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1.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(26): 4948-4955, 2022 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748647

RESUMO

Hydrophobic cluster structures in aqueous ethanol solutions at different concentrations have been investigated by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). In the O K-edge XAS, we have found that hydrogen bond structures among water molecules are enhanced in the middle-concentration region by the hydrophobic interaction of the ethyl groups in ethanol. In the C K-edge XAS, the lower energy features arise from a transition from the terminal methyl C 1s electron to an unoccupied orbital of 3s Rydberg character, which is sensitive to the nearest-neighbor intermolecular interactions. From the comparison of C K-edge XAS with the inner-shell calculations, we have found that ethanol clusters are easily formed in the middle-concentration region due to the hydrophobic interaction of the ethyl group in ethanol, resulting in the enhancement of the hydrogen bond structures among water molecules. This behavior is different from aqueous methanol solutions, where the methanol-water mixed clusters are more predominant in the middle-concentration region due to the relatively weak hydrophobic interactions of the methyl group in methanol.


Assuntos
Etanol , Metanol , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Água/química , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
2.
ACS Omega ; 6(18): 12213-12222, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056375

RESUMO

Drug penetration in human skin ex vivo following a modification of skin barrier permeability is systematically investigated by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. Element-selective excitation is used in the O 1s regime for probing quantitatively the penetration of topically applied rapamycin in different formulations with a spatial resolution reaching <75 nm. The data were analyzed by a comparison of two methods: (i) two-photon energies employing the Beer-Lambert law and (ii) a singular value decomposition approach making use of the full spectral information in each pixel of the X-ray micrographs. The latter approach yields local drug concentrations more reliably and sensitively probed than the former. The present results from both approaches indicate that rapamycin is not observed within the stratum corneum of nontreated skin ex vivo, providing evidence for the observation that this high-molecular-weight drug inefficiently penetrates intact skin. However, rapamycin is observed to penetrate more efficiently the stratum corneum when modifications of the skin barrier are induced by the topical pretreatment with the serine protease trypsin for variable time periods ranging from 2 to 16 h. After the longest exposure time to serine protease, the drug is even found in the viable epidermis. High-resolution micrographs indicate that the lipophilic drug preferably associates with corneocytes, while signals found in the intercellular lipid compartment were less pronounced. This result is discussed in comparison to previous work obtained from low-molecular-weight lipophilic drugs as well as polymer nanocarriers, which were found to penetrate the intact stratum corneum exclusively via the lipid layers between the corneocytes. Also, the role of the tight junction barrier in the stratum granulosum is briefly discussed with respect to modifications of the skin barrier induced by enhanced serine protease activity, a phenomenon of clinical relevance in a range of inflammatory skin disorders.

3.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(10): 103110, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138576

RESUMO

We have designed a new low-pass Fresnel zone plate (LPFZP) to extend soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to the lithium K absorption edge in a scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM). The performance of the LPFZP was evaluated in the STXM beamline at the UVSOR-III Synchrotron (Okazaki, Japan); the contribution of the higher-order harmonics is successfully suppressed to 0.1% of the fundamental energy, and a spatial resolution of 72 nm and an energy resolution (E/∆E) above 1000 are achieved as expected. XAS spectra of lithium are measured successfully in an electrode of a lithium-ion battery.

4.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(7): 1259-1265, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990199

RESUMO

Chemical processes in solution are influenced by microheterogeneity (MH), where two liquids seem to be mixed in a macroscopic scale but are microscopically inhomogeneous. We have investigated one of the simplest MH systems, aqueous acetonitrile solution, using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Molecular interactions of acetonitrile were revealed by C and N K-edge XAS at different concentrations, and those of solvent water were separately revealed by O K-edge XAS. The energy shift of the C≡N π* peak at the C K-edge shows three characteristic concentration regions and a phase-transition-like behavior between them. By comparing the energy shifts in XAS spectra with ab initio quantum chemical inner-shell calculations, we have determined local structures of acetonitrile-water mixtures in three concentration regions and found that the dipole interaction between acetonitrile and water is the key structure to emerge the MH state in the middle concentration region.

5.
Anal Sci ; 36(1): 95-105, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708561

RESUMO

Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) involving excitation processes of a core electron to unoccupied states is an effective method to study local structures around excited C, N, and O atoms in liquid samples. Since soft X-rays are strongly absorbed by air and liquid itself, we have developed transmission-type liquid flow cells, where the absorbance of liquid samples can be easily reduced and optimized by controlling the liquid thickness. By using the transmission-mode XAS techniques, we have investigated local structures of several liquid samples such as concentration dependence of aqueous pyridine solutions and unexpected temperature-dependent structural changes in liquid benzene from the precise energy shift measurements in XAS spectra with the help of molecular dynamics simulation and inner-shell calculations. These XAS techniques are also applied to in situ/operando observation of chemical processes in solutions such as catalytic and electrochemical reactions.

