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1.
Dev Psychobiol ; 63(3): 470-480, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677062

RESUMO

Parental behaviors are potent risk and protective factors for youth development of externalizing problems. Firm control is a parenting strategy that is inconsistently linked to youth adjustment, possibly due to variations in individual biological contexts. Growing research shows that dyadic coregulation of the autonomic nervous system (e.g., parent-child physiological synchrony) is a neurobiological mechanism that links parenting to youth adjustment. However, physiological synchrony may be context-dependent (e.g., adaptive in positive interactions, maladaptive in negative interactions). We aimed to test the role of dyadic synchrony in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during parent-child conflict as a mediator between parent firm control and youth's externalizing problems. To capture youth's stress reactivity, we also tested how galvanic skin response reactivity (GSR-R) moderated this indirect path. The sample included 101 dyads of low socioeconomic-status at-risk preadolescents and parents. Results indicated that youth higher levels of GSR-R significantly intensified the link between parent firm control and dyadic RSA synchrony during conflict. Dyadic RSA synchrony further predicted youth increased in externalizing problems. Overall, results suggest that when parents employ firm control parenting with highly reactive teens, dyadic RSA synchrony elevates, potentially modeling less optimal coping with conflict for the youth, which is associated with increased externalizing problems.

2.
J Pediatr ; 222: 193-199.e5, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the association between early puberty and telomere length in preadolescent girls and mothers from a large representative sample of US females. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from 1194 preadolescent girls and 2421 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Participants were from a population-based birth cohort (1998-2000) born in large US cities. Telomere length was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from saliva samples provided by preadolescent girls and mothers of preadolescent youth. Mothers completed a questionnaire about their child's pubertal development to determine concurrent Tanner stages and provided self-reports of her own age at menarche. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between pubertal development (status and timing) and telomere length. RESULTS: Early pubertal timing but not pubertal status was associated with shorter telomere length in preadolescent girls (P < .01). Early age at menarche was associated with shorter telomere length in a sample of mothers of preadolescent youth (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence for the association between early puberty and shorter telomeres evidenced by associations in both preadolescent girls and mothers. Future research should address the limitations of this study by using longitudinal measurements of pubertal development assessed through medical examinations and repeated assessments of telomere length to capture telomere attrition.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Menarca/genética , Mães , Puberdade/genética , Homeostase do Telômero/fisiologia , Telômero/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 48(6): 797-808, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157602

RESUMO

Previously institutionalized children on average show persistent deficits in physiological and behavioral regulation, as well as a lack of normative reticence towards strangers, or disinhibited social engagement (DSE). Post-adoption parenting, specifically a combination of supportive presence and structure/limit-setting, may protect against DSE over time via better adrenocortical functioning. This study examined the impact of adrenocortical activity and post-adoption parenting on DSE across the first two years post-adoption (age at adoption: 16-36 months) and observed kindergarten social outcomes in previously institutionalized children (n = 94) compared to non-adopted children (n = 52). Path analyses indicated a developmental cascade from institutional care (operationalized as a dichotomous group variable, age at adoption, and months of institutionalization) to blunted adrenocortical activity, increased DSE, and lower kindergarten social competence. Consistent with a permissive parenting style, higher parental support was associated with increased DSE, but only when not accompanied by effective structure/limit-setting. Further, parental structure reduced the association between blunted adrenocortical activity and DSE behaviors.


Assuntos
Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Interação Social , Participação Social , Adoção/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pais
4.
Dev Psychopathol ; 32(3): 879-896, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656215

RESUMO

Children reared in orphanages typically experience the lack of stable, reliable caregivers and are at increased risk for deficits in regulatory abilities including difficulties in inhibitory control, attention, and emotion regulation. Although adoption results in a radical shift in caregiving quality, there remains variation in postadoption parenting, yet little research has examined postadoption parenting that may promote recovery in children experiencing early life adversity in the form of institutional care. Participants included 93 postinstitutionalized children adopted between 15 and 36 months of age and 52 nonadopted same-aged peers. Parenting was assessed four times during the first 2 years postadoption (at 2, 8, 16, and 24 months postadoption) and children's regulation was assessed at age 5 (M age = 61.68 months) and during kindergarten (M age = 71.55 months). Multiple parenting dimensions including sensitivity/responsiveness, structure/limit setting, and consistency in routines were examined. Both parental sensitivity and structure moderated the effect of preadoption adversity on children's emotion regulation while greater consistency was associated with better inhibitory control and fewer attention problems. Results support the notion that postadoption parenting during toddlerhood and the early preschool years promotes better regulation skills following early adversity.


