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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582899

RESUMO

We present synchrotron-based mass spectrometry to probe products formed in a lithium sulphide electrolyte. In operando analysis was carried out at two different potentials in a vacuum compatible microfluidic electrochemical cell. Mass spectral observations show that the charged electrolyte formed sulphur clusters under dynamic conditions, demonstrating electrolyte electron shuttling.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(25): 14284-14292, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555897

RESUMO

Electronic excitation and concomitant energy transfer leading to Penning ionization in argon-acetylene clusters generated in a supersonic expansion are investigated with synchrotron-based photoionization mass spectrometry and electronic structure calculations. Spectral features in the photoionization efficiency of the mixed argon-acetylene clusters reveal a blue shift from the 2P1/2 and 2P3/2 excited states of atomic argon. Analysis of this feature suggests that excited states of argon clusters transfer energy to acetylene, resulting in its ionization and successive evaporation of argon. Theoretically calculated Arn (n = 2-6) cluster spectra are in excellent agreement with experimental observations, and provide insight into the structure and ionization dynamics of the clusters. A comparison between argon-acetylene and argon-water clusters reveals that argon solvates water better, allowing for higher-order excitons and Rydberg states to be populated. These results are explained by theoretical calculations of respective binding energies and structures.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(5): 2713-2737, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960853

RESUMO

Tunable synchrotron radiation provides a universal yet selective scalpel to decipher molecular information in complex chemical systems when coupled to mass spectrometry and X-ray spectroscopy. At the Chemical Dynamics Beamline, the radiation emanating from the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley has been utilized by physical chemists and chemical physicists to probe chemical reactivity, energetics and spectroscopy for over two decades. Emerging themes are the study of molecular growth mechanisms, solvation, electronic structure and reactivity in clusters, complexes and nanoparticles. The ion-induced and neutral growth mechanisms in methanol and acetylene clusters are revealed by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) single photon ionization mass spectrometry. The photoionization dynamics of glycerol show signatures of strong ionic hydrogen bonds, non-covalent interactions are explored in naphthalene water clusters, proton transfer pathways are revealed in acetaldehyde water clusters, and exciton charge transfer is probed in argon water clusters. X-ray spectroscopy provides a local probe of a sample's electronic structure with elemental and site-specificity and is thus ideally suited for probing solvation. Velocity map imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy coupled to nanoparticle beams that allows for the visualization of dynamic processes in solvation and molecular growth processes is described. This technique is used to probe reactivity in aerosol chemistry, obtain phase and pH dependent information on aqueous nanoparticles and electron scattering cross-sections from hydrocarbon nanoparticles. We describe future opportunities in probing elusive radicals such as the cyclic 3,5-dehydroxyphenyl radical cation and excited states in water clusters formed in VUV photoionization, explore reactivity in confined spaces via X-ray spectroscopy and elucidate time dynamics with laser-synchrotron pump probe experiments.

4.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(28): 6034-6044, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283250

RESUMO

For aerosol particles that exist in highly viscous, diffusion-limited states, steep chemical gradients are expected to form during photochemical aging in the atmosphere. Under these conditions, species at the aerosol surface are more rapidly transformed than molecules residing in the particle interior. To examine the formation and evolution of chemical gradients at aerosol interfaces, the heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) on ∼200 nm particles of pure squalane (a branched, liquid hydrocarbon) and octacosane (a linear, solid hydrocarbon) and binary mixtures of the two are used to understand how diffusion limitations and phase separation impact the particle reactivity. Aerosol mass spectrometry is used to measure the effective heterogeneous OH uptake coefficient (γeff) and oxidation kinetics in the bulk, which are compared with the elemental composition of the surface obtained using X-ray photoemission. When diffusion rates are fast relative to the reaction frequency, as is the case for squalane and low-viscosity squalane-octacosane mixtures, the reaction is efficient (γeff ∼ 0.3) and only limited by the arrival of OH to the interface. However, for cases, where the diffusion rates are slower than reaction rates, as in pure octacosane and higher-viscosity squalane-octacosane mixtures, the heterogeneous reaction occurs in a mixing-limited regime and is ∼10× slower (γeff ∼ 0.03). This is in contrast to carbon and oxygen K edge X-ray absorption measurements that show that the octacosane interface is oxidized much more rapidly than that of pure squalane particles. The O/C ratio of the surface (estimated to be the top 6-8 nm of the interface) is measured to change with rate constants of (3.0 ± 0.9) × 10-13 and (8.6 ± 1.2) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for squalane and octacosane particles, respectively. The differences in surface oxidation rates are analyzed using a previously published reaction-diffusion model, which suggests that a 1-2 nm highly oxidized crust forms on octacosane particles, whereas in pure squalane, the reaction products are homogeneously mixed within the aerosol. This work illustrates how diffusion limitations can form particles with highly oxidized surfaces even at relatively low oxidant exposures, which is in turn expected to influence their microphysics in the atmosphere.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(8): 1860-1865, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933520

