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1.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 197: 278-289, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193777

RESUMO

The optimal environment in the oviduct is created by adjusting its ultrastructure and secretory capacity to protect gametes and embryos. It was hypothesized that direct contact between the isthmic epithelium and 2- and 4-cell-stage embryos would alter the transcriptomic profile of the isthmus in pigs. Microarray analysis was performed to determine the alterations in gene expression of the isthmus on Days 2-3 of pregnancy in pigs (after natural mating) during embryo presence in the oviduct. Of 43,803 microarray probes, 354 (0.81%) transcripts were altered (P-value ≤ 0.05 and fold-change ≥ 1.2) on the days of pregnancy when assessments were made. Of these 354 transcripts, 118 (33.3%) were up-regulated, and 236 (66.7%) were down-regulated. A total of 57 (48.3%) up-regulated and 73 down-regulated (30.9%) transcripts were classified into gene ontology categories. Of the 354 altered genes, 36 (10.2%) were categorized into the Toll-like or NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, in the immune system subcategory. Selected genes engaged in maternal immune function were down-regulated. The up-regulated genes were involved in epigenetic regulation, the protection of embryos against oxidative stress and xenobiotics and the control of estrogen metabolism. The 2- and 4-cell-stage embryos might, therefore, affect the oviductal transcriptome to optimize the intra-oviductal milieu, which is necessary to support proper development of embryos. The results of this study indicates the pig oviduct has the capacity to alter its transcriptomic profile as a result of early embryo development after natural mating.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Oviductos/metabolismo , Suínos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Tubas Uterinas , Feminino , Gravidez
2.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 197: 305-316, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197056

RESUMO

Restricted nutritional consumption during the peri-conceptional period affects the potential for DNA methylation and alters endometrial transcriptomic profile during the peri-implantation period. The restricted diet fed to females during the peri-conceptional period may affect the transcriptomic profile in peri-implantation embryos. In the present study, the transcriptome of embryos of normal-diet-fed gilts was determined and compared with that in embryos of restricted-diet-fed gilts during the peri-implantation period. The restricted-diet-fed gilts were fed forage, in which the dose of proteins and energy had been reduced by 30% compared to the normal diet (Polish Norms of Nutrition). To clarify the issue Agilent's Porcine (V2) Two-Color Gene Expression Microarray 4 × 44 was used. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that the expression of 787 genes with known biological function were consistently altered (496 up- and 291 down-regulated) in embryos. The accurately annotated genes were organized into five categories and 18 subcategories containing 62 biological pathways. The qPCR analysis of ten selected genes [i.e., 5 acid phosphatase, tartrate resistant (ACP5), high mobility group box 2 (HMGB2), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12), adiponectin receptor 2 (ADIPOR2), DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2), progestin and adipoQ receptor family member 7 (PAQR7) and serpin family A member 1 (SERPINA1)] confirmed altered gene expression in embryos of restricted-diet-fed gilts. The insight into embryonic transcriptome indicates that female under-nutrition during the peri-conceptional period may create alterations in the pattern of genes expressed in the peri-implantation embryos.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião , Endométrio/fisiologia , Suínos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilização , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/fisiologia
3.
Reprod Biol ; 18(2): 143-150, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29472137

