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2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(1): e1009208, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497421

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immortalizes resting B-lymphocytes through a highly orchestrated reprogramming of host chromatin structure, transcription and metabolism. Here, we use a multi-omics-based approach to investigate these underlying mechanisms. ATAC-seq analysis of cellular chromatin showed that EBV alters over a third of accessible chromatin during the infection time course, with many of these sites overlapping transcription factors such as PU.1, Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs), and CTCF. Integration of RNA-seq analysis identified a complex transcriptional response and associations with EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs). Focusing on EBNA1 revealed enhancer-binding activity at gene targets involved in nucleotide metabolism, supported by metabolomic analysis which indicated that adenosine and purine metabolism are significantly altered by EBV immortalization. We further validated that adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a direct and critical target of the EBV-directed immortalization process. These findings reveal that purine metabolism and ADA may be useful therapeutic targets for EBV-driven lymphoid cancers.

3.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 86-99, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414553

RESUMO

Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are resected human tumors engrafted into mice for preclinical studies and therapeutic testing. It has been proposed that the mouse host affects tumor evolution during PDX engraftment and propagation, affecting the accuracy of PDX modeling of human cancer. Here, we exhaustively analyze copy number alterations (CNAs) in 1,451 PDX and matched patient tumor (PT) samples from 509 PDX models. CNA inferences based on DNA sequencing and microarray data displayed substantially higher resolution and dynamic range than gene expression-based inferences, and they also showed strong CNA conservation from PTs through late-passage PDXs. CNA recurrence analysis of 130 colorectal and breast PT/PDX-early/PDX-late trios confirmed high-resolution CNA retention. We observed no significant enrichment of cancer-related genes in PDX-specific CNAs across models. Moreover, CNA differences between patient and PDX tumors were comparable to variations in multiregion samples within patients. Our study demonstrates the lack of systematic copy number evolution driven by the PDX mouse host.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
4.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414169

RESUMO

Acetyl-CoA is a vitally important and versatile metabolite used for many cellular processes including fatty acid synthesis, ATP production, and protein acetylation. Recent studies have shown that cancer cells upregulate acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2), an enzyme that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA, in response to stresses such as low nutrient availability and hypoxia. Stressed cancer cells use ACSS2 as a means to exploit acetate as an alternative nutrient source. Genetic depletion of ACSS2 in tumors inhibits the growth of a wide variety of cancers. However, there are no studies on the use of an ACSS2 inhibitor to block tumor growth. In this study, we synthesized a small molecule inhibitor that acts as a transition state mimetic to block ACSS2 activity in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacological inhibition of ACSS2 as a single agent impaired breast tumor growth. Collectively, our findings suggest that targeting ACSS2 may be an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of patients with breast cancer.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 346, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436641

RESUMO

Anti-PD-1 therapy is used as a front-line treatment for many cancers, but mechanistic insight into this therapy resistance is still lacking. Here we generate a humanized (Hu)-mouse melanoma model by injecting fetal liver-derived CD34+ cells and implanting autologous thymus in immune-deficient NOD-scid IL2Rγnull (NSG) mice. Reconstituted Hu-mice are challenged with HLA-matched melanomas and treated with anti-PD-1, which results in restricted tumor growth but not complete regression. Tumor RNA-seq, multiplexed imaging and immunohistology staining show high expression of chemokines, as well as recruitment of FOXP3+ Treg and mast cells, in selective tumor regions. Reduced HLA-class I expression and CD8+/Granz B+ T cells homeostasis are observed in tumor regions where FOXP3+ Treg and mast cells co-localize, with such features associated with resistance to anti-PD-1 treatment. Combining anti-PD-1 with sunitinib or imatinib results in the depletion of mast cells and complete regression of tumors. Our results thus implicate mast cell depletion for improving the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/terapia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
6.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244985, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481853