RESUMO

Application of photoionization mass spectroscopy, a technique capable of assessing protonation states in complex molecules in the gas phase, is challenging for arginine due to its fragility. We report photoionization efficiencies in the valence region of aqueous aerosol particles produced from arginine solutions under various pH and vaporization conditions. By using ab initio calculations, we investigate the stability of different conformers. Our results show that neutral arginine fragments upon ionization in the gas phase but solvation stabilizes the molecular ion, resulting in different photoionization dynamics. We also report the valence-band photoelectron spectra of the aerosol solutions obtained at different pH values.

6.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(11): 2194-2202, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807163

RESUMO

Reaction of gold atoms with acetylene and ethylene in a laser ablation source produces a number of gold-containing species. Their photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves are measured using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation at the Advanced Light Source. Their structures are assigned by comparing the experimental ionization energies and PIE curves to those of potential isomers calculated at the CAM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level. For smaller molecules, the contribution of ionization to excited electronic states of the cation is also included using photoionization cross sections calculated using ePolyScat. Reaction with acetylene produces adducts Au(C2H2) and Au(C2H2)2, as well as HAu(C4H2). Reaction with ethylene leads to adducts Au(C2H4), Au(C2H4)2, an adduct with a gold dimer, Au2(C2H4), as well as the gold hydrides AuH, HAu(C2H4), and HAu(C4H4). [Au,C4,H7] is also observed, and it likely corresponds to a gold alkyl, H2C═C(H)-Au(C2H4). Reactions leading to production of odd-hydrogen species are endothermic and are likely due to translationally or electronically excited gold atoms. These measurements provide the first directly measured ionization energy for gold hydride, IE(AuH) = 10.25 ± 0.05 eV. Combining this value with the dissociation energy of AuH+ gives a dissociation energy D0(AuH) = 3.15 ± 0.12 eV. Several other ionization energies are measured: IE(Au2(C2H4)) = 8.42 ± 0.05 eV, IE(HAu(C2H4)) = 9.35 ± 0.05 eV, IE(HAu(C4H2)) = 8.8 ± 0.1 eV, and IE(HAu(C4H4)) = 8.8 ± 0.1 eV.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 149(15): 154305, 2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342450

RESUMO

New photoresists are needed to advance extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The tailored design of efficient photoresists is enabled by a fundamental understanding of EUV induced chemistry. Processes that occur in the resist film after absorption of an EUV photon are discussed, and a new approach to study these processes on a fundamental level is described. The processes of photoabsorption, electron emission, and molecular fragmentation were studied experimentally in the gas-phase on analogs of the monomer units employed in chemically amplified EUV resists. To demonstrate the dependence of the EUV absorption cross section on selective light harvesting substituents, halogenated methylphenols were characterized employing the following techniques. Photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to investigate kinetic energies and yield of electrons emitted by a molecule. The emission of Auger electrons was detected following photoionization in the case of iodo-methylphenol. Mass-spectrometry was used to deduce the molecular fragmentation pathways following electron emission and atomic relaxation. To gain insight on the interaction of emitted electrons with neutral molecules in a condensed film, the fragmentation pattern of neutral gas-phase molecules, interacting with an electron beam, was studied and observed to be similar to EUV photon fragmentation. Below the ionization threshold, electrons were confirmed to dissociate iodo-methylphenol by resonant electron attachment.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(21): E4125-E4133, 2017 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28484019