RESUMO

Past studies of the oviducts have documented oviductal steroid production during the oestrous cycle in pigs. The present study examined whether the pig oviducts are the source of steroid hormones during early pregnancy. In the ampulla and isthmus, the expression of 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ßHSD) and aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19) mRNA by real-time PCR, cellular localization and quantities of the studied proteins by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis, and concentration of steroid hormones in oviductal flushings by radioimmunoassay, were studied. The expression of 3ßHSD in the ampulla and isthmus was correlated (r = 0.89) and higher on Days 2-3 and 15-16 than on Days 10-11 and 12-13. CYP19 expression was elevated in the ampulla on Days 2-3, 10-11 and 15-16 and in the isthmus on Days 2-3 vs. the other days studied. The studied proteins were localized in oviductal epithelial cells. In the ampulla, the quantity of 3ßHSD protein did not change, and was greater in the isthmus on Days 2-3 vs. Days 12-13 of pregnancy. The P450arom protein quantity increased in the ampulla on Days 2-3 vs. Days 10-11 and 15-16 and vs. Days 10-11 and 12-13 in the isthmus. The concentrations of progesterone and androstenedione in oviductal flushings were lowest on Days 12-13 and on Days 2-3 and 15-16, respectively, while oestradiol-17ß and oestrone levels did not change. Porcine oviducts are the sources of steroid hormones during early pregnancy. The expression of steroidogenic enzymes primarily increases during the embryos presence in the oviduct, i.e., on Days 2-3 of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Androstenodiona/biossíntese , Estradiol/biossíntese , Estrona/biossíntese , Oviductos/metabolismo , Prenhez , Progesterona/biossíntese , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Animais , Aromatase/metabolismo , Feminino , Gravidez , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Suínos
4.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 35(5): 1729-43, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25832132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In comparison to short-term gonad heat exposure, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate testicular steroidogenesis during long-term whole body heat acclimation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Testicular slices from neonatal (NHA) and adult (AHA) heat-acclimated Wistar rats were analysed in vitro to assess the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of steroidogenic enzymes under basal and luteinising hormone (LH) or prolactin (PRL) stimulated conditions compared with control rats (CR). Furthermore, a de-acclimated group (DA) was created by transferring adult NHA rats to control conditions. RESULTS: Heat acclimation significantly increased plasma LH levels in the AHA group and LH and PRL in the NHA group compared with the CR group; however, after heat acclimation, the T and E2 levels did not differ from the control levels. All heat-acclimated groups showed high basal intra-testicular steroid production in vitro. Moreover, basal Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b1 levels were upregulated in vitro in the NHA and DA groups versus the CR group. LH in vitro stimulation upregulated Cyp11a1 expression in the NHA and AHA groups and PRL stimulation upregulated Cyp17a1 levels in the NHA and DA groups compared with the basal expression levels. In the AHA group, decreased basal Star and CYP11A activities but increased HSD3B1 and CYP17A1 activities were found. CONCLUSION: Our data revealed that despite the similar steroid levels in plasma and secreted in vitro by neonatal and adult heat-acclimated rat testicular slices, the molecular mechanisms underlying the steroidogenic response to heat acclimation during these different developmental stages were distinct.


Assuntos
Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/farmacologia , Masculino , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Progesterona Redutase/genética , Progesterona Redutase/metabolismo , Prolactina/sangue , Prolactina/farmacologia , Radioimunoensaio , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Temperatura Ambiente , Testosterona/sangue , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 14(4): 673-82, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25240502

RESUMO

In pigs, implantation begins with the attachment of embryos to the endometrium. As the process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, endometrial transcriptomic profiles have been extensively studied in early gravid pigs. However, the myometrium, a secretory tissue, should not be neglected, as it can also participate in the regulation of implantation in early pregnant pigs. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of the porcine myometrium during the peri-implantation period (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of pregnancy) was compared with the profile observed during luteolysis (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of the oestrous cycle) with an Agilent's Porcine (V2) Two-Colour Gene Expression Microarray 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data revealed that of 526 unique, accurately annotated genes, the expression of 271 unique genes was upregulated, while the expression of 255 genes was downregulated in pregnant versus cyclic myometrium. The in-depth data analysis revealed differential expression of genes encoding for factors involved in immunomodulation, tissue growth and differentiation, and prostaglandin and steroid biosynthesis and action. Moreover, the comparison of the obtained data on the myometrial transcriptome with our previously published results on the endometrial transcriptome allowed us to determine substantial differences in the regulatory function of both tissues. The new insights into the function of the myometrium of early pregnant pigs obtained here are in agreement with our previous results that suggest that this tissue plays an important role in providing optimal conditions for developing embryos. Therefore, the importance of the myometrium as an active embryo signal-responsive tissue during early pregnancy cannot be underestimated.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Luteólise/genética , Miométrio/metabolismo , Animais , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Modelos Animais , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sus scrofa/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
6.
Folia Biol (Krakow) ; 61(3-4): 253-61, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24279177