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPrCa) arises de novo or after accumulation of genomic alterations in pre-existing adenocarcinoma tumors in response to androgen deprivation therapies. We have provided evidence that small extracellular vesicles released by PrCa cells and containing the αVß3 integrin promote neuroendocrine differentiation of PrCa in vivo and in vitro. Here, we examined αVß3 integrin expression in three murine models carrying a deletion of PTEN (SKO), PTEN and RB1 (DKO), or PTEN, RB1 and TRP53 (TKO) genes in the prostatic epithelium; of these three models, the DKO and TKO tumors develop NEPrCa with a gene signature comparable to those of human NEPrCa. Immunostaining analysis of SKO, DKO and TKO tumors shows that αVß3 integrin expression is increased in DKO and TKO primary tumors and metastatic lesions, but absent in SKO primary tumors. On the other hand, SKO tumors show higher levels of a different αV integrin, αVß6, as compared to DKO and TKO tumors. These results are confirmed by RNA-sequencing analysis. Moreover, TRAMP mice, which carry NEPrCa and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, also have increased levels of αVß3 in their NEPrCa primary tumors. In contrast, the αVß6 integrin is only detectable in the adenocarcinoma areas. Finally, analysis of 42 LuCaP patient-derived xenografts and primary adenocarcinoma samples shows a positive correlation between αVß3, but not αVß6, and the neuronal marker synaptophysin; it also demonstrates that αVß3 is absent in prostatic adenocarcinomas. In summary, we demonstrate that αVß3 integrin is upregulated in NEPrCa primary and metastatic lesions; in contrast, the αVß6 integrin is confined to adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Our findings suggest that the αVß3 integrin, but not αVß6, may promote a shift in lineage plasticity towards a NE phenotype and might serve as an informative biomarker for the early detection of NE differentiation in prostate cancer.

7.
Cancer Res ; 80(23): 5270-5281, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023943

RESUMO

The protein chaperone HSP70 is overexpressed in many cancers including colorectal cancer, where overexpression is associated with poor survival. We report here the creation of a uniquely acting HSP70 inhibitor (HSP70i) that targets multiple compartments in the cancer cell, including mitochondria. This inhibitor was mitochondria toxic and cytotoxic to colorectal cancer cells, but not to normal colon epithelial cells. Inhibition of HSP70 was efficacious as a single agent in primary and metastatic models of colorectal cancer and enabled identification of novel mitochondrial client proteins for HSP70. In a syngeneic colorectal cancer model, the inhibitor increased immune cell recruitment into tumors. Cells treated with the inhibitor secreted danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP), including ATP and HMGB1, and functioned effectively as a tumor vaccine. Interestingly, the unique properties of this HSP70i in the disruption of mitochondrial function and the inhibition of proteostasis both contributed to DAMP release. This HSP70i constitutes a promising therapeutic opportunity in colorectal cancer and may exhibit antitumor activity against other tumor types. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings describe a novel HSP70i that disrupts mitochondrial proteostasis, demonstrating single-agent efficacy that induces immunogenic cell death in treated tumors.

8.
Cell Rep ; 32(5): 107991, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755584

RESUMO

A comprehensive understanding of the phenotype of persistent HIV-infected cells, transcriptionally active and/or transcriptionally inactive, is imperative for developing a cure. The relevance of cell-surface glycosylation to HIV persistence has never been explored. We characterize the relationship between cell-surface glycomic signatures and persistent HIV transcription in vivo. We find that the cell surface of CD4+ T cells actively transcribing HIV, despite suppressive therapy, harbors high levels of fucosylated carbohydrate ligands, including the cell extravasation mediator Sialyl-LewisX (SLeX), compared with HIV-infected transcriptionally inactive cells. These high levels of SLeX are induced by HIV transcription in vitro and are maintained after therapy in vivo. Cells with high-SLeX are enriched with markers associated with HIV susceptibility, signaling pathways that drive HIV transcription, and pathways involved in leukocyte extravasation. We describe a glycomic feature of HIV-infected transcriptionally active cells that not only differentiates them from their transcriptionally inactive counterparts but also may affect their trafficking abilities.

9.
Dev Cell ; 55(2): 163-177.e6, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780991

RESUMO

The crosstalk between tumor cells and the adjacent normal epithelium contributes to cancer progression, but its regulators have remained elusive. Here, we show that breast cancer cells maintained in hypoxia release small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) that activate mitochondrial dynamics, stimulate mitochondrial movements, and promote organelle accumulation at the cortical cytoskeleton in normal mammary epithelial cells. This results in AKT serine/threonine kinase (Akt) activation, membrane focal adhesion turnover, and increased epithelial cell migration. RNA sequencing profiling identified integrin-linked kinase (ILK) as the most upregulated pathway in sEV-treated epithelial cells, and genetic or pharmacologic targeting of ILK reversed mitochondrial reprogramming and suppressed sEV-induced cell movements. In a three-dimensional (3D) model of mammary gland morphogenesis, sEV treatment induced hallmarks of malignant transformation, with deregulated cell death and/or cell proliferation, loss of apical-basal polarity, and appearance of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Therefore, sEVs released by hypoxic breast cancer cells reprogram mitochondrial dynamics and induce oncogenic changes in a normal mammary epithelium.