RESUMO

The growth mechanism of hydrocarbons in ionizing environments, such as the interstellar medium (ISM), and some combustion conditions remains incompletely understood. Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and molecular beam vacuum-UV (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry experiments were performed to understand the ion-molecule growth mechanism of small acetylene clusters (up to hexamers). A dramatic dependence of product distribution on the ionization conditions is demonstrated experimentally and understood from simulations. The products change from reactive fragmentation products in a higher temperature, higher density gas regime toward a very cold collision-free cluster regime that is dominated by products whose empirical formula is (C2H2) n+, just like ionized acetylene clusters. The fragmentation products result from reactive ion-molecule collisions in a comparatively higher pressure and temperature regime followed by unimolecular decomposition. The isolated ionized clusters display rich dynamics that contain bonded C4H4+ and C6H6+ structures solvated with one or more neutral acetylene molecules. Such species contain large amounts (>2 eV) of excess internal energy. The role of the solvent acetylene molecules is to affect the barrier crossing dynamics in the potential energy surface (PES) between (C2H2)n+ isomers and provide evaporative cooling to dissipate the excess internal energy and stabilize products including the aromatic ring of the benzene cation. Formation of the benzene cation is demonstrated in AIMD simulations of acetylene clusters with n > 3, as well as other metastable C6H6+ isomers. These results suggest a path for aromatic ring formation in cold acetylene-rich environments such as parts of the ISM.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(20): 13372-13378, 2017 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28492688

RESUMO

A velocity map imaging spectrometer is used to measure photoemission from free core-shell nanoparticles, where a salt core is coated with a liquid hydrocarbon shell (i.e. squalane). By varying the radial thickness of the hydrocarbon shell, electron attenuation lengths (EALs) are determined by measuring the decay in photoemission intensity from the salt core. In squalane, electrons with kinetic energy (KE) above 2 eV are found to have EALs of 3-5 nm, whereas electrons with smaller KE (<2 eV) have significantly larger EALs of >15 nm. These results (in the context of other energy-resolved EAL measurements) suggest that the energy dependent behavior of low energy electrons is similar in dielectrics when KE > 2 eV. At this energy the EALs do not appear to exhibit strong energy dependence. However, at very low KE (<2 eV), the EALs diverge and appear to be extremely material dependent.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(16): 4515-4519, 2017 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328095

RESUMO

The hydrogen-abstraction/acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism has been central for the last decades in attempting to rationalize the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as detected in carbonaceous meteorites such as in Murchison. Nevertheless, the basic reaction mechanisms leading to the formation of even the simplest tricyclic PAHs like anthracene and phenanthrene are still elusive. Here, by exploring the previously unknown chemistry of the ortho-biphenylyl radical with acetylene, we deliver compelling evidence on the efficient synthesis of phenanthrene in carbon-rich circumstellar environments. However, the lack of formation of the anthracene isomer implies that HACA alone cannot be responsible for the formation of PAHs in extreme environments. Considering the overall picture, alternative pathways such as vinylacetylene-mediated reactions are required to play a crucial role in the synthesis of complex PAHs in circumstellar envelopes of dying carbon-rich stars.