Assuntos
Adoção , Poder Familiar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pais , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
Child Maltreat ; 24(4): 452-457, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426661

RESUMO

A large body of evidence demonstrates the deleterious effects of childhood maltreatment that span across multiple levels of functioning and throughout development. This commentary highlights the important research in this special issue of Child Maltreatment that advances our understanding of the neural and physiological implications of maltreatment. Throughout, the commentary calls attention to critical issues in the study of maltreatment and neurobiological processes for future work in this area.

6.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 47(sup1): S205-S218, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27736236

RESUMO

Depressive symptoms are prevalent and rise during adolescence. The present study is a prospective investigation of environmental and genetic factors that contribute to the growth in depressive symptoms and the frequency of heightened symptoms during adolescence. Participants included 206 mother-father-adolescent triads (M age at Time 1 = 13.06 years, SD = .51, 52% female). Harsh parenting was observationally assessed during a family conflict paradigm. DNA was extracted from saliva samples and genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms. Adolescents provide self-reports of depressive symptoms annually across early adolescence. The results reveal Gene × Environment interactions as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories in the context of harsh parenting as an environmental risk factor. A BDNF Val66Met × Harsh Parenting interaction predicted the rise in depressive symptoms across a 3-year period, whereas a 5-HTTLPR × Harsh Parenting interaction predicted greater frequency in elevated depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of unique genetic and environmental influences in the development and course of heightened depressive symptoms during adolescence.

7.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 59(4): 327-346, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on early adversity, stress biology, and child development has grown exponentially in recent years. FINDINGS: We review the current evidence for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as a stress-mediating mechanism between various forms of childhood adversity and psychopathology. We begin with a review of the neurobiology of the axis and evidence for relations between early adversity-HPA axis activity and HPA axis activity-psychopathology, as well as discuss the role of regulatory mechanisms and sensitive periods in development. CONCLUSIONS: We call attention to critical gaps in the literature to highlight next steps in this research including focus on developmental timing, sex differences, stress buffering, and epigenetic regulation. A better understanding of individual differences in the adversity-HPA axis-psychopathology associations will require continued work addressing how multiple biological and behavioral systems work in concert to shape development.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Alostase/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Saúde da Criança , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Criança , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Estresse Psicológico
8.
J Res Adolesc ; 27(1): 229-245, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498540

RESUMO

Four distinct patterns of adolescents' behavioral, emotional, and physiological responses to family conflict were identified during mother-father-adolescent (M = 13.08 years) interactions. Most youth displayed adaptively regulated patterns comprised of low overt and subjective distress. Under-controlled adolescents exhibited elevated observable and subjective anger. Over-controlled adolescents were withdrawn and reported heightened subjective distress. Physiologically reactive adolescents had elevated cortisol coupled with low overt and subjective distress. Regulation patterns were associated with unique mental health trajectories. Under-controlled adolescents had elevated conduct and peer problems whereas over-controlled adolescents had higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. Physiologically reactive adolescents had low concurrent, but increasing levels of depressive, anxiety, and peer problem symptoms. Findings underscore the importance of examining organizations of regulatory strategies in contributing to adolescent mental health.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Saliva/química , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Ansiedade , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Relações Pais-Filho , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Fam Psychol ; 31(5): 563-573, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263623

