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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15760, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978407

RESUMO

Health differences among the elderly and the role of medical treatments are topical issues in aging societies. We demonstrate the use of modern statistical learning methods to develop a data-driven health measure based on 21 years of pharmacy purchase and mortality data of 12,047 aging individuals. The resulting score was validated with 33,616 individuals from two fully independent datasets and it is strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.18 per point increase in score; 95% CI 1.14-1.22; p = 2.25e-16). When combined with Charlson comorbidity index, individuals with elevated medication score and comorbidity index had over six times higher risk (HR 6.30; 95% CI 3.84-10.3; AUC = 0.802) compared to individuals with a protective score profile. Alone, the medication score performs similarly to the Charlson comorbidity index and is associated with polygenic risk for coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867157

RESUMO

Mounting evidence suggests that migration background increases the risk of mental ill health, but that problems exist in accessing healthcare services in people of migrant origin. The present study uses a combination of register- and survey-based data to examine mental health-related health service use in three migrant origin populations as well as the correspondence between the need and use of services. The data are from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu), a comprehensive cross-sectional interview and a health examination survey. A random sample consisted of 5909 working-aged adults of Russian, Somali, and Kurdish origin of which 3000 were invited to participate in the survey and the rest were drawn for a register-based approach. Some of the mental health services, based on registers, were more prevalent in the Kurdish origin group in comparison with the general population and less prevalent in the Russian and Somali origin groups. All the migrant origin groups were underrepresented in rehabilitation services. When affective symptoms were taken into account, all the migrant origin groups were underrepresented in all of the services. This calls for actions to promote mental health, diminish the barriers to access services, and improve the service paths for migrants.

3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite reporting lower levels of alcohol consumption, people with lower socio-economic status (SES) experience greater alcohol-related harm. Whether differential biases in the measurement of alcohol use could explain this apparent paradox is unknown. Using alcohol biomarkers to account for measurement error, we examined whether differential exposure to alcohol could explain the socio-economic differences in alcohol mortality. METHODS: Participants from eight representative health surveys (n = 52 164, mean age 47.7 years) were linked to mortality data and followed up until December 2016. The primary outcome was alcohol-attributable mortality. We used income and education as proxies for SES. Exposures include self-reported alcohol use and four alcohol biomarkers [serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (available in all surveys), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (available in subsamples)]. We used shared frailty Cox proportional hazards to account for survey heterogeneity. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 20.3 years, totalling 1 056 844 person-years, there were 828 alcohol-attributable deaths. Lower SES was associated with higher alcohol mortality despite reporting lower alcohol use. Alcohol biomarkers were associated with alcohol mortality and improved the predictive ability when used in conjunction with self-reported alcohol use. Alcohol biomarkers explained a very small fraction of the socio-economic differences in alcohol mortality, since hazard ratios either slightly attenuated (percent attenuation range 1.0-12.1%) or increased. CONCLUSIONS: Using alcohol biomarkers in addition to self-reported alcohol use did not explain the socio-economic differences in alcohol mortality. Differential bias in the measurement of alcohol use is not a likely explanation for the alcohol-harm paradox.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined educational differences in decline in maximum gait speed over an 11-year follow-up in the general Finnish population aged ≥55 years, and assessed the contribution of lifestyle factors, body mass index, physical workload and chronic conditions on the association. METHODS: Data from the nationally representative Health 2000 Survey and it's 11-year follow-up was used. Participants aged 55 years and older with maximum gait speed measured at both time-points were included (n=1128). Information on education, age, sex, lifestyle factors, body mass index, physical workload and chronic conditions was collected at baseline. General linear model was used to examine differences in decline in maximum gait speed between education groups. Mediation analyses using the product method was conducted to partition the total effect of education on decline in maximum gait speed into direct effect and indirect effect acting through mediators. RESULTS: Decline in maximum gait speed was greater in low and intermediate education groups in comparison to the high education group [0.24 m/s, 95% confidence interval (0.21, 0.26), 0.24 m/s (0.21, 0.28), 0.10 m/s (0.07, 0.14), respectively]. The most important mediators were higher body mass index and lifetime exposure to physical workload among the less educated, accounting for 10% and 11% of the total effect, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Education-based disparities in objectively measured mobility increase with age as lower education is associated with greater decline in gait speed. Higher body mass index and physical workload among less educated contributed most to the educational disparities in age-related decline in maximum gait speed.