RESUMO

Interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) increased (P < 0.05) estrone (E1) release from endometrial explants of pregnant pigs on days 10 to 11 after 12 h of tissue incubation in vitro with cytokines and on days 12 to 13 after 6 h of incubation. After 12 h of incubation on days 12 to 13 and 15 to 16 of pregnancy only IL6 increased E1 release. In non-gravid pigs IL1beta, IL6 and TNFalpha increased endometrial E1 release only on days 12 to 13 of the estrous cycle. The cytokines did not affect myometrial E1 release on days 10 to 11 and 15 to 16 ofpregnancy. On days 12 to 13 of pregnancy myometrial release of E1 was markedly increased in response to IL 1beta and IL6. In cyclic pigs only IL6 after 6 h of in vitro incubation increased myometrial E1 release on days 12 to 13 and 15 to 16. Progesterone (P4) increased both endometrial and myometrial release of E1 during the studied days of pregnancy and the estrous cycle, except for endometrial release on days 10 to 11 and 15 to 16 of the estrous cycle after 6 h of in vitro incubation. The results demonstrated that these cytokines may regulate the release of E1 both from the endometrium and myometrium harvested from gravid and non-gravid pigs. The results showed a pivotal role of IL 1beta, IL6 and TNFalpha in the regulation of E1 release in the porcine uterus in vitro.


Assuntos
Estrona/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
7.
Reprod Biol ; 13(3): 229-37, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24011194

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to describe the alterations in the transcriptome of the endometrium in pigs during the beginning of implantation (days 15-16 of pregnancy) compared to cyclic pigs during the onset of luteolysis (days 15-16 of the estrous cycle). The global expression of genes in porcine gravid and non-gravid endometria was investigated using the Porcine (V2) Two-color gene expression microarray, 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data showed that, of 589 accurately annotated genes, the expression of 266 genes was up-regulated and expression of 323 was down-regulated in the endometrium harvested during early pregnancy compared with the endometrium during the estrous cycle. In pregnant pigs, genes with the most significantly altered expression were involved in the following biological processes: the metabolic process, cellular process, cell communication, immune system process, developmental process, cell adhesion, antigen processing and presentation, antigen processing and presentation of peptide or polysaccharide antigen via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, immune response, and the polysaccharide metabolic process. In the pregnant endometrium, cell adhesion molecules and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways were the most significantly enriched biological pathways. Analysis of the interaction network among selected genes showed that androgen receptor (AR) encoding genes interact with genes involved in important processes occurring during early pregnancy. The bioinformatic analysis revealed information about the meaning of differentially expressed genes. The data provided new insight into the dynamic changes of the endometrial gene expression profile during days 15-16 of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Endométrio/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/metabolismo , Gravidez/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Adesão Celular/genética , Implantação do Embrião/genética , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Análise em Microsséries , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Suínos
8.
J Reprod Immunol ; 98(1-2): 61-8, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23473625

RESUMO

Expression of mRNAs encoding interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-1ß receptor I (IL-1RI), IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), as well as synthesis of IL-1ß and IL-1RI proteins, were examined in the corpus luteum (CL) during critical stages of CL activity on days 10-16 of pregnancy and 2-16 of the estrous cycle. Luteal cells were cultured in vitro with IL-1ß, and the effect on release of steroid hormones was determined. Expression of the IL-1ß system in the CL changed significantly during pregnancy and the estrous cycle. IL-1ß, IL-1RI, and IL-1Ra mRNA levels were elevated on days 12-13, whereas IL-1RAcP mRNA was increased on days 15-16 of pregnancy. In cyclic CL, expression of IL-1ß, IL-1RI, and IL-1RAcP mRNAs was increased on days 12-13. IL-1ß and IL-1RI protein were highest in the CL on days 10-11 and 8-11 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Luteal cells harvested from gravid and cyclic CL produced IL-1ß in vitro. IL-1ß increased progesterone and estradiol-17ß (E2) release by luteal cells on days 10-16 and 10-11 of pregnancy, respectively and on days 2-11 of the estrous cycle. IL-1ß decreased the level of E2 produced by regressed CL (days 15-16). Expression of the IL-1ß system in CL and IL-1ß secretion from luteal cells changed depending on the status of the CL. These data show that IL-1ß may be involved in intraluteal, luteotrophic regulation of CL functions in gravid and cyclic pigs.