10.
J Biol Chem ; 295(41): 14084-14099, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788215

RESUMO

A sterilizing or functional cure for HIV is currently precluded by resting CD4+ T cells that harbor latent but replication-competent provirus. The "shock-and-kill" pharmacological ap-proach aims to reactivate provirus expression in the presence of antiretroviral therapy and target virus-expressing cells for elimination. However, no latency reversal agent (LRA) to date effectively clears viral reservoirs in humans, suggesting a need for new LRAs and LRA combinations. Here, we screened 216 compounds from the pan-African Natural Product Library and identified knipholone anthrone (KA) and its basic building block anthralin (dithranol) as novel LRAs that reverse viral latency at low micromolar concentrations in multiple cell lines. Neither agent's activity depends on protein kinase C; nor do they inhibit class I/II histone deacetylases. However, they are differentially modulated by oxidative stress and metal ions and induce distinct patterns of global gene expression from established LRAs. When applied in combination, both KA and anthralin synergize with LRAs representing multiple functional classes. Finally, KA induces both HIV RNA and protein in primary cells from HIV-infected donors. Taken together, we describe two novel LRAs that enhance the activities of multiple "shock-and-kill" agents, which in turn may inform ongoing LRA combination therapy efforts.

11.
RNA ; 26(12): 1801-1814, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817447

RESUMO

In addition to adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing activities, ADAR1 has been shown to have various RNA editing-independent activities including modulation of RNAi efficacy. We previously reported that ADAR1 forms a heterodimer complex with DICER and facilitates processing of pre-miRNAs to mature miRNAs. In addition to miRNA synthesis, DICER is involved in processing of long dsRNAs into small RNAs (endo-siRNAs). Generation of retrotransposon-derived endo-siRNAs by DICER and their functions in regulation of transcripts in mouse oocytes has been previously reported. However, the synthesis and functions of endo-siRNAs in somatic cells remain largely unknown. Here, we report that ADAR1 together with DICER generates endogenous small RNAs, Alu endo-siRNAs by cleaving long double-stranded regions of inverted Alu repeats. We identified AGO2-loaded Alu endo-siRNAs, which are highly expressed in commonly used cell lines. These Alu endo-siRNAs carrying both sense and antisense Alu sequences seem to target a set of genes containing a single Alu sequence, either antisense or sense, respectively, within their 3'UTR. In silico screening identified potential RNA silencing target genes for these Alu endo-siRNAs. We present results of a proof-of-concept experiment, in which sense Alu endo-siRNAs derived from AluSz and AluJr family elements target CUB Domain Containing Protein 1 mRNAs containing an antisense copy of AluJb in their 3'UTRs and consequently induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. Our results clearly indicate that Alu endo-siRNAs are functional also in somatic cells.

12.
Sci Signal ; 13(642)2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723812

RESUMO

Mitochondria are signaling hubs in eukaryotic cells. Here, we showed that the mitochondrial FUN14 domain-containing protein-1 (FUNDC1), an effector of Parkin-independent mitophagy, also participates in cellular plasticity by sustaining oxidative bioenergetics, buffering ROS production, and supporting cell proliferation. Targeting this pathway in cancer cells suppressed tumor growth but rendered transformed cells more motile and invasive in a manner dependent on ROS-mediated mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial repositioning to the cortical cytoskeleton. Global metabolomics and proteomics profiling identified a FUNDC1 interactome at the mitochondrial inner membrane, comprising the AAA+ protease, LonP1, and subunits of oxidative phosphorylation, complex V (ATP synthase). Independently of its previously identified role in mitophagy, FUNDC1 enabled LonP1 proteostasis, which in turn preserved complex V function and decreased ROS generation. Therefore, mitochondrial reprogramming by a FUNDC1-LonP1 axis controls tumor cell plasticity by switching between proliferative and invasive states in cancer.