11.
Chemphyschem ; 18(12): 1503-1506, 2017 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28231411

RESUMO

Knowledge of the acid dissociation constant of an amino acid has very important ramifications in the biochemistry of proteins and lipid bilayers in aqueous environments because charge and proton transfer depend on its value. The acid dissociation constant for the guanidinium group in arginine has historically been posited as 12.5, but there is substantial variation in published values over the years. Recent experiments suggest that the dissociation constant for arginine is much higher than 12.5, which explains why the arginine guanidinium group retains its positive charge under all physiological conditions. In this work, we use X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study unsupported, aqueous arginine nanoparticles. By varying the pH of the constituent solution, we provide evidence that the guanidinium group is protonated even in a very basic solution. By analyzing the energy shifts in the C and N X-ray photoelectron spectra, we establish a molecular level picture of how charge and proton transport in aqueous solutions of arginine occur.


Assuntos
Arginina/química , Guanidina/química , Prótons , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Soluções
12.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(43): 8645-8656, 2016 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27748598

RESUMO

The heterogeneous reaction of ozone (O3) with 200 nm squalene nanoparticles is studied using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Photoelectrons are detected from free nanoparticle beams using a velocity map imaging (VMI) spectrometer capable of detecting photoelectrons with up to 40 eV of kinetic energy. Heterogeneous kinetics are quantified using changes in the UPS, XPS, and NEXAFS spectrum, yielding uptake coefficients for the decay of the double bonds in squalene of (3.1 ± 0.7) × 10-4, (2.6 ± 0.6) × 10-4, and (2.9 ± 0.7) × 10-4, respectively. When comparing these values with the uptake coefficient, (1.0 ± 0.2) × 10-3, determined by the molecular decay of squalene measured with aerosol mass spectrometry, it is found that on average 1.6 ± 0.2 double bonds are removed for each ozone-squalene reactive collision, suggesting the importance of evaporation of small molecular weight reaction products from the aerosol. From further analysis of the nanoparticle XPS spectrum, it is found that ozonolysis increases the oxygen-to-carbon (O:C) ratio of the aerosol to 0.43 ± 0.03 and produces 16 ± 4% and 84 ± 4% secondary ozonides and carbonyls, respectively. The methods developed here show how aerosol photoemission can be used to quantify heterogeneous reaction on free nanoparticles.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(36): 25569-25573, 2016 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27722317

RESUMO

Proton transfer in aqueous media is a ubiquitous process, occurring in acid-base chemistry, biology, and in atmospheric photochemistry. Photoionization mass spectrometry coupled with theoretical calculations demonstrate that a relay-type proton transfer mechanism is operational for single-water-molecule-assisted proton transfer between two acetaldehyde molecules in the gas phase. Threshold photoionization of acetaldehyde-water clusters leads to proton transfer between the formyl groups (-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]O) of one acetaldehyde molecule to another, and the subsequent formation of cationic moieties. Density functional theory computations reveal several plausible pathways of proton transfer in mixed cluster cations. Among these pathways, water-mediated proton transfer is energetically favored. Mass spectra and photoionization efficiency curves confirm these theoretical findings and also demonstrate the increased stability of cluster cations where acetaldehyde molecules are symmetrically bonded to the hydronium ion.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(48): 14983-14987, 2016 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27781351

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are omnipresent in the interstellar medium (ISM) and also in carbonaceous meteorites (CM) such as Murchison. However, the basic reaction routes leading to the formation of even the simplest PAH-naphthalene (C10 H8 )-via the hydrogen-abstraction/acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism still remain ambiguous. Here, by revealing the uncharted fundamental chemistry of the styrenyl (C8 H7 ) and the ortho-vinylphenyl radicals (C8 H7 )-key transient species of the HACA mechanism-with acetylene (C2 H2 ), we provide the first solid experimental evidence on the facile formation of naphthalene in a simulated combustion environment validating the previously postulated HACA mechanism for these two radicals. This study highlights, at the molecular level spanning combustion and astrochemistry, the importance of the HACA mechanism to the formation of the prototype PAH naphthalene.