6.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(9): 093102, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575223

RESUMO

We have developed an acceptance-cone-tunable (ACT) electron spectrometer for the highly efficient constant-energy photoelectron mapping of functional materials. The ACT spectrometer consists of the hemispherical deflection analyzer with the mesh-type electrostatic lens near the sample. The photoelectron trajectory can be converged by applying a negative bias to the sample and grounding the mesh lens and the analyzer entrance. The performance of the present ACT spectrometer with neither rotating nor tilting of the sample is demonstrated by the wide-angle observation of the well-known π-band dispersion of a single crystalline graphite over the Brillouin zone. The acceptance cone of the spectrometer is expanded by a factor of 3.30 when the negative bias voltage is 10 times as high as the kinetic energy of photoelectrons.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 151(11): 114201, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542036

RESUMO

The application of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to liquid cells based on microfluidics for chemical state analysis of light elements is much more difficult than hard X-ray absorption since soft X-rays cannot deeply penetrate a microfluidic cell. In this study, we have newly developed a microfluidic cell for spatially resolved XAS, where a 100 nm thick Si3N4 membrane is used for the measurement window to transmit soft X-rays for keeping the microfluidic flow at a width and depth of 50 µm. The π* peak of pyridine near the N K-edge XAS shows characteristic energy shifts near the liquid-liquid interface in a laminar flow of pyridine and water. The distributions of the molar fractions of pyridine and water near the liquid-liquid interface have been determined from the energy shifts of the π* peak probed at different geometric positions, where pyridine is mixed in the water part of the laminar flow and vice versa. The spatial distribution of both species has also been studied by infrared microscopy, using the same microfluidic setup. The present work clearly shows that these spectroscopic techniques are easily applicable to chemical and biological reactions prepared by microfluidics.

8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 218: 87-94, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221348

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic hybrid films were fabricated from cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and nanosilica (5-30% wt) embedded in a chitosan (Chi) biopolymer matrix using a slow evaporation method. The self-standing films exhibited high strength and modulus up to 120 ± 5 MPa and 7.5 ± 0.4 GPa, respectively, which are remarkably high values for biopolymer/chitosan hybrids. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the nanosilica is formed of larger aggregates within the lamellar CNF network structure. This observation was further confirmed using synchrotron-based scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) with the capability to determine the spatial and chemical distribution analysis of the constituents of films. It is interesting that the thermal stability of the hybrid films improved as the nanosilica content increased. Furthermore, the nanosilica effectively filled the pores in the CNF network, thus decreasing the UV transmission and the visible light transmittance of the films.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(19): 5827-5832, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234991

RESUMO

Benzene is the simplest aromatic molecule with intermolecular π-π interactions. Because ordered liquids are key structures used to study chemical and biological phenomena in the liquid state, ordered structures of benzene confined in nanopores have been extensively studied, whereas those in the liquid state are still unknown. In this study, we address fundamental questions regarding whether ordered structures of benzene are formed in the liquid state by using carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as a sensitive local probe. By comparing unexpected temperature behaviors of the π* peak in XAS spectra with model calculations, we have investigated temperature-dependent changes of ordered structures in liquid benzene caused by the increase in abundance of the parallel sandwich orientation relative to parallel displaced structures for the higher temperature. These results are confirmed by infrared spectroscopy with additional support of vibrational mode calculations.

10.
Adv Mater ; 30(30): e1801401, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883002

RESUMO

The fabrication of multidimensional organometallic halide perovskite via a low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process is demonstrated for the first time. Phenyl ethyl-ammonium iodide (PEAI)-doped lead iodide (PbI2 ) is first spin-coated onto the substrate and subsequently reacts with methyl-ammonium iodide (MAI) vapor in a low-pressure heating oven. The doping ratio of PEAI in MAI-vapor-treated perovskite has significant impact on the crystalline structure, surface morphology, grain size, UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra, and the resultant device performance. Multiple photoluminescence spectra are observed in the perovskite film starting with high PEAI/PbI2 ratio, which suggests the coexistence of low-dimensional perovskite (PEA2 MAn-1 Pbn I3n+1 ) with various values of n after vapor reaction. The dimensionality of the as-fabricated perovskite film reveals an evolution from 2D, hybrid 2D/3D to 3D structure when the doping level of PEAI/PbI2 ratio varies from 2 to 0. Scanning electron microscopy images and Kelvin probe force microscopy mapping show that the PEAI-containing perovskite grain is presumably formed around the MAPbI3 perovskite grain to benefit MAPbI3 grain growth. The device employing perovskite with PEAI/PbI2 = 0.05 achieves a champion power conversion efficiency of 19.10% with an open-circuit voltage of 1.08 V, a current density of 21.91 mA cm-2 , and a remarkable fill factor of 80.36%.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Óxidos/química , Titânio/química , Energia Solar
11.
J Phys Chem B ; 121(48): 10957-10964, 2017 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29131955

