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1.
Chemistry ; 26(11): 2436-2449, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774196

RESUMO

The substitution of scandium in fullerene single-molecule magnets (SMMs) DySc2 N@C80 and Dy2 ScN@C80 by lutetium has been studied to explore the influence of the diamagnetic metal on the SMM performance of dysprosium nitride clusterfullerenes. The use of lutetium led to an improved SMM performance of DyLu2 N@C80 , which shows a higher blocking temperature of magnetization (TB =9.5 K), longer relaxation times, and broader hysteresis than DySc2 N@C80 (TB =6.9 K). At the same time, Dy2 LuN@C80 was found to have a similar blocking temperature of magnetization to Dy2 ScN@C80 (TB =8 K), but substantially different interactions between the magnetic moments of the dysprosium ions in the Dy2 MN clusters. Surprisingly, although the intramolecular dipolar interactions in Dy2 LuN@C80 and Dy2 ScN@C80 are of similar strength, the exchange interactions in Dy2 LuN@C80 are close to zero. Analysis of the low-frequency molecular and lattice vibrations showed strong mixing of the lattice modes and endohedral cluster librations in k-space. This mixing simplifies the spin-lattice relaxation by conserving the momentum during the spin flip and helping to distribute the moment and energy further into the lattice.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 571, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718550

RESUMO

Engineering intramolecular exchange interactions between magnetic metal atoms is a ubiquitous strategy for designing molecular magnets. For lanthanides, the localized nature of 4f electrons usually results in weak exchange coupling. Mediating magnetic interactions between lanthanide ions via radical bridges is a fruitful strategy towards stronger coupling. In this work we explore the limiting case when the role of a radical bridge is played by a single unpaired electron. We synthesize an array of air-stable Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) dimetallofullerenes (Ln2 = Y2, Gd2, Tb2, Dy2, Ho2, Er2, TbY, TbGd) featuring a covalent lanthanide-lanthanide bond. The lanthanide spins are glued together by very strong exchange interactions between 4f moments and a single electron residing on the metal-metal bonding orbital. Tb2@C80(CH2Ph) shows a gigantic coercivity of 8.2 Tesla at 5 K and a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 25.2 K. The Ln-Ln bonding orbital in Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) is redox active, enabling electrochemical tuning of the magnetism.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(70): 9730-9733, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079423

RESUMO

Magnetic properties of endohedral metallofullerenes with nitride clusters DySc2N and Dy2ScN and different carbon cages are studied by SQUID magnetometry. All molecules behave as single molecule magnets (SMMs) and exhibit magnetic hysteresis. It is found that the blocking temperature of magnetization and relaxation times strongly depend on the fullerene cage, with the C80-Ih isomer offering the best SMM properties.

4.
Nanoscale ; 10(38): 18153-18160, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132489

RESUMO

The magnetic ordering and bistability of one-dimensional chains of endofullerene Dy2ScN@C80 single-molecule magnets (SMMs) packed inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and ab initio calculations. X-ray absorption measurements reveal that the orientation of the encapsulated endofullerenes differs from the isotropic distribution in the bulk sample, indicating a partial ordering of the endofullerenes inside the SWCNTs. The effect of the one-dimensional packing was further investigated by ab initio calculations, demonstrating that for specific tube diameters, the encapsulation is leading to energetically preferential orientations of the endohedral clusters. Additionally, element-specific magnetization curves reveal a decreased magnetic bistability of the encapsulated Dy2ScN@C80 SMMs compared to the bulk analog.

5.
Chem Sci ; 8(9): 6451-6465, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263779

RESUMO

A method for the selective synthesis of sulfide clusterfullerenes Dy2S@C2n is developed. Addition of methane to the reactive atmosphere reduces the formation of empty fullerenes in the arc-discharge synthesis, whereas the use of Dy2S3 as a source of metal and sulfur affords sulfide clusterfullerenes as the main fullerene products along with smaller amounts of carbide clusterfullerenes. Two isomers of Dy2S@C82 with Cs(6) and C3v(8) cage symmetry, Dy2S@C72-Cs(10528), and a carbide clusterfullerene Dy2C2@C82-Cs(6) were isolated. The molecular structure of both Dy2S@C82 isomers was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. SQUID magnetometry demonstrates that all of these clusterfullerenes exhibit hysteresis of magnetization, with Dy2S@C82-C3v(8) being the strongest single molecule magnet in the series. DC- and AC-susceptibility measurements were used to determine magnetization relaxation times in the temperature range from 1.6 K to 70 K. Unprecedented magnetization relaxation dynamics with three consequent Orbach processes and energy barriers of 10.5, 48, and 1232 K are determined for Dy2S@C82-C3v(8). Dy2S@C82-Cs(6) exhibits faster relaxation of magnetization with two barriers of 15.2 and 523 K. Ab initio calculations were used to interpret experimental data and compare the Dy-sulfide clusterfullerenes to other Dy-clusterfullerenes. The smallest and largest barriers are ascribed to the exchange/dipolar barrier and relaxation via crystal-field states, respectively, whereas an intermediate energy barrier of 48 K in Dy2S@C82-C3v(8) is assigned to the local phonon mode, corresponding to the librational motion of the Dy2S cluster inside the carbon cage.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(23): 237202, 2017 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286680