15.
J Chem Phys ; 145(1): 014305, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27394106

RESUMO

Cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl) radical, C7H7, was cleanly produced in the gas-phase, entrained in He or Ne carrier gas, and subjected to a set of flash-pyrolysis micro-reactors. The pyrolysis products resulting from C7H7 were detected and identified by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. Complementary product identification was provided by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures in the micro-reactor were roughly 200 Torr and residence times were approximately 100 µs. Thermal cracking of tropyl radical begins at 1100 K and the products from pyrolysis of C7H7 are only acetylene and cyclopentadienyl radicals. Tropyl radicals do not isomerize to benzyl radicals at reactor temperatures up to 1600 K. Heating samples of either cycloheptatriene or norbornadiene never produced tropyl (C7H7) radicals but rather only benzyl (C6H5CH2). The thermal decomposition of benzyl radicals has been reconsidered without participation of tropyl radicals. There are at least three distinct pathways for pyrolysis of benzyl radical: the Benson fragmentation, the methyl-phenyl radical, and the bridgehead norbornadienyl radical. These three pathways account for the majority of the products detected following pyrolysis of all of the isotopomers: C6H5CH2, C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H5 (13)CH2. Analysis of the temperature dependence for the pyrolysis of the isotopic species (C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H5 (13)CH2) suggests the Benson fragmentation and the norbornadienyl pathways open at reactor temperatures of 1300 K while the methyl-phenyl radical channel becomes active at slightly higher temperatures (1500 K).

16.
Annu Rev Phys Chem ; 67: 19-40, 2016 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26980311

RESUMO

Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation coupled to mass spectrometry is applied to the study of complex chemical systems. The identification of novel reactive intermediates and radicals is revealed in flame, pulsed photolysis, and pyrolysis reactors, leading to the elucidation of spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics. Mass-resolved threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence measurements provide unprecedented access to vibrationally resolved spectra of free radicals present in high-temperature reactors. Photoionization measurements in water clusters, nucleic acid base dimers, and their complexes with water provide signatures of proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded and π-stacked systems. Experimental and theoretical methods to track ion-molecule reactions and fragmentation pathways in intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems in sugars and alcohols are described. Photoionization of laser-ablated molecules, clusters, and their reaction products inform thermodynamics and spectroscopy that are relevant to astrochemistry and catalysis. New directions in coupling VUV radiation to interrogate complex chemical systems are discussed.

17.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(27): 5053-64, 2016 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26983013

RESUMO

Mixed complexes of acetylene-ethylene are studied using vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. These complexes are produced and ionized at different distances from the exit of a continuous nozzle followed by reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection. Acetylene, with a higher ionization energy (11.4 eV) than ethylene (10.6 eV), allows for tuning the VUV energy and initializing reactions either from a C2H2(+) or a C2H4(+) cation. Pure acetylene and ethylene expansions are separately carried out to compare, contrast, and hence identify products from the mixed expansion: these are C3H3(+) (m/z = 39), C4H5(+) (m/z = 53), and C5H5(+) (m/z = 65). Intensity distributions of C2H2, C2H4, their dimers and reactions products are plotted as a function of ionization distance. These distributions suggest that association mechanisms play a crucial role in product formation closer to the nozzle. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves of the mixed complexes demonstrate rising edges closer to both ethylene and acetylene ionization energies. We use density functional theory (ωB97X-V/aug-cc-pVTZ) to study the structures of the neutral and ionized dimers, calculate their adiabatic and vertical ionization energies, as well as the energetics of different isomers on the potential energy surface (PES). Upon ionization, vibrationally excited clusters can use the extra energy to access different isomers on the PES. At farther ionization distances from the nozzle, where the number densities are lower, unimolecular decay is expected to be the dominant mechanism. We discuss the possible decay pathways from the different isomers on the PES and examine the ones that are energetically accessible.