13.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3732-3744, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675277

RESUMO

Germline mutations in TP53 cause a rare high penetrance cancer syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Here, we identified a rare TP53 tetramerization domain missense mutation, c.1000G>C;p.G334R, in a family with multiple late-onset LFS-spectrum cancers. Twenty additional c.1000G>C probands and one c.1000G>A proband were identified, and available tumors showed biallelic somatic inactivation of TP53. The majority of families were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and the TP53 c.1000G>C allele was found on a commonly inherited chromosome 17p13.1 haplotype. Transient transfection of the p.G334R allele conferred a mild defect in colony suppression assays. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from the index family in comparison with TP53 normal lines showed that although classical p53 target gene activation was maintained, a subset of p53 target genes (including PCLO, PLTP, PLXNB3, and LCN15) showed defective transactivation when treated with Nutlin-3a. Structural analysis demonstrated thermal instability of the G334R-mutant tetramer, and the G334R-mutant protein showed increased preponderance of mutant conformation. Clinical case review in comparison with classic LFS cohorts demonstrated similar rates of pediatric adrenocortical tumors and other LFS component cancers, but the latter at significantly later ages of onset. Our data show that TP53 c.1000G>C;p.G334R is found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, causes a mild defect in p53 function, and leads to low penetrance LFS. SIGNIFICANCE: TP53 c.1000C>G;p.G334R is a pathogenic, Ashkenazi Jewish-predominant mutation associated with a familial multiple cancer syndrome in which carriers should undergo screening and preventive measures to reduce cancer risk.

14.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(7): e1008681, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706839

RESUMO

In sub-Saharan Africa, endemic Kaposi's sarcoma (EnKS) is still prevalent despite high incidence of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (EpKS) resulting from the on-going HIV-1 epidemic. While KSHV is clearly the etiologic agent of KS, the mechanisms underlying KS development are not fully understood. For example, HIV-1 co-infection and concomitant immune dysfunction have been associated with EpKS development. However, the direct or indirect role(s) of HIV-1, and therefore of immune suppression, in EpKS remains unclear. How, or whether, EpKS is mechanistically distinct from EnKS is unknown. Thus, the absence of HIV-1 co-infection in EnKS provides a unique control for investigating and deciphering whether HIV-1 plays a direct or indirect role in the EpKS tumor microenvironment. We hypothesized that HIV-1 co-infection would induce transcriptome changes that differentiate EpKS from EnKS, thereby defining the direct intra-tumor role of HIV-1 in KS. Comparison of ART-treated and -naïve patients would further define the impact of ART on the KS transcriptome. We utilized RNA-seq followed by multiparameter bioinformatics analysis to compare transcriptomes from KS lesions to uninvolved control skin. We provide the first transcriptomic comparison of EpKS versus EnKS, ART-treated vs-naïve EpKS and male vs female EpKS to define the roles of HIV-1 co-infection, the impact of ART, and gender on KS gene expression profiles. Our findings suggest that ART-use and gender have minimal impact on transcriptome profiles of KS lesions. Gene expression profiles strongly correlated between EpKS and EnKS patients (Spearman r = 0.83, p<10-10). A subset of genes involved in tumorigenesis and inflammation/immune responses showed higher magnitude, but not unique dysregulation in EnKS compared to EpKS. While gender and ART had no detectable contribution, the trend toward higher magnitude of gene dysregulation in EnKS coupled with the absence of HIV-1 transcripts in EpKS may suggest an indirect or systemic effect of HIV-1 to promote KS tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/genética , HIV-1 , Herpesvirus Humano 8 , Sarcoma de Kaposi/genética , Sarcoma de Kaposi/virologia , Adulto , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cancer Discov ; 10(9): 1282-1295, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499221

RESUMO

Older patients with melanoma (>50 years old) have poorer prognoses and response rates to targeted therapy compared with young patients (<50 years old), which can be driven, in part, by the aged microenvironment. Here, we show that aged dermal fibroblasts increase the secretion of neutral lipids, especially ceramides. When melanoma cells are exposed to the aged fibroblast lipid secretome, or cocultured with aged fibroblasts, they increase the uptake of lipids via the fatty acid transporter FATP2, which is upregulated in melanoma cells in the aged microenvironment and known to play roles in lipid synthesis and accumulation. We show that blocking FATP2 in melanoma cells in an aged microenvironment inhibits their accumulation of lipids and disrupts their mitochondrial metabolism. Inhibiting FATP2 overcomes age-related resistance to BRAF/MEK inhibition in animal models, ablates tumor relapse, and significantly extends survival time in older animals. SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that melanoma cells take up lipids from aged fibroblasts, via FATP2, and use them to resist targeted therapy. The response to targeted therapy is altered in aged individuals because of the influences of the aged microenvironment, and these data suggest FATP2 as a target to overcome resistance.See related commentary by Montal and White, p. 1255.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1241.