5.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; : 1-10, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to generate country-specific norms for two episodic memory tasks and a verbal fluency test among middle-aged and older adults using nationally representative data from nine low-, middle-, and high-income countries. METHOD: Data from nine countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America were analyzed (n = 42,116; aged 50 years or older). Episodic memory was assessed with the word list memory (three trials of immediate recall) and word list recall (delayed recall). Verbal fluency was measured through the animal naming task. Multiple linear regression models with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, education, and residential area were carried out. RESULTS: Both age and education showed high influence on test performance (i.e. lower cognitive performance with increasing age and decreasing years of education, respectively), while the effect of sex and residential area on cognitive function was neither homogeneous across countries nor across cognitive tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided sex-, age-, education-, and residential area-specific regression-based norms that were obtained from one of the largest normative study worldwide on verbal recall and fluency tests to date. Findings derived from this study will be especially useful for clinicians and researchers based at countries where cognitive norms are limited.

7.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(7): e386-e394, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid growth of the size of the older population is having a substantial effect on health and social care services in many societies across the world. Maintaining health and functioning in older age is a key public health issue but few studies have examined factors associated with inequalities in trajectories of health and functioning across countries. The aim of this study was to investigate trajectories of healthy ageing in older men and women (aged ≥45 years) and the effect of education and wealth on these trajectories. METHODS: This population-based study is based on eight longitudinal cohorts from Australia, the USA, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, and Europe harmonised by the EU Ageing Trajectories of Health: Longitudinal Opportunities and Synergies (ATHLOS) consortium. We selected these studies from the repository of 17 ageing studies in the ATHLOS consortium because they reported at least three waves of collected data. We used multilevel modelling to investigate the effect of education and wealth on trajectories of healthy ageing scores, which incorporated 41 items of physical and cognitive functioning with a range between 0 (poor) and 100 (good), after adjustment for age, sex, and cohort study. FINDINGS: We used data from 141 214 participants, with a mean age of 62·9 years (SD 10·1) and an age range of 45-106 years, of whom 76 484 (54·2%) were women. The earliest year of baseline data was 1992 and the most recent last follow-up year was 2015. Education and wealth affected baseline scores of healthy ageing but had little effect on the rate of decrease in healthy ageing score thereafter. Compared with those with primary education or less, participants with tertiary education had higher baseline scores (adjusted difference in score of 10·54 points, 95% CI 10·31-10·77). The adjusted difference in healthy ageing score between lowest and highest quintiles of wealth was 8·98 points (95% CI 8·74-9·22). Among the eight cohorts, the strongest inequality gradient for both education and wealth was found in the Health Retirement Study from the USA. INTERPRETATION: The apparent difference in baseline healthy ageing scores between those with high versus low education levels and wealth suggests that cumulative disadvantage due to low education and wealth might have largely deteriorated health conditions in early life stages, leading to persistent differences throughout older age, but no further increase in ageing disparity after age 70 years. Future research should adopt a lifecourse approach to investigate mechanisms of health inequalities across education and wealth in different societies. FUNDING: European Union Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Estados Unidos
8.
Health Place ; 62: 102280, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479358

RESUMO

Depression and loneliness act in a synergistic way among older adults. We tested two indicators of the perceived neighborhood built environment (BE) as moderators of the association between these conditions in older European adults. Positive perceptions of neighborhood BE were related to lower levels of loneliness but not to major depressive disorder (MDD). Reporting low BE usability was significantly related to a higher likelihood of feeling lonely except for those suffering from MDD, whereas reporting low BE walkability was significantly related with a high likelihood of loneliness particularly among those with MDD. Therefore, improving neighborhood BE and, specifically, its walkability, might result in a reduction in the prevalence of loneliness.