RESUMO

For the endohedral fullerene molecule HoLu_{2}N@C_{80}, it is shown that the endohedral HoLu_{2}N unit may be oriented in a magnetic field. The Ho magnetic moment is fixed in the strong ligand field and aligns along the holmium-nitrogen axis. The torque of a magnetic field on the Ho magnetic moment leads to a hopping bias of the endohedral unit inclining to an orientation parallel to the externally applied field. This endohedral cluster distribution remains frozen below the onset of thermally induced rotation of the endohedral units. We derive an analytical statistical model for the description of the effect that scales below 7 T with the square of the external field strength, and that allows us to resolve the freezing temperature of the endohedral hopping motion. The freezing temperature is around 55 K and depends on the cooling rate, which in turn determines an activation energy for the hopping motion of 185 meV and a prefactor of 1.8×10^{14} s^{-1}. For TbSc_{2}N@C_{80} we find the same behavior with a 3.5% higher freezing temperature.

7.
Nanotechnology ; 28(43): 435703, 2017 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28885185

RESUMO

Endohedral lanthanide ions packed inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a one-dimensional assembly have been studied with a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). By correlating HRTEM and STXM images we show that structures down to 30 nm are resolved with chemical contrast and record x-ray absorption spectra from endohedral lanthanide ions embedded in individual nanoscale CNT bundles. XMCD measurements of an Er3N@C80 bulk sample and a macroscopic assembly of filled CNTs indicate that the magnetic properties of the endohedral Er3+ ions are unchanged when encapsulated in CNTs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of local magnetic x-ray characterisation of low concentrations of lanthanide ions embedded in molecular nanostructures.

8.
Nat Commun ; 8: 16098, 2017 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28706223

RESUMO

Increasing the temperature at which molecules behave as single-molecule magnets is a serious challenge in molecular magnetism. One of the ways to address this problem is to create the molecules with strongly coupled lanthanide ions. In this work, endohedral metallofullerenes Y2@C80 and Dy2@C80 are obtained in the form of air-stable benzyl monoadducts. Both feature an unpaired electron trapped between metal ions, thus forming a single-electron metal-metal bond. Giant exchange interactions between lanthanide ions and the unpaired electron result in single-molecule magnetism of Dy2@C80(CH2Ph) with a record-high 100 s blocking temperature of 18 K. All magnetic moments in Dy2@C80(CH2Ph) are parallel and couple ferromagnetically to form a single spin unit of 21 µB with a dysprosium-electron exchange constant of 32 cm-1. The barrier of the magnetization reversal of 613 K is assigned to the state in which the spin of one Dy centre is flipped.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(7): 1830-1834, 2017 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28079303

RESUMO

Fused-pentagons results in an increase of local steric strain according to the isolated pentagon rule (IPR), and for all reported non-IPR clusterfullerenes multiple (two or three) metals are required to stabilize the strained fused-pentagons, making it difficult to access the single-atom properties. Herein, we report the syntheses and isolations of novel non-IPR mononuclear clusterfullerenes MNC@C76 (M=Tb, Y), in which one pair of strained fused-pentagon is stabilized by a mononuclear cluster. The molecular structures of MNC@C76 (M=Tb, Y) were determined unambiguously by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, featuring a non-IPR C2v (19138)-C76 cage entrapping a nearly linear MNC cluster, which is remarkably different from the triangular MNC cluster within the reported analogous clusterfullerenes based on IPR-obeying C82 cages. The TbNC@C76 molecule is found to be a field-induced single-molecule magnet (SMM).

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(44): 14764-14771, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27755875

RESUMO

Clusterfullerenes are capable of entrapping a variety of metal clusters within carbon cage, for which the entrapped metal cluster generally keeps its geometric structure (e.g., bond distance and angle) upon changing the isomeric structure of fullerene cage, and whether the properties of the entrapped metal cluster is geometry-dependent remains unclear. Herein we report an unusual triangular monometallic cluster entrapped in fullerene cage by isolating several novel terbium cyanide clusterfullerenes (TbNC@C82) with different cage isomeric structures. Upon varying the isomeric structure of C82 cage from C2(5) to Cs(6) and to C2v(9), the entrapped triangular TbNC cluster exhibits significant distortions as evidenced by the changes of Tb-C(N) and C-N bond distances and variation of the Tb-C(N)-N(C) angle by up to 20°, revealing that the geometric structure of the entrapped triangular TbNC cluster is variable. All three TbNC@C82 molecules are found to be single-ion magnets, and the change of the geometric structure of TbNC cluster directly leads to the alternation of the magnetic relaxation time of the corresponding TbNC@C82 clusterfullerene.

11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(45): 13411-5, 2015 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26350440

RESUMO

The use of methane as a reactive gas dramatically increases the selectivity of the arc-discharge synthesis of M-Ti-carbide clusterfullerenes (M=Y, Nd, Gd, Dy, Er, Lu). Optimization of the process parameters allows the synthesis of Dy2TiC@C80-I and its facile isolation in a single chromatographic step. A new type of cluster with an endohedral acetylide unit, M2TiC2@C80, is discovered along with the second isomer of M2TiC@C80. Dy2TiC@C80-(I,II) and Dy2TiC2@C80-I are shown to be single-molecule magnets (SMM), but the presence of the second carbon atom in the cluster Dy2TiC2@C80 leads to substantially poorer SMM properties.

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