Assuntos
Corpo Lúteo/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Prenhez/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Corpo Lúteo/citologia , Ciclo Estral/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/genética , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/metabolismo , Proteína Acessória do Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Proteína Acessória do Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Suínos/imunologia
9.
J Reprod Dev ; 59(1): 49-58, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23095516

RESUMO

Steroid hormones are produced by the porcine uterus. We hypothesized that the uterus in pigs possesses active 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase (3ß-HSD) responsible for progesterone and androstenedione production, that uterine steroids may supplement the amount of steroid hormones produced by embryos and corpus luteum and that these steroids are necessary for maintenance of pregnancy. In this study, we examined 1) endometrial and myometrial expression of 3ß-HSD mRNA, 2) uterine 3ß-HSD protein activity and 3) in vitro production of A(4) and P(4) by uterine slices harvested from pigs on days 10 to 11, 12 to 13 and 15 to 16 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. The expression of 3ß-HSD and the presence and activity of 3ß-HSD protein were different in the endometrium and the myometrium during the examined periods of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Production of A(4) by the endometrium and myometrium was highest on days 12 to 13 of pregnancy and the estrous cycle. Endometrial secretion of P(4) did not differ in the course of early pregnancy and on the respective days of the estrous cycle. The gravid myometrium was the highest source of P(4) in pregnant pigs on days 12 to 13. The release of P(4) by the cyclic myometrium rose during the examined days of the estrous cycle. The steroidogenic activity of the uterus, as described in this study, may support early pregnancy or the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in pigs.


Assuntos
17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Androstenodiona/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Progesterona/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Endométrio/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Miométrio/metabolismo , Gravidez , Prenhez , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Acta Vet Hung ; 60(3): 395-407, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22903084

RESUMO

Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) may regulate ovarian physiology. In this study, the influence of IL-1ß on secretory activity within the corpora lutea (CL) of cyclic and gravid pigs was determined in vitro during different stages of the CL lifespan, e.g. on Days 10-11, 12-13 and 15-16 of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. IL-1ß (10 ng/ml) increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion from CL of the cyclic and gravid pigs during studied days of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. Increase (P < 0.05) of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in IL-1ß-treated CL was demonstrated only on Days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. More potent stimulatory effect of IL-1ß on PGE2 than PGF2α secretion resulted in the enhancement of the PGE2:PGF2α ratio in cyclic and early pregnant CL. IL-1ß increased (P < 0.05) progesterone (P4) secretion only in gravid CL and had no effect on oestradiol-17ß (E2) release. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA was stimulated (P < 0.05) in IL-1ß-treated cyclic and gravid CL. Expression of prostaglandin synthase mRNAs in response to IL-1ß did not increase. In conclusion, IL-1ß modulates PGE2, PGF2α and P4 secretion from porcine CL, depending on luteal stage and the surrounding hormonal milieu. The cytokine may act locally in porcine CL for luteotrophic support throughout the PGE2-mediated synthesis and secretion.


Assuntos
Interleucina-1beta , Fase Luteal , Animais , Corpo Lúteo , Dinoprosta , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Gravidez , Progesterona
11.
Acta Vet Hung ; 57(1): 115-25, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19457780

RESUMO

Oxytocin (OT) is involved in the regulation of steroid secretion by the corpus luteum (CL) in pigs, but OT signal transduction in the porcine CL has not been identified. In this study, the effects of OT on in vitro progesterone (P4) secretion, phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and intracellular mobilisation of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) were investigated in porcine luteal cells during the early (days 3-5), mid(days 8-10) and late luteal phases (days 12-14) of the oestrous cycle. Basal concentrations of P4 and accumulation of inositol phosphates (IPs) were higher (P < 0.05) on days 3-5 and 8-10 of the oestrous cycle than on days 12-14. Basal [Ca2+]i mobilisation did not differ among studied periods of the oestrous cycle. Oxytocin (10(-7) M) enhanced P4 secretion and PI hydrolysis (P < 0.05) by luteal cells harvested on days 8-10 of the oestrous cycle. Moreover, OT started to increase mobilisation of [Ca2+]i at the 15th (days 3-5 and 8-10) or 30th second (days 12-14) in porcine luteal cells. It was concluded that in pigs OT acts as a regulator of steroidogenesis, stimulating P4 secretion in mature CL. This OT action may be mediated by changes in PI hydrolysis and [Ca2+]i mobilisation.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Corpo Lúteo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Lúteas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Corpo Lúteo/citologia , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Células Lúteas/metabolismo , Progesterona/análise , Suínos/metabolismo
12.
Reprod Biol ; 6(2): 115-31, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17173093