9.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545243

RESUMO

We investigated the relation between alcohol drinking and healthy ageing by means of a validated health status metric, using individual data from the Ageing Trajectories of Health: Longitudinal Opportunities and Synergies (ATHLOS) project. For the purposes of this study, the ATHLOS harmonised dataset, which includes information from individuals aged 65+ in 38 countries, was analysed (n = 135,440). Alcohol drinking was reflected by means of three harmonised variables: alcohol drinking frequency, current and past alcohol drinker. A set of 41 self-reported health items and measured tests were used to generate a specific health metric. In the harmonised dataset, the prevalence of current drinking was 47.5% while of past drinking was 26.5%. In the pooled sample, current alcohol drinking was positively associated with better health status among older adults ((b-coef (95% CI): 1.32(0.45 to 2.19)) and past alcohol drinking was inversely related (b-coef (95% CI): -0.83 (-1.51 to -0.16)) with health status. Often alcohol consumption appeared to be beneficial only for females in all super-regions except Africa, both age group categories (65-80 years old and 80+), both age group categories, as well as among all the financial status categories (all p < 0.05). Regional analysis pictured diverse patterns in the association for current and past alcohol drinkers. Our results report the need for specific alcohol intake recommendations among older adults that will help them maintain a better health status throughout the ageing process.

10.
Psychiatry Res ; 290: 113073, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicidality is a major concern for young adults. We analyzed which specific items of psychological distress best predicted suicidality in a nationwide population-based sample of young adults. METHODS: A random sample (n=1995) of adults aged 18 to 29 years living in Finland, was recruited to a health examination survey (Health 2011). We analyzed the total scores on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13) among the participants (n=837). We assigned the participants having suicidality on the basis of two direct self-harm items on a survey questionnaire, and analyzed which of the items of the GHQ-12 were significant predictors of suicidality. RESULTS: The associations of the GHQ-12 items with suicidality were significant with the odds ratios ranging from 1.95 to 7.35. The strongest association of suicidality was with the item 11. In factor analysis, suicidality was loaded most strongly on the same factor together with the item 10. LIMITATIONS: The definition of suicidality was based on two self-reported items. CONCLUSIONS: Feeling oneself worthless was robustly associated with suicidality. It seems to be a strong predictor and could be used as a screening question for suicidality in clinical appointments.

11.
Thyroid ; 30(9): 1346-1354, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460688

RESUMO

Background: Knowledge about the population's iodine status is important, because it allows adjustment of iodine supply and prevention of iodine deficiency. The validity and comparability of iodine-related population studies can be improved by standardization, which was one of the goals of the EUthyroid project. The aim of this study was to establish the first standardized map of iodine status in Europe by using standardized urinary iodine concentration (UIC) data. Materials and Methods: We established a gold-standard laboratory in Helsinki measuring UIC by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A total of 40 studies from 23 European countries provided 75 urine samples covering the whole range of concentrations. Conversion formulas for UIC derived from the gold-standard values were established by linear regression models and were used to postharmonize the studies by standardizing the UIC data of the individual studies. Results: In comparison with the EUthyroid gold-standard, mean UIC measurements were higher in 11 laboratories and lower in 10 laboratories. The mean differences ranged from -36.6% to 49.5%. Of the 40 postharmonized studies providing data for the standardization, 16 were conducted in schoolchildren, 13 in adults, and 11 in pregnant women. Median standardized UIC was <100 µg/L in 1 out of 16 (6.3%) studies in schoolchildren, while in adults 7 out of 13 (53.8%) studies had a median standardized UIC <100 µg/L. Seven out of 11 (63.6%) studies in pregnant women revealed a median UIC <150 µg/L. Conclusions: We demonstrate that iodine deficiency is still present in Europe, using standardized data from a large number of studies. Adults and pregnant women, particularly, are at risk for iodine deficiency, which calls for action. For instance, a more uniform European legislation on iodine fortification is warranted to ensure that noniodized salt is replaced by iodized salt more often. In addition, further efforts should be put on harmonizing iodine-related studies and iodine measurements to improve the validity and comparability of results.