RESUMO

Adoption marks a radical transition in caregiving for thousands of children adopted internationally from institutional care; however, very little is known about the quality of this parenting compared with other populations or the transactional effects of parent and child characteristics in postadoption families during the transition to family care. The current study examined parental sensitivity/responsiveness and structure/limit-setting in a group of 68 children adopted internationally from institutions (41 girls, 27 boys; M age = 26.13 months, SD = 4.99) and their parents over the first year after adoption and compared them to a sample of nonadoptive families (26 girls, 26 boys; M age = 27.65 months, SD = 5.71). Results indicated no mean-level differences in parenting quality on either dimension between adoptive and nonadoptive parents. For postinstitutionalized youth, higher quality parental structure and limit-setting soon after adoption predicted reduced child regulation difficulties 8 months later; however, initial child regulation did not predict later parenting. There were no cross-lagged relations for parental sensitivity/responsiveness. Higher quality preadoptive care for children was associated with higher scores on both sensitivity/responsiveness and structure and limit-setting among adoptive parents. Less growth stunting, indicative of less preadoptive adversity, was associated with parents' use of more effective structure and limit-setting behaviors. Policies should promote better preadoptive care abroad, such as lower caregiver-child ratios, as well as early adoption. At least in families exhibiting generally high sensitivity/responsiveness, interventions should target parental structure and limit-setting to have the greatest effect on child behavioral regulation in the immediate years postadoption. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Adoção/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
10.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 45(5): 857-869, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27687682

RESUMO

Individual differences in the propensity for left versus right frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry may underlie differences in approach/withdrawal tendencies and mental health deficits. Growing evidence suggests that early life adversity may shape brain development and contribute to the emergence of mental health problems. The present study examined frontal EEG asymmetry (FEA) following the transition to family care in children adopted internationally from institutional care settings between 15 and 36 months of age (N = 82; 46 female, 36 male). Two comparison groups were included: an international adoption control consisting of children adopted from foster care with little to no institutional deprivation (N = 45; 17 female, 28 male) and a post-adoption condition control consisting of children reared in birth families of the same education and income as the adoptive families (N = 48; 23 female, 25 male). Consistent with evidence of greater approach and impulsivity-related behavior problems in post-institutionalized (PI) children, PI status was associated with greater left FEA than found in the other two groups. In addition, left FEA served as a mediator between institutionalization and age 5 ADHD symptoms for girls. Age at adoption and other preadoption factors were examined with results suggesting that earlier adoption into a supportive family resulted in a more typical pattern of brain functioning. Findings support the idea that the capacity of brain activity to evidence typical functioning following perturbation may differ in relation to the timing of intervention and suggest that the earlier the intervention of adoption, the better.


Assuntos
Adoção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Família , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Orfanatos , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 57(10): 1126-34, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of post-institutionalized (PI) children exhibit disinhibited social engagement (DSE) or the propensity to approach and engage strangers. There is little longitudinal research examining changes in DSE after adoption, or methods of identifying children with persistent behaviors. METHODS: DSE was assessed observationally four times during the first 2 years postadoption in PI children 16-36 months at adoption (n = 68) relative to same-age nonadopted children (n = 52). At age 5, a validated interview determined which PI children met criteria for Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED). RESULTS: DSE trajectories initially increased and then stabilized. PIs had higher DSE levels initially and a steeper increase rate than NAs. When separated into physical and nonphysical DSE components, group differences arose in initial physical DSE and the rate of change of nonphysical DSE. DSE rate of increase predicted DSED diagnosis, as did longer institutional duration and poorer institutional care. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of increase in DSE postadoption, rather than the level observed at adoption, is predictive of disordered social engagement by age 5 years.


Assuntos
Adoção/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Inibição Psicológica , Relações Interpessoais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
12.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 66: 31-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26773398

RESUMO

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is influenced by early life adversity; however, less is known about the potential for recovery following marked improvements in care. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children's cortisol reactivity in the laboratory (4 assessments over 2 years) after adoption. Post-institutionalized (N=65) and post-foster care children (N=49) demonstrated blunted reactivity relative to non-adopted peers (N=53). Furthermore, post-institutionalized children exhibited no evidence of expected adaptation to repeated sessions in the 2 years following adoption. As evidenced by blunted cortisol reactivity, flatter diurnal slope, and lower home morning cortisol, we found support for hypocortisolism among children experiencing adverse early care. Hypocortisolism served as a mediator between adversity and teacher-reported attention and externalizing problems during kindergarten. Early adversity appears to contribute to the down-regulation of the HPA axis under both basal and stress conditions.


