4744 patients have been randomized. CONCLUSIONS: DAPA-HF will determine the efficacy and safety of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin, added to conventional therapy, in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(11)2018 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU) use for initially stable patients presenting with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) varies widely across hospitals and minimally correlates with severity of illness. We aimed to develop a bedside risk score to assist in identifying high-risk patients with NSTEMI for ICU admission. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network (ACTION) Registry linked to Medicare data, we identified patients with NSTEMI aged ≥65 years without cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest on presentation. Complications requiring ICU care were defined as subsequent development of cardiac arrest, shock, high-grade atrioventricular block, respiratory failure, stroke, or death during the index hospitalization. We developed and validated a model and integer risk score (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network (ACTION) ICU risk score) that uses variables present at hospital admission to predict requirement for ICU care. Of 29 973 patients with NSTEMI, 4282 (14%) developed a complication requiring ICU-level care, yet 12 879 (43%) received care in an ICU. Signs or symptoms of heart failure, initial heart rate, initial systolic blood pressure, initial troponin, initial serum creatinine, prior revascularization, chronic lung disease, ST-segment depression, and age had statistically significant associations with requirement for ICU care after adjusting for other risk factors. The ACTION ICU risk score had a C-statistic of 0.72. It identified 11% of patients as having very high risk (>30%) of developing complications requiring ICU care and 49% as having low likelihood (<10%) of requiring an ICU. CONCLUSIONS: The ACTION ICU risk score quantifies the risk of initially stable patients with NSTEMI developing a complication requiring ICU care, and could be used to more effectively allocate limited ICU resources.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Hemodinâmica , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
13.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2(1): 36-44, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27806171

RESUMO

Importance: Intensive care unit (ICU) utilization may have important implications for the care and outcomes of patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Objectives: To examine interhospital variation in ICU utilization in the United States for older adults with hemodynamically stable NSTEMI and outcomes associated with ICU utilization among patients with low, moderate, or high mortality risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study was a retrospective analysis of 28 018 Medicare patients 65 years or older admitted with NSTEMI to 346 hospitals participating in the Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network (ACTION)-Get With the Guidelines from April 1, 2011, through December 31, 2012. Patients with cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest on presentation were excluded. Data analysis was performed from May 7 through October 8, 2015. Exposures: Hospitals with high (>70% of patients with NSTEMI treated in an ICU during the index hospitalization), intermediate (30%-70%), or low (<30%) ICU utilization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Thirty-day mortality. Results: Of 28 018 patients with NSTEMI 65 years or older (median age, 77 years [interquartile range, 71-84 years]; female, 13 055 [46.6%]; nonwhite race, 3931 [14.0%]), 11 934 (42.6%) had an ICU stay. The proportion of patients with NSTEMI treated in the ICU varied across hospitals (median, 38%; interquartile range, 26%-54%), but no significant differences were found in hospital or patient characteristics among high, intermediate, or low ICU utilization hospitals. Compared with high ICU utilization hospitals, low or intermediate ICU utilization hospitals were only marginally more selective of higher-risk patients, as determined by ACTION in-hospital mortality risk score or initial troponin level. The median ACTION risk score for patients treated in the ICU at low and intermediate ICU utilization hospitals was 34 compared with 33 for patients not treated in the ICU; at high ICU utilization hospitals, the median ACTION mortality risk score was 33 for patients treated in the ICU and 34 for patients not treated in the ICU. Thirty-day mortality rates did not significantly differ based on hospital ICU utilization (high vs low: 8.7% vs 8.7%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.76-1.08; intermediate vs low: 9.6% vs 8.7%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.94-1.20). The association between hospital ICU utilization and mortality did not change when considered among patients with ACTION risk scores greater than 40, 30 to 40, and less than 30 (adjusted interaction P = .86). Conclusions and Relevance: Utilization of the ICU for older patients with NSTEMI varied significantly among hospitals. This variability was not explained by hospital characteristics or driven by patient risk. Mortality after myocardial infarction did not significantly differ among high, intermediate, or low ICU utilization hospitals.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Revisão da Utilização de Recursos de Saúde/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
14.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 61(4 Suppl 2): S12-23, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23507266

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease may complicate diabetes, often manifesting with reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), albuminuria, or both. Although greater albuminuria and lower estimated GFR both predict adverse prognosis, whether a synergistic prognostic interaction occurs in patients with diabetes has not been defined in a large national cohort study. METHODS: We used 2000-2011 data from the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) for 42,761 participants with diabetes. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariable Cox regression were used to ascertain the association of estimated GFR, albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), and their interaction on all-cause mortality and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at a median 4 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Of 42,761 participants with diabetes, 8,618 (20.2%) had estimated GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), 7,715 (18.0%) had ACR >30 mg/g, and 2,641 (6.2%) had both. The unadjusted incidence (per 1,000 person-years) of all-cause mortality increased from 3.1 (95% CI, 2.4-3.8) in participants with estimated GFR ≥ 105 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and no albuminuria to 73.7 (95% CI, 54.9-92.5) in participants with estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and macroalbuminuria (P < 0.001). Progression to ESRD likewise increased from 0.2 (95% CI, 0-0.4) to 220.4 (95% CI, 177.2-263.6) per 1,000 person-years (P < 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, both estimated GFR and albuminuria were associated independently with mortality and progression to ESRD, with a strong synergistic interaction (P for interaction < 0.001); estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and macroalbuminuria together were associated with a 5-fold higher risk of mortality and a more than 1,000-fold higher risk of progression to ESRD (compared with patients with estimated GFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and ACR <30 mg/g; P < 0.001 for both outcomes). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of diabetic KEEP participants with more than 170,000 person-years of follow-up, both estimated GFR and albuminuria were associated independently with mortality and progression to ESRD, with a strong synergistic interaction.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Creatinina/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Falência Renal Crônica , Idoso , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Nefropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Circulation ; 118(21): 2139-45, 2008 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18981304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleeding among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with worse long-term outcomes. Although the mechanism underlying this association is unclear, a potential explanation is that withholding antiplatelet therapies long beyond resolution of the bleeding event may contribute to recurrent events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined medication use at discharge, 1, 6, and 12 months after AMI among 2498 patients in the Prospective Registry Evaluating Myocardial Infarction: Events and Recovery (PREMIER) registry. Bleeding was defined as non-coronary artery bypass graft-related Thrombolysis of Myocardial Infarction major/minor bleeding or transfusion among patients with baseline hematocrit > or =28%. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between bleeding during the index AMI hospitalization and medication use. In-hospital bleeding occurred in 301 patients (12%) with AMI. Patients with in-hospital bleeding were less likely to be discharged on aspirin or thienopyridine (adjusted odds ratio=0.45; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.64; and odds ratio=0.62; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.91, respectively). At 1 month after discharge, although patients with in-hospital bleeding remained significantly less likely to receive aspirin (odds ratio=0.68; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.92), use of thienopyridines in the 2 groups started to become similar. By 1 year, antiplatelet therapy use was similar among patients with and without bleeding. Postdischarge cardiology follow-up was associated with greater antiplatelet therapy use than either primary care or no clinical follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Patients whose index AMI is complicated by bleeding are less likely to be treated with antiplatelet therapies during the first 6 months after discharge. Early reassessment of antiplatelet eligibility may represent an opportunity to reduce the long-term risk of adverse outcomes associated with bleeding.


Assuntos
Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hematócrito , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Análise de Regressão
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