12.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 45, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain is a common symptom, often associated with neurological and musculoskeletal conditions, and experienced especially by females and by older people, and with increasing trends in general populations. Different risk factors for pain have been identified, but generally from studies with limited samples and a limited number of candidate predictors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictors of pain from a large set of variables and respondents. METHODS: We used part of the harmonized dataset of ATHLOS project, selecting studies and waves with a longitudinal course, and in which pain was absent at baseline and with no missing at follow-up. Predictors were selected based on missing distribution and univariable association with pain, and were selected from the following domains: Socio-demographic and economic characteristics, Lifestyle and health behaviours, Health status and functional limitations, Diseases, Physical measures, Cognition, personality and other psychological measures, and Social environment. Hierarchical logistic regression models were then applied to identify significant predictors. RESULTS: A total of 13,545 subjects were included of whom 5348 (39.5%) developed pain between baseline and the average 5.2 years' follow-up. Baseline risk factors for pain were female gender (OR 1.34), engaging in vigorous exercise (OR 2.51), being obese (OR 1.36) and suffering from the loss of a close person (OR 1.88) whereas follow-up risk factors were low energy levels/fatigue (1.93), difficulties with walking (1.69), self-rated health referred as poor (OR 2.20) or average to moderate (OR 1.57) and presence of sleep problems (1.80). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that 39.5% of respondents developed pain over a five-year follow-up period, that there are proximal and distal risk factors for pain, and that part of them are directly modifiable. Actions aimed at improving sleep, reducing weight among obese people and treating fatigue would positively impact on pain onset, and avoiding vigorous exercise should be advised to people aged 60 or over, in particular if female or obese.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/fisiopatologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 52, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain is a common symptom, often associated with neurological and musculoskeletal conditions, and experienced especially by females and by older people. The aims of this study are to evaluate the temporal variations of pain rates among general populations for the period 1991-2015 and to project 10-year pain rates. METHODS: We used the harmonized dataset of ATHLOS project, which included 660,028 valid observations in the period 1990-2015 and we applied Bayesian age-period-cohort modeling to perform projections up to 2025. The harmonized Pain variable covers the content "self-reported pain experienced at the time of the interview", with a dichotomous (yes or no) modality. RESULTS: Pain rates were higher among females, older subjects, in recent periods, and among observations referred to cohorts of subjects born between the 20s and the 60s. The 10-year projections indicate a noteworthy increase in pain rates in both genders and particularly among subjects aged 66 or over, for whom a 10-20% increase in pain rate is foreseen; among females only, a 10-15% increase in pain rates is foreseen for those aged 36-50. CONCLUSIONS: Projected increase in pain rates will require specific interventions by health and welfare systems, as pain is responsible for limited quality of subjective well-being, reduced employment rates and hampered work performance. Worksite and lifestyle interventions will therefore be needed to limit the impact of projected higher pain rates.