Assuntos
Adoção/psicologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/metabolismo , Hipopituitarismo/fisiopatologia , Hipopituitarismo/psicologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Lactente , Internacionalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
13.
Soc Dev ; 25(4): 777-793, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28584408

RESUMO

This study examined children's (N = 79; 9-10 years) and adolescents' (N = 82; 15-16 years) ability to regulate their emotion expressions of anxiety as they completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Approximately half in each age group were internationally adopted from institutional care (N = 79) and half were non-adopted, age-matched peers (N = 82). Institutional care was viewed as a form of early life stress. Coders who were reliable and blind to group status watched videos of the session to assess anxiety expressions using the Child and Adolescent Stress and Emotion Scale developed for this study. Children exhibited more expressions of anxiety than adolescents, and youth adopted from institutions showed more expressions of anxiety than their non-adopted counterparts. The role of early life stress on observed anxiety expressions remained significant after controlling for differences in age, physiological stress responses measured through salivary cortisol reactivity, and self-reports of stress during the TSST-C. This suggests possible deficits in the regulation of expressive behavior for youth with early life stress histories, which cannot be explained by experiencing the task as more stressful.

14.
Dev Psychobiol ; 58(3): 328-40, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26497289

RESUMO

The relations between early deprivation and the development of the neuroendocrine and central components of the mammalian stress response have been examined frequently. However, little is known about the impact of early deprivation on the developmental trajectories of autonomic function. Children adopted between 15-36 months from institutional care were examined during their first 16 months post-adoption (N = 60). Comparison groups included same-aged peers reared in their birth families (N = 50) and children adopted internationally from overseas foster care (N = 46). The present study examined trajectories of baseline autonomic nervous system function longitudinally following entry into adopted families. Post-institutionalized children had higher sympathetic tone, measured by pre-ejection period (PEP). Individual differences in PEP soon after adoption served as a mediator between early deprivation and parent-reported behavioral problems 2 years post-adoption. There were no group differences in parasympathetic function, indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. All three groups showed similar trajectories of ANS function across the 16 month period.


Assuntos
Adoção/psicologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
15.
J Fam Psychol ; 29(3): 349-59, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25915089

RESUMO

We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples' sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples' sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor-partner interdependence models indicated that husbands' use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives' sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands' and wives' use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Conflito Psicológico , Negociação/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 43(3): 503-15, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25131144

RESUMO

Conflict in specific family systems (e.g., interparental, parent-child) has been implicated in the development of a host of adjustment problems in adolescence, but little is known about the impact of family conflict involving multiple family systems. Furthermore, questions remain about the effects of family conflict on symptoms of specific disorders and adjustment problems and the processes mediating these effects. The present study prospectively examines the impact of family conflict and emotional security about the family system on adolescent symptoms of specific disorders and adjustment problems, including the development of symptoms of anxiety, depression, conduct problems, and peer problems. Security in the family system was examined as a mediator of these relations. Participants included 295 mother-father-adolescent families (149 girls) participating across three annual time points (grades 7-9). Including auto-regressive controls for initial levels of emotional insecurity and multiple adjustment problems (T1), higher-order emotional insecurity about the family system (T2) mediated relations between T1 family conflict and T3 peer problems, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Further analyses supported specific patterns of emotional security/insecurity (i.e., security, disengagement, preoccupation) as mediators between family conflict and specific domains of adolescent adjustment. Family conflict was thus found to prospectively predict the development of symptoms of multiple specific adjustment problems, including symptoms of depression, anxiety, conduct problems, and peer problems, by elevating in in adolescent's emotional insecurity about the family system. The clinical implications of these findings are considered.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Conflito Psicológico , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Ajustamento Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Grupo Associado , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 51: 426-30, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25462914