RESUMO

Oxytocin (OT) is involved in the stimulation of secretion of anterior pituitary hormones in females during the periovulatory and periparturient periods. In the present study we examined the role of OT in control of ACTH, beta-endorphin, LH and PRL secretion in vitro from dispersed anterior pituitary cells collected from gilts during the luteal (Days 10-12; n=6) and follicular (Days 18-20; n=5) phases of the estrous cycle. Isolated anterior pituitary cells (1 x 10(6)/ml) were transferred into 24-well plates, separately for each animal, and were pre-incubated for three days at 37 degrees C in atmosphere of 5% CO(2) and 95% air. The cells which attached to the dishes were incubated (3.5 h, 37 degrees C) in McCoy's medium in the absence (control) or in the presence of the following factors: CRH alone (10(-10), 10(-9), 10(-8), 10(-7) M), OT alone (10(-8), 10(-7), 10(-6) M), LVP alone (10(-7) M), OT (10(-7) M) plus CRH (10(-9) M) and LVP (10(-7) M) plus CRH (10(-9) M) for studying ACTH and beta-endorphin secretion; OT alone (10(-8), 10(-7), 10(-6) M), GnRH alone (100 ng/ml), CRH alone (10(-9) M), OT (10(-7) M) plus GnRH (100 ng/ml) and OT (10(-7) M) plus CRH (10(-9) M) for studying LH and PRL secretion. Concentrations of the studied hormones in media were analyzed by RIA. Oxytocin alone increased ACTH (at doses 10(-7), 10(-6) M), beta-endorphin (at dose 10(-8) M), LH (at dose 10(-8) M) and PRL (at doses 10(-7), 10(-6) M) secretion by pituitary cells isolated only from luteal-phase gilts. None of the studied hormone concentrations in the medium was increased in response to OT when pituitary cells of follicular-phase gilts were examined. Oxytocin in combination with CRH exerted an additive effect on beta-endorphin secretion during the luteal phase. Summarizing, in the present study the stimulatory effect of oxytocin on ACTH, beta-endorphin, LH and PRL secretion by pituitary cells isolated from gilts during the luteal phase was demonstrated. However, the cells collected from follicular-phase gilts appeared to be unresponsive to OT. Moreover, interaction between OT and CRH in affecting beta-endorphin secretion was shown. These results suggest that OT may be transiently involved in the modulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion in cyclic pigs.


Assuntos
Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Ocitocina/fisiologia , Adeno-Hipófise/metabolismo , Hormônios Liberadores de Hormônios Hipofisários/fisiologia , Hormônios Adeno-Hipofisários/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Prolactina/metabolismo , Suínos , beta-Endorfina/metabolismo
13.
J Appl Genet ; 47(4): 345-51, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17132899

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate transcript localization of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene in different cells of the porcine uterus during luteolysis and early pregnancy (days 14-16) using in situ hybridization (ISH). OTR mRNA was localized in the uterine luminal epithelium (LEC), glandular epithelium (GEC), stromal cells (SC) of the endometrium, in the longitudinal muscle layer (LM) and circular muscle layer (CM) of the myometrium. The OTR transcript was quantified by optical density units of silver grains. The OTR transcript levels in the endometrium and myometrium were statistically higher during luteolysis than during early pregnancy (P<0.05). Besides, during luteolysis, the mRNA level was higher in the LEC, GEC of the endometrium and LM of the myometrium compared to that observed in the SC of endometrium and CM of the myometrium, respectively (P<0.05). In summary: 1) the level of OTR mRNA in uterine tissues is higher during luteolysis compared to early pregnancy, 2) the OTR transcript level in endometrial cells did not correspond to the sensitivity of these cells to oxytocin (OT), 3) the myometrial expression of the OTR gene is appropriate to control contractile activity and secretion of PG during luteolysis.


Assuntos
Luteólise/metabolismo , Prenhez , Receptores de Ocitocina/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Hibridização In Situ , Luteólise/genética , Miométrio/metabolismo , Gravidez , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Suínos/genética
14.
Reprod Biol ; 6 Suppl 1: 59-87, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16967090

RESUMO

The paper summarizes results of a series of studies concerning luteolysis and early pregnancy in pigs. The involvement of the oxytocin (OT)/OT receptor system in the mechanism of corpus luteum (CL) protection during early pregnancy as well as the implication of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the endometrial prostaglandin (PG) release and synthesis are described. In addition, the role of leptin in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