Assuntos
Dor/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato
14.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 33(3): 365-384, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between health and an early exit from paid employment in the Finnish, Polish, and Spanish populations. The authors have addressed the following 3 issues: who chooses not to work according to gender patterns, whether the health status is a determinant of being non-employed, and what diseases are associated with being non-employed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The studied material consists of data from the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE in Europe) project. The analysis was based on a sample of 5868 individuals, including 1214 from Finland, 2152 from Poland and 2532 from Spain. In the paper, these data were complemented with the results of the PArticipation To Healthy Workplaces And inclusive Strategies in the Work Sector (PATHWAYS) project. RESULTS: The results of the study revealed that self-rated health was a strong predictor of being non-employed for different reasons. Chronic diseases, such as arthritis, angina, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression and hypertension, were typically associated with an increased risk of being non-employed due to health problems and early retirement. Women more frequently reported arthritis and depression, while a higher proportion of men suffered from angina and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained by the authors highlight the importance of evaluating gender patterns in work cessation and, at the same time, the importance of gender-focused actions in terms of preventing withdrawal from the labor market. In principle, all chronic diseases have some impact on participation in the labor market. It is worth noting, however, that each of them affects workforce participation in a different manner, depending on the specific disease, country and gender. For this reason, tailored support to every individual's needs is highly recommended. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2020;33(3):365-84.

15.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e033741, 2020 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a tool to inform individuals and general practitioners about benefits of lifestyle changes by providing estimates of the expected age of death (EAD) for different risk factor values, and for those who plan and decide on preventive activities and health services at population level, to calculate potential need for these. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study to estimate EAD using a model with 27 established risk factors, categorised into four groups: (1) sociodemographic background and medical history, (2) lifestyles, (3) life satisfaction, and (4) biological risk factors. We apply a Poisson regression model on the survival data split into 1-year intervals. PARTICIPANTS: Total of 38 549 participants aged 25-74 years at baseline of the National FINRISK Study between 1987 and 2007. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Register-based comprehensive mortality data from 1987 to 2014 with an average follow-up time of 16 years and 4310 deaths. RESULTS: Almost all risk factors included in the model were statistically significantly associated with death. The largest influence on the EAD appeared to be a current heavy smoker versus a never smoker as the EAD for a 30-year-old man decreased from 86.8 years, which corresponds to the reference values of the risk factors, to 80.2 years. Diabetes decreased EAD by >6.6 years. Whole or full milk consumers had 3.4 years lower EAD compared with those consuming skimmed milk. Physically inactive men had 2.4 years lower EAD than those with high activity. Men who found their life almost unbearable due to stress had 2.8 years lower EAD. CONCLUSIONS: The biological risk factors and lifestyles, and the factors connected with life satisfaction were clearly associated with EAD. Our model for estimating a person's EAD can be used to motivate lifestyle changes.

16.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(7): 1266-1272, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether vitamin D status predicts weight gain or increase in waist circumference during the 11-year follow-up in general adult population. DESIGN: A population-based longitudinal study. SETTING: The study was conducted using data from the nationally representative Health 2000/2011 Survey. The analyses were based on regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. PARTICIPANTS: Weight, waist circumference and vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration analysed with radioimmunoassay) were measured from 2924 participants aged 30-64 years at baseline. RESULTS: In men, low vitamin D status at baseline predicted ≥10 % increase in waist circumference during the follow-up when adjusted for age only (OR for sufficient v. deficient S-25(OH)D 0·41; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·67; P for trend <0·01), but the association with weight gain was only borderline significant. After adjustment for potential confounders, low vitamin D status remained a significant predictor of increase in waist circumference, but the association with weight gain was further attenuated. In women, vitamin D status at baseline did not predict weight gain or increase in waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that vitamin D insufficiency may be a risk factor of abdominal obesity among men but not among women. In men, it may also increase the risk of weight gain. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and examine potential mechanisms behind them. There is also a possibility that vitamin D is a biomarker of healthy lifestyle rather than an independent risk factor for obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
17.
Acta Radiol ; 61(10): 1309-1315, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of gastrointestinal (GI) contrast material for computed tomography (CT) diagnosis of hollow viscus injury (HVI) after penetrating abdominal trauma is still controversial. PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of CT and GI contrast material use in detecting HVI after penetrating abdominal trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis (2013-2016) of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. Data from the local trauma registry, medical records, and imaging from PACS were reviewed. CT and surgical findings were compared. RESULTS: Of 636 patients with penetrating trauma, 177 (163 men, 14 women) had abdominal trauma (mean age 34 years, age range 16-88 years): 155/177 (85%) were imaged with CT on arrival; 128/155 (83%) were stab wounds and 21/155 (14%) were gunshot wounds; 47/155 (30%) had emergent surgery after CT. Two patients were imaged using oral, rectal and i.v. contrast; 23 with rectal and i.v. contrast; and 22 with i.v. contrast only. Surgery revealed HVI in 26 patients. CT had an overall sensitivity 69.2%, specificity 90.5%, PPV 90.0%, and NPV 70.4%. CT with oral and/or rectal contrast (n = 25) had sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 71.4%, PPV 85.7%, and NPV 45.5%. CT with i.v. contrast only (n = 22) had 75% sensitivity, 100% specificity, PPV 100%, and NPV 87.5%. No statistically significant difference was found between sensitivity of CT with GI contrast material and i.v. contrast only (P = 1). CONCLUSION: Stab wounds were the most common cause of penetrating abdominal trauma. CT had 69.2% sensitivity and 90.5% specificity in detecting HVI. CT with GI contrast had similar sensitivity as CT with i.v. contrast only.