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine whether FKBP5 rs1360780 moderates relations between different forms of life stress/adversity (early institutional rearing and peer victimization) and depressive symptoms in adolescents. As reported previously, PI youth were at risk for being victimized by peers. Here, victimization was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. While FKBP5 did not moderate the association between early life adversity and depressive symptoms for either sex, it moderated the association between current adversity and depressive symptoms for victimized girls carrying the minor allele. Consistent with a differential susceptibility model, girls with the minor allele exhibited more depressive symptoms at higher levels of victimization, but fewer depressive symptoms at lower levels of victimization. Interestingly, boys with the CC genotype had higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to girls with the CC genotype in the context of heightened victimization.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime , Depressão/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 50: 1-13, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25150507

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that early social deprivation impacts the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Early adverse care in the form of institutional or orphanage care provides a human model for early social deprivation. The present study examined changes in diurnal cortisol during the transition to family care in the first 2 years post-adoption. Children adopted between 15 and 36 months from institutional care were examined four times during their first 2 years post-adoption (N=58). Comparison groups included same-aged peers reared in their birth families (N=50) and children adopted during their first year from overseas foster care (N=47). Children provided daily cortisol samples at roughly 2, 9, 17, and 25 months post-adoption. Post-institutionalized and post-foster care children exhibited less steep diurnal cortisol compared to non-adopted same-aged peers; these differences did not diminish across the 2 year period. For post-institutionalized children, lower social care quality in institutions was associated with less steep cortisol slopes. Lastly, shallower diurnal cortisol was a mediator between adoption status and increased behavioral problems 2 years post-adoption. Consistent with the non-human primate literature, early social deprivation may contribute to early programming of the HPA axis.


Assuntos
Adoção/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
19.
J Genet Psychol ; 175(1-2): 118-33, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24796159

RESUMO

Triangulation is a family-wide process in which children are inappropriately involved in interparental conflict, placing them at heightened risk for adjustment problems. A common form of triangulation occurs by parents pressuring their children to take sides, which may result in feelings of being torn between parents. Externalizing behaviors in particular may develop as adolescents feel caught in the middle of conflict and forced to choose a side. However, the nature of the triadic process of triangulation may be impacted by dyadic-level relationships within the family. The authors thus explored how positive parenting processes may alter the relations between triangulation and adolescent externalizing problems. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents (n = 301 families) provided assessments of adolescent externalizing problems, triangulation, and maternal and paternal warmth. Analyses revealed a 3-way interaction among triangulation and maternal and paternal warmth predicting adolescent externalizing problems; child gender also moderated these relations. Among highly triangulated youth, boys displayed increased externalizing problems when both parents exhibited low or high warmth, whereas girls showed increased behavior problems in the context of low maternal but high paternal warmth. These findings indicate the importance of examining the broader family context and gender when considering the impact of triangulation during adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Familiares , Pais/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Adolescente , Criança , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia
20.
Dev Psychobiol ; 56(4): 836-49, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24037991

RESUMO

Recent research supports the promise of examining interactive models of physiological processes on children's adjustment. The present study investigates interactions between children's autonomic nervous system activity and adrenocortical functioning in the context of marital discord; specifically, testing models of concurrent responses proposed by Bauer et al. ([2002] Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 23:102-113) in the prediction of children's behavioral responses to conflict and adjustment. Asymmetry and symmetry in children's salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol were examined in 195 children (M age = 8 years) in response to viewing conflict vignettes. Results were partially consistent with an interactive model in the context of high marital discord; asymmetry among higher alpha-amylase and lower cortisol related to higher emotional insecurity and concurrent and subsequent maladjustment. In contrast, patterns of symmetrical responses were related to greater maladjustment for children exposed to lower levels of marital discord, supporting an additive model. Findings support the importance of a multisystem approach to investigating the adaptiveness of children's physiological stress responses, while also highlighting the value of considering physiological responses in the context of family risk.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Conflito Familiar , Hidrocortisona/análise , alfa-Amilases Salivares/análise , Ajustamento Social , Afeto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Saliva/química
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