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1.
World J Pediatr ; 15(4): 350-381, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this systematic review is to synthesize the published meta-analyses assessing the role of nutritional, behavioral and physical activity factors/interventions on the prevention or treatment of pediatric and adolescent obesity. METHODS: An online search was conducted in PubMed (end-of-search: September 30, 2015); English-language meta-analyses pooling observational and/or interventional studies examining weight-related indices on children and adolescents were included. RESULTS: Sixty-six meta-analyses corresponding to more than 900,000 children and adolescents were retrieved. The majority of meta-analyses included interventional studies most of which referred to mixed or combined interventions, including components such as diet, physical activity and sedentary behavior reduction. Discrepancies between meta-analyses on observational and interventional studies were noted. Combined interventions including physical activity and nutritional modifications seemed to represent the most effective means for tackling childhood obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Synthesis of interventional or observational evidence may yield discrepant results. The combination of enhanced physical activity and improved nutrition emerged as a promising intervention in the fight against childhood/adolescent obesity. However, further research is needed about the most effective multidimensional prevention strategy.

2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(6): 736-745, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926722

RESUMO

Our objective was to update the EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), based on emerging new evidence. We performed a systematic literature review (01/2007-12/2017), followed by modified Delphi method, to form questions, elicit expert opinions and reach consensus. Treatment in SLE aims at remission or low disease activity and prevention of flares. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended in all patients with lupus, at a dose not exceeding 5 mg/kg real body weight. During chronic maintenance treatment, glucocorticoids (GC) should be minimised to less than 7.5 mg/day (prednisone equivalent) and, when possible, withdrawn. Appropriate initiation of immunomodulatory agents (methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate) can expedite the tapering/discontinuation of GC. In persistently active or flaring extrarenal disease, add-on belimumab should be considered; rituximab (RTX) may be considered in organ-threatening, refractory disease. Updated specific recommendations are also provided for cutaneous, neuropsychiatric, haematological and renal disease. Patients with SLE should be assessed for their antiphospholipid antibody status, infectious and cardiovascular diseases risk profile and preventative strategies be tailored accordingly. The updated recommendations provide physicians and patients with updated consensus guidance on the management of SLE, combining evidence-base and expert-opinion.

4.
Transpl Int ; 31(5): 540-553, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383764

RESUMO

To what extent access to, and allocation of kidney transplants and survival outcomes in patients aged ≥75 years have changed over time in Europe is unclear. We included patients aged ≥75-84 years (termed older adults) receiving renal replacement therapy in thirteen European countries between 2005 and 2014. Country differences and time trends in access to, and allocation of kidney transplants were examined. Survival outcomes were determined by Cox regression analyses. Between 2005 and 2014, 1392 older adult patients received 1406 transplants. Access to kidney transplantation varied from ~0% (Slovenia, Greece and Denmark) to ~4% (Norway and various Spanish regions) of all older adult dialysis patients, and overall increased from 0.3% (2005) to 0.9% (2014). Allocation of kidney transplants to older adults overall increased from 0.8% (2005) to 3.2% (2014). Seven-year unadjusted patient and graft survival probabilities were 49.1% (95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 43.6; 54.4) and 41.7% (95% CI: 36.5; 46.8), respectively, with a temporal trend towards improved survival outcomes. In conclusion, in the European dialysis population aged ≥75-84 years access to kidney transplantation is low, and allocation of kidney transplants remains a rare event. Though both are increasing with time and vary considerably between countries. The trend towards improved survival outcomes is encouraging. This information can aid informed decision-making regarding treatment options.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/mortalidade , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Diálise Renal , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos
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