18.
Skeletal Radiol ; 49(4): 531-539, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess if ultra-low-dose CT is a useful clinical alternative to digital radiographs in the evaluation of acute wrist and ankle fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ultra-low-dose protocol was designed on a 256-slice multi-detector CT. Patients from the emergency department were evaluated prospectively. After initial digital radiographs, an ultra-low-dose CT was performed. Two readers independently analyzed the images. Also, the radiation dose, examination time, and time to preliminary report was compared between digital radiographs and CT. RESULTS: In 207 extremities, digital radiography and ultra-low-dose CT detected 73 and 109 fractures, respectively (p < 0.001). The odds ratio for fracture detection with ultra-low-dose CT vs. digital radiography was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.4-3.0). CT detected additional fracture-related findings in 33 cases (15.9%) and confirmed or ruled out suspected fractures in 19 cases (9.2%). The mean effective dose was comparable between ultra-low-dose CT and digital radiography (0.59 ± 0.33 µSv, 95% CI 0.47-0.59 vs. 0.53 ± 0.43 µSv, 95% CI 0.54-0.64). The mean combined examination time plus time to preliminary report was shorter for ultra-low-dose CT compared to digital radiography (7.6 ± 2.5 min, 95% CI 7.1-8.1 vs. 9.8 ± 4.7 min, 95% CI 8.8-10.7) (p = 0.002). The recommended treatment changed in 34 (16.4%) extremities. CONCLUSIONS: Ultra-low-dose CT is a useful alternative to digital radiography for imaging the peripheral skeleton in the acute setting as it detects significantly more fractures and provides additional clinically important information, at a comparable radiation dose. It also provides faster combined examination and reporting times.

20.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112704, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening for suicidality has importance in terms of public health. We investigated which specific items of psychological distress best predicted suicidality in a population-based sample. METHODS: A random sample of adults aged 30-101 years, being representative of the general population living in Finland, attended a health examination survey (Health 2011). We analyzed (n = 4373) the total scores on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13), as well as alcohol use, depressive and anxiety disorders as assessed with the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) among the participants. We assigned the participants having suicidality on the basis of the self-harm item on the BDI-13, and analyzed which of the items of the GHQ-12 were significant predictors of suicidality. RESULTS: After adjusting for background variables, five items of the GHQ-12 remained as significant predictors for suicidality: items 11, 9, 4, 6, and 5 in this descending order. LIMITATIONS: The definition of suicidality was based on only a single item of the BDI-13. CONCLUSIONS: Certain items of the GHQ-12 demonstrated strong associations with suicidality, and the GHQ-12 or a brief version of it might be used as a screening instrument for suicidality.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Suicídio/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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