RESUMO

Interaction between water molecules and alkali metal ions in aqueous salt solutions has been studied by the oxygen K-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in transmission mode. In the measurement of several alkali halide aqueous solutions with different alkali chlorides (Li, Na, and K) and different sodium halides (Cl, Br, and I), the pre-edge component arising from the hydration water molecules shows a blue shift in peak energy as strongly depending on cations but not on anions. In the temperature dependent measurement, the pre-edge component arising from water molecules beyond the first hydration shell shows the same behavior as that of pure liquid water. On the other hand, the pre-edge component arising from water molecules in the first hydration shell of Li+ ions is not evidently dependent on the temperature, indicating that the hydration water molecules are more strongly bound with Li+ ions than the other water molecules. These experimental results are supported by the results of radial distribution functions of the first hydration shell and their temperature dependence, evaluated by molecular dynamics simulations.

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(21): 5366-5371, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29043806

RESUMO

The electronic structure of 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-TCNQ (F4TCNQ) monolayers on Au(111) has been investigated by means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with synchrotron radiation. In contrast to the physisorbed TCNQ/Au(111) interface, the high-resolution core-level photoemission spectra and the low-energy electron diffraction at the F4TCNQ/Au(111) interface show evidence for the strong charge transfer (CT) from Au to F4TCNQ and for the Au atom segregation from the underlying Au(111) surface, suggesting a possible origin of the spontaneous formation of the two-dimensional F4TCNQ-Au network. The ARPES experiment reveals a low hole-injection barrier and large band dispersion in the CT-induced topmost valence level of the F4TCNQ-Au network with 260 meV bandwidth due to the adatom-mediated intermolecular interaction. These results indicate that strong electron acceptor molecules with metal adatoms can form high hole-mobility molecular layers by controlling the molecule-metal ordered structure and their CT interaction.

13.
Sci Rep ; 6: 31382, 2016 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27527753

RESUMO

Research of blood substitute formulations and their base materials is of high scientific interest. Especially fluorinated microemulsions based on perfluorocarbons, with their interesting chemical properties, offer opportunities for applications in biomedicine and physical chemistry. In this work, carbon K-edge absorption spectra of liquid perfluoroalkanes and their parent hydrocarbons are presented and compared. Based on soft X-ray absorption, a comprehensive picture of the electronic structure is provided with the aid of time dependent density functional theory. We have observed that conformational geometries mainly influence the chemical and electronic interactions in the presented liquid materials, leading to a direct association of conformational geometries to the dissolving capacity of the presented perfluorocarbons with other solvents like water and possibly gases like oxygen.

14.
Chem Rev ; 116(13): 7551-69, 2016 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27244473

RESUMO

Here we present an overview of recent developments of X-ray and electron spectroscopy to probe water at different temperatures. Photon-induced ionization followed by detection of electrons from either the O 1s level or the valence band is the basis of photoelectron spectroscopy. Excitation between the O 1s and the unoccupied states or occupied states is utilized in X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopies. These techniques probe the electronic structure of the liquid phase and show sensitivity to the local hydrogen-bonding structure. Both experimental aspects related to the measurements and theoretical simulations to assist in the interpretation are discussed in detail. Different model systems are presented such as the different bulk phases of ice and various adsorbed monolayer structures on metal surfaces.

15.
ACS Nano ; 9(11): 10621-7, 2015 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26446292

RESUMO

A superlattice of strained Au-Si atomic wires is successfully fabricated on a Si surface. Au atoms are known to incorporate into the stepped Si(111) surface to form a Au-Si atomic wire array with both one-dimensional (1D) metallic and antiferromagnetic atomic chains. At a reduced density of Au, we find a regular array of Au-Si wires in alternation with pristine Si nanoterraces. Pristine Si nanoterraces impose a strain on the neighboring Au-Si wires, which modifies both the band structure of metallic chains and the magnetic property of spin chains. This is an ultimate 1D version of a strained-layer superlattice of semiconductors, defining a direction toward the fine engineering of self-assembled atomic-scale wires.

