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1.
Prev Sci ; 10(2): 100-15, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19011963

RESUMO

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a universal, school-wide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 7,500 schools to reduce disruptive behavior problems. The present study examines the impact of PBIS on staff reports of school organizational health using data from a group-randomized controlled effectiveness trial of PBIS conducted in 37 elementary schools. Longitudinal multilevel analyses on data from 2,596 staff revealed a significant effect of PBIS on the schools' overall organizational health, resource influence, staff affiliation, and academic emphasis over the 5-year trial; the effects on collegial leadership and institutional integrity were significant when implementation fidelity was included in the model. Trained schools that adopted PBIS the fastest tended to have higher levels of organizational health at baseline, but the later-implementing schools tended to experience the greatest improvements in organizational health after implementing PBIS. This study indicated that changes in school organizational health are important consequences of the PBIS whole-school prevention model, and may in turn be a potential contextual mediator of the effect of PBIS on student performance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Instituições Acadêmicas , Apoio Social , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Maryland , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Learn Disabil ; 36(3): 259-69, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15515646

RESUMO

This study examined the mechanisms underlying verbal learning in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), none of whom had reading disabilities. Children with ADHD were compared to typically developing children on both process and product scores from the California Verbal Learning Test for Children. The findings indicated that children with ADHD initially learned the same number of words as controls but showed weaknesses recalling the words after delays, suggesting that children with ADHD are less efficient learners. Regardless of ADHD status, boys and girls performed differently. Boys used semantic clustering less frequently and recalled fewer words from the middle region of the list than girls; girls also outperformed boys in terms of overall performance, despite lower verbal IQ scores. These findings show that children with ADHD can exhibit unexpected weaknesses in learning even without a formal learning disability. Gender differences in verbal learning are also illustrated.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Aprendizagem Verbal , Adolescente , Criança , Comorbidade , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Retenção Psicológica
3.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 8(6): 838-46, 2002 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12240748

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits in neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1) have been documented in both the verbal and visuospatial domains. Previous investigations from our laboratory have determined a specific pattern of "spared" (Picture Arrangement, Picture Completion, and Rapid Automatized Naming) and "impaired" (Judgment of Line Orientation, Vocabulary, and Block Design) performance on cognitive measures in this population when compared to sibling-matched controls in pairwise designs. Growth curve analyses were conducted on these repeated measures in 19 patients with NF-1 and their siblings to investigate the longitudinal course and growth pattern of these spared and impaired measures. Results indicated that over time children with NF-1 do not catch up to their siblings on impaired measures, and they continue to perform similarly to their siblings on the spared measures. With respect to growth rates, on average across the 6 cognitive measures there was no significant difference between the groups. However, the variation among families for level of performance was estimated to be larger than variation among siblings within a family for 2 out of 6 cognitive measures (i.e., providing for these 2, Vocabulary and Rapid Automatized Naming, evidence of substantial familial correlation), suggesting that there is need to consider NF-1 associated deficits within a familial context.


Assuntos
Neurofibromatose 1/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino
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