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1.
Lupus Sci Med ; 7(1)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Changes in the care of patients with SLE dictate a re-evaluation of its natural history and risk factors for disease deterioration and damage accrual. We sought to decipher factors predictive of a deterioration in phenotype ('transition') in patients initially presenting with non-severe disease. METHODS: Patients from the 'Attikon' cohort with disease duration ≥1 year were included. Disease at diagnosis was categorised as mild, moderate or severe, based on the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group manifestations and physician judgement. 'Transition' in severity was defined as an increase in category of severity at any time from diagnosis to last follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify baseline factors associated with this transition. RESULTS: 462 patients were followed for a median (IQR) of 36 (120) months. At diagnosis, more than half (56.5%) had a mild phenotype. During disease course, transition to more severe forms was seen in 44.2%, resulting in comparable distribution among severity patterns at last follow-up (mild 28.4%, moderate 33.1%, severe 38.5%). Neuropsychiatric involvement at onset (OR 6.33, 95% CI 1.22 to 32.67), male sex (OR 4.53, 95% CI 1.23 to 16.60) and longer disease duration (OR 1.09 per 1 year, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.14) were independently associated with transition from mild or moderate to severe disease. Patients with disease duration ≥3 years who progressed to more severe disease had more than 20-fold increased risk to accrue irreversible damage. CONCLUSION: Almost half of patients with initially non-severe disease progress to more severe forms of SLE, especially men and patients with positive anti-double-stranded DNA or neuropsychiatric involvement at onset. These data may have implications for the management of milder forms of lupus.

2.
RMD Open ; 6(2)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the current evidence for the management of lupus nephritis (LN) informing the 2019 update of the EULAR/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association recommendations. METHODS: According to the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a PubMed systematic literature review was performed, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2018. Since this was an update of the 2012 recommendations, the final level of evidence (LoE) and grading of recommendations considered the total body of evidence, including literature prior to 2012. RESULTS: We identified 387 relevant articles. High-quality randomised evidence supports the use of immunosuppressive treatment for class III and class IV LN (LoE 1a), and moderate-level evidence supports the use of immunosuppressive treatment for pure class V LN with nephrotic-range proteinuria (LoE 2b). Treatment should aim for at least 25% reduction in proteinuria at 3 months, 50% at 6 months and complete renal response (<500-700 mg/day) at 12 months (LoE 2a-2b). High-quality evidence supports the use of mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolic acid (MMF/MPA) or low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (CY) as initial treatment of active class III/IV LN (LoE 1a). Combination of tacrolimus with MMF/MPA and high-dose CY are alternatives in specific circumstances (LoE 1a). There is low-quality level evidence to guide optimal duration of immunosuppression in LN (LoE 3). In end-stage kidney disease, all methods of kidney replacement treatment can be used, with transplantation having the most favourable outcomes (LoE 2b). CONCLUSIONS: There is high-quality evidence to guide the initial and subsequent phases of class III/IV LN treatment, but low-to-moderate quality evidence to guide treatment of class V LN, monitoring and optimal duration of immunosuppression.

3.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 22(7): 30, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500443

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Update on the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of lupus nephritis. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent criteria enable the earlier classification of lupus nephritis based on kidney biopsy and compatible serology. Treatment of active nephritis includes low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate, followed by maintenance immunosuppression. Recent trials have suggested superiority of regimens combining mycophenolate with either calcineurin inhibitor or belimumab, although their long-term benefit/risk ratio has not been determined. Encouraging results with novel anti-CD20 antibodies confirm the effectiveness of B cell depletion. Achievement of low-grade proteinuria (< 700-800 mg/24 h) at 12-month post-induction is linked to favorable long-term outcomes and could be considered in a treat-to-target strategy. Also, repeat kidney biopsy can guide the duration of maintenance immunosuppression. Lupus nephritis has increased cardiovascular disease burden necessitating risk-reduction strategies. An expanding spectrum of therapies coupled with ongoing basic/translational research can lead to individualized medical care and improved outcomes in lupus nephritis.

4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 713-723, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 2012 EULAR/ERA-EDTA recommendations for the management of lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: Following the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review was performed. Members of a multidisciplinary Task Force voted independently on their level of agreeement with the formed statements. RESULTS: The changes include recommendations for treatment targets, use of glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and management of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The target of therapy is complete response (proteinuria <0.5-0.7 g/24 hours with (near-)normal glomerular filtration rate) by 12 months, but this can be extended in patients with baseline nephrotic-range proteinuria. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended with regular ophthalmological monitoring. In active proliferative LN, initial (induction) treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF 2-3 g/day or mycophenolic acid (MPA) at equivalent dose) or low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (CY; 500 mg × 6 biweekly doses), both combined with glucocorticoids (pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone, then oral prednisone 0.3-0.5 mg/kg/day) is recommended. MMF/CNI (especially tacrolimus) combination and high-dose CY are alternatives, for patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and adverse prognostic factors. Subsequent long-term maintenance treatment with MMF or azathioprine should follow, with no or low-dose (<7.5 mg/day) glucocorticoids. The choice of agent depends on the initial regimen and plans for pregnancy. In non-responding disease, switch of induction regimens or rituximab are recommended. In pure membranous LN with nephrotic-range proteinuria or proteinuria >1 g/24 hours despite renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade, MMF in combination with glucocorticoids is preferred. Assessment for kidney and extra-renal disease activity, and management of comorbidities is lifelong with repeat kidney biopsy in cases of incomplete response or nephritic flares. In ESKD, transplantation is the preferred kidney replacement option with immunosuppression guided by transplant protocols and/or extra-renal manifestations. Treatment of LN in children follows the same principles as adult disease. CONCLUSIONS: We have updated the EULAR recommendations for the management of LN to facilitate homogenization of patient care.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/fisiopatologia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/etiologia , Proteinúria/terapia
5.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 18(6): 549-565, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880245