18.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(51): 12635-47, 2015 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26617252

RESUMO

The thermal decomposition of cyclohexanone (C6H10═O) has been studied in a set of flash-pyrolysis microreactors. Decomposition of the ketone was observed when dilute samples of C6H10═O were heated to 1200 K in a continuous flow microreactor. Pyrolysis products were detected and identified by tunable VUV photoionization mass spectroscopy and by photoionization appearance thresholds. Complementary product identification was provided by matrix infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures were roughly 100 Torr, and contact times with the microreactors were roughly 100 µs. Thermal cracking of cyclohexanone appeared to result from a variety of competing pathways, all of which open roughly simultaneously. Isomerization of cyclohexanone to the enol, cyclohexen-1-ol (C6H9OH), is followed by retro-Diels-Alder cleavage to CH2═CH2 and CH2═C(OH)-CH═CH2. Further isomerization of CH2═C(OH)-CH═CH2 to methyl vinyl ketone (CH3CO-CH═CH2, MVK) was also observed. Photoionization spectra identified both enols, C6H9OH and CH2═C(OH)-CH═CH2, and the ionization threshold of C6H9OH was measured to be 8.2 ± 0.1 eV. Coupled cluster electronic structure calculations were used to establish the energetics of MVK. The heats of formation of MVK and its enol were calculated to be ΔfH298(cis-CH3CO-CH═CH2) = -26.1 ± 0.5 kcal mol(-1) and ΔfH298(s-cis-1-CH2═C(OH)-CH═CH2) = -13.7 ± 0.5 kcal mol(-1). The reaction enthalpy ΔrxnH298(C6H10═O → CH2═CH2 + s-cis-1-CH2═C(OH)-CH═CH2) is 53 ± 1 kcal mol(-1) and ΔrxnH298(C6H10═O → CH2═CH2 + cis-CH3CO-CH═CH2) is 41 ± 1 kcal mol(-1). At 1200 K, the products of cyclohexanone pyrolysis were found to be C6H9OH, CH2═C(OH)-CH═CH2, MVK, CH2CHCH2, CO, CH2═C═O, CH3, CH2═C═CH2, CH2═CH-CH═CH2, CH2═CHCH2CH3, CH2═CH2, and HC≡CH.


Assuntos
Cicloexanonas/química , Calefação , Temperatura Alta , Estrutura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo
19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(47): 32000-8, 2015 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26569517

RESUMO

Nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) have been proposed to play a key role in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium, but the formation mechanism of even their simplest building block - the aromatic pyridine molecule - has remained elusive for decades. Here we reveal a potential pathway to a facile pyridine (C5H5N) synthesis via the reaction of the cyano vinyl (C2H2CN) radical with vinyl cyanide (C2H3CN) in high temperature environments simulating conditions in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars like IRC+10216. Since this reaction is barrier-less, pyridine can also be synthesized via this bimolecular reaction in cold molecular clouds such as in TMC-1. The synchronized aromatization of precursors readily available in the interstellar medium leading to nitrogen incorporation into the aromatic rings would open up a novel route to pyridine derivatives such as vitamin B3 and pyrimidine bases as detected in carbonaceous chondrites like Murchison.

20.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(18): 4083-92, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25867294

RESUMO

The ability to probe the formation and growth of clusters is key to answering fundamental questions in solvation and nucleation phenomena. Here, we present a mass spectrometric study of methanol cluster dynamics to investigate these two major processes. The clusters are produced in a molecular beam and ionized by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation at intermediate distances between the nozzle and the skimmer sampling different regimes of the supersonic expansion. The resulting cluster distribution is studied by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Experimental conditions are optimized to produce intermediate size protonated methanol and methanol-water clusters and mass spectra and photoionization onsets and obtained. These results demonstrate that intensity distributions vary significantly at various nozzle to ionization distances. Ion-molecule reactions closer to the nozzle tend to dominate leading to the formation of protonated species. The protonated trimer is found to be the most abundant ion at shorter distances because of a closed solvation shell, a larger photoionization cross section compared to the dimer, and an enhanced neutral tetramer precursor. On the other hand, the protonated dimer becomes the most abundant ion at farther distances because of low neutral density and an enhanced charged protonated monomer-neutral methanol interaction. Thomson's liquid drop model is used to qualitatively explain the observed distributions.

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