18.
Cancer Cell ; 37(2): 157-167.e6, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004442

RESUMO

In response to DNA double-strand breaks, MAD2L2-containing shieldin complex plays a critical role in the choice between homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated repair. Here we show that EZH2 inhibition upregulates MAD2L2 and sensitizes HR-proficient epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) to poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor in a CARM1-dependent manner. CARM1 promotes MAD2L2 silencing by driving the switch from the SWI/SNF complex to EZH2 through methylating the BAF155 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex on the MAD2L2 promoter. EZH2 inhibition upregulates MAD2L2 to decrease DNA end resection, which increases NHEJ and chromosomal abnormalities, ultimately causing mitotic catastrophe in PARP inhibitor treated HR-proficient cells. Significantly, EZH2 inhibitor sensitizes CARM1-high, but not CARM-low, EOCs to PARP inhibitors in both orthotopic and patient-derived xenografts.


Assuntos
Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/antagonistas & inibidores , Recombinação Homóloga/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Adv Cancer Res ; 145: 29-47, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089164

RESUMO

The G coupled protein receptor CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) has the unusual characteristic in humans of being a developmentally non-essential gene that participates in several pathological processes including infection with HIV (Dean et al., 1996; Gupta et al., 2019; Samson et al., 1996), progression of stroke (Joy et al., 2019), osteoporosis (Xie et al., 2019) and the metastasis of cancer (Jiao et al., 2018; Velasco-Velazquez et al., 2012, 2014) (Reviewed in: Jiao, Nawab, et al., 2019; Jiao, Wang, & Pestell, 2019). The importance of CCR5 in HIV led to recent genetic engineering of humans to recreate a non-functional CCR5 gene. Thus, although the application of gene-editing tools, to manipulate human embryos is prohibited in the United States, and China. at the Second International Summit on Human Genome Editing in Hong Kong (http://www.nationalacademies.org/), it was claimed that CRISPR-Cas9 systems had been used to edit the CCR5 gene in twin baby girls. The importance of CCR5 in stroke has led to clinical trials using maraviroc (NCT03172026). The key function of CCR5 in cancer metastasis and homing (Jiao et al., 2018; Jiao, Nawab, et al., 2019; Velasco-Velazquez et al., 2012, 2014) has led to three active clinical trials for metastatic cancer using CCR5 antagonists (Jiao, Nawab, et al., 2019; Jiao, Wang, & Pestell, 2019). Thus, it was surprising to find that the all-cause mortality rate in individuals who are homozygous for the CCR5△32 allele in the United Kingdom normal population was increased >20% increase, with an almost 2 year reduction overall lifespan (Wei & Nielsen, 2019). The current review herein discusses the distinct functions of CCR5 in human disease and potential avenues for further research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptores CCR5/metabolismo , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Br J Cancer ; 122(6): 868-884, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a key metabolic pathway for the growth of triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs), particularly those that have high expression of MYC. However, the underlying mechanism by which MYC promotes FAO remains poorly understood. METHODS: We used a combination of metabolomics, transcriptomics, bioinformatics, and microscopy to elucidate a potential mechanism by which MYC regulates FAO in TNBC. RESULTS: We propose that MYC induces a multigenic program that involves changes in intracellular calcium signalling and fatty acid metabolism. We determined key roles for fatty acid transporters (CD36), lipases (LPL), and kinases (PDGFRB, CAMKK2, and AMPK) that each contribute to promoting FAO in human mammary epithelial cells that express oncogenic levels of MYC. Bioinformatic analysis further showed that this multigenic program is highly expressed and predicts poor survival in the claudin-low molecular subtype of TNBC, but not other subtypes of TNBCs, suggesting that efforts to target FAO in the clinic may best serve claudin-low TNBC patients. CONCLUSION: We identified critical pieces of the FAO machinery that have the potential to be targeted for improved treatment of patients with TNBC, especially the claudin-low molecular subtype.

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