16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(15): 2909-12, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267179

RESUMO

The structure of interfacial water layers around nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous environment may have a significant impact on their reactivity and on their interaction with biological species. Using transmission soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid, we demonstrate that the unoccupied electronic states of oxygen atoms from water molecules in aqueous colloidal dispersions of nanodiamonds have a different signature than bulk water. X-ray absorption spectroscopy can thus probe interfacial water molecules in colloidal dispersions. The impacts of nanodiamond surface chemistry and concentration on interfacial water electronic signature are discussed.


Assuntos
Coloides/química , Nanodiamantes/química , Água/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(28): 18337-43, 2015 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26105104

RESUMO

Perfluorocarbons are a family of molecules consisting mainly of carbon and fluorine atoms. They have interesting chemical properties and have diverse applications in biomedicine, physical chemistry and polymer science. In this work, carbon K-edge absorption and emission spectra of liquid decalin are presented and compared to perfluorodecalin. A comprehensive picture of the electronic structure of decalin is provided based on soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies. Experimental data are compared to theoretical time-dependent density functional theory for the hydrocarbon, the perfluorocarbon and the stepwise fluorinated derivatives. We observed a molecular orbital change from unoccupied to occupied orbitals for perfluorodecalin, which was induced through the fluorination process.


Assuntos
Fluorocarbonos/química , Flúor/química , Halogenação , Modelos Moleculares , Teoria Quântica , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
18.
J Chem Phys ; 141(22): 224701, 2014 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25494764

RESUMO

The valence band structure of α-phase crystalline films of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) grown on Au(111) is investigated by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with synchrotron radiation. The photo-induced change in the ARPES peaks is noticed in shape and energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, C 2p) and HOMO-1 (Co 3d) of CoPc, and is misleading the interpretation of the electronic properties of CoPc films. From the damage-free normal-emission ARPES measurement, the clear valence-band dispersion has been first observed, showing that orbital-specific behaviors are attributable to the interplay of the intermolecular π-π and π-d interactions. The HOMO band dispersion of 0.1 eV gives the lower limit of the hole mobility for α-CoPc of 28.9 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 15 K. The non-dispersive character of the split HOMO-1 bands indicates that the localization of the spin state is a possible origin of the antiferromagnetism.

19.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 85(10): 104105, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25362423

RESUMO

In order to investigate local structures of electrolytes in electrochemical reactions under the same scan rate as a typical value 100 mV/s in cyclic voltammetry (CV), we have developed an in operando observation system for electrochemical reactions by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with a potential modulation method. XAS spectra of electrolytes are measured by using a transmission-type liquid flow cell with built-in electrodes. The electrode potential is swept with a scan rate of 100 mV/s at a fixed photon energy, and soft X-ray absorption coefficients at different potentials are measured at the same time. By repeating the potential modulation at each fixed photon energy, it is possible to measure XAS of electrochemical reaction at the same scan rate as in CV. We have demonstrated successful measurement of the Fe L-edge XAS spectra of aqueous iron sulfate solutions and of the change in valence of Fe ions at different potentials in the Fe redox reaction. The mechanism of these Fe redox processes is discussed by correlating the XAS results with those at different scan rates.

20.
Nanoscale ; 6(15): 9166-76, 2014 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24978624

RESUMO

Efforts have been made to elucidate the origin of d(0) magnetism in ZnO nanocactuses (NCs) and nanowires (NWs) using X-ray-based microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The photoluminescence and O K-edge and Zn L3,2-edge X-ray-excited optical luminescence spectra showed that ZnO NCs contain more defects than NWs do and that in ZnO NCs, more defects are present at the O sites than at the Zn sites. Specifically, the results of O K-edge scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and the corresponding X-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy demonstrated that the impurity (non-stoichiometric) region in ZnO NCs contains a greater defect population than the thick region. The intensity of O K-edge STXM-XANES in the impurity region is more predominant in ZnO NCs than in NWs. The increase in the unoccupied (occupied) density of states at/above (at/below) the conduction-band minimum (valence-band maximum) or the Fermi level is related to the population of defects at the O sites, as revealed by comparing the ZnO NCs to the NWs. The results of O K-edge and Zn L3,2-edge X-ray magnetic circular dichroism demonstrated that the origin of magnetization is attributable to the O 2p orbitals rather than the Zn d orbitals. Further, the local density approximation (LDA) + U verified that vacancies in the form of dangling or unpaired 2p states (due to Zn vacancies) induced a significant local spin moment in the nearest-neighboring O atoms to the defect center, which was determined from the uneven local spin density by analyzing the partial density of states of O 2p in ZnO.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Análise de Fourier , Luminescência , Magnetismo , Nanofios , Oxigênio/química , Espectrofotometria , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura , Compostos de Estanho/química , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X , Raios X
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