RESUMO

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is associated with increased risk for accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) events including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular and peripheral artery disease. CV events occur both early and late during the disease course, with younger patients being at much higher risk than age-matched counterparts. The risk cannot be fully accounted for by the increased prevalence of traditional atherosclerotic factors and may be due to pathophysiologic intermediates such as type I interferons and other inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, activated granulocytes and production of extracellular chromatin traps, antiphospholipid and other autoantibodies causing dysfunction of lipoproteins, altogether resulting in endothelial injury and pro-atherogenic dyslipidaemia. These mechanisms may be further aggravated by chronic intake of prednisone (even at doses <7.5 mg/day), whereas immunomodulatory drugs, especially hydroxychloroquine, may exert antiatherogenic properties. To date, there is a paucity of randomized studies regarding the effectiveness of preventative strategies and pharmacological interventions specifically in patients with SLE. Nevertheless, both the European League Against Rheumatism recommendations and extrapolated evidence from the general population emphasize that SLE patients should undergo regular monitoring for atherosclerotic risk factors and calculation of the 10-year CV risk. Risk stratification should include diseaserelated factors and accordingly, general (lifestyle modifications/smoking cessation, antihypertensive and statin treatment, low-dose aspirin in selected cases) and SLE-specific (control of disease activity, minimization of glucocorticoids, use of hydroxychloroquine) preventive measures be applied as appropriate. Further studies will be required regarding the use of non-invasive tools and biomarkers for CV assessment and of risk-lowering strategies tailored to SLE.

6.
World J Pediatr ; 15(4): 350-381, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this systematic review is to synthesize the published meta-analyses assessing the role of nutritional, behavioral and physical activity factors/interventions on the prevention or treatment of pediatric and adolescent obesity. METHODS: An online search was conducted in PubMed (end-of-search: September 30, 2015); English-language meta-analyses pooling observational and/or interventional studies examining weight-related indices on children and adolescents were included. RESULTS: Sixty-six meta-analyses corresponding to more than 900,000 children and adolescents were retrieved. The majority of meta-analyses included interventional studies most of which referred to mixed or combined interventions, including components such as diet, physical activity and sedentary behavior reduction. Discrepancies between meta-analyses on observational and interventional studies were noted. Combined interventions including physical activity and nutritional modifications seemed to represent the most effective means for tackling childhood obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Synthesis of interventional or observational evidence may yield discrepant results. The combination of enhanced physical activity and improved nutrition emerged as a promising intervention in the fight against childhood/adolescent obesity. However, further research is needed about the most effective multidimensional prevention strategy.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(6): 736-745, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926722

RESUMO

Our objective was to update the EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), based on emerging new evidence. We performed a systematic literature review (01/2007-12/2017), followed by modified Delphi method, to form questions, elicit expert opinions and reach consensus. Treatment in SLE aims at remission or low disease activity and prevention of flares. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended in all patients with lupus, at a dose not exceeding 5 mg/kg real body weight. During chronic maintenance treatment, glucocorticoids (GC) should be minimised to less than 7.5 mg/day (prednisone equivalent) and, when possible, withdrawn. Appropriate initiation of immunomodulatory agents (methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate) can expedite the tapering/discontinuation of GC. In persistently active or flaring extrarenal disease, add-on belimumab should be considered; rituximab (RTX) may be considered in organ-threatening, refractory disease. Updated specific recommendations are also provided for cutaneous, neuropsychiatric, haematological and renal disease. Patients with SLE should be assessed for their antiphospholipid antibody status, infectious and cardiovascular diseases risk profile and preventative strategies be tailored accordingly. The updated recommendations provide physicians and patients with updated consensus guidance on the management of SLE, combining evidence-base and expert-opinion.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Transpl Int ; 31(5): 540-553, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383764

RESUMO

To what extent access to, and allocation of kidney transplants and survival outcomes in patients aged ≥75 years have changed over time in Europe is unclear. We included patients aged ≥75-84 years (termed older adults) receiving renal replacement therapy in thirteen European countries between 2005 and 2014. Country differences and time trends in access to, and allocation of kidney transplants were examined. Survival outcomes were determined by Cox regression analyses. Between 2005 and 2014, 1392 older adult patients received 1406 transplants. Access to kidney transplantation varied from ~0% (Slovenia, Greece and Denmark) to ~4% (Norway and various Spanish regions) of all older adult dialysis patients, and overall increased from 0.3% (2005) to 0.9% (2014). Allocation of kidney transplants to older adults overall increased from 0.8% (2005) to 3.2% (2014). Seven-year unadjusted patient and graft survival probabilities were 49.1% (95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 43.6; 54.4) and 41.7% (95% CI: 36.5; 46.8), respectively, with a temporal trend towards improved survival outcomes. In conclusion, in the European dialysis population aged ≥75-84 years access to kidney transplantation is low, and allocation of kidney transplants remains a rare event. Though both are increasing with time and vary considerably between countries. The trend towards improved survival outcomes is encouraging. This information can aid informed decision-making regarding treatment options.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/mortalidade , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Diálise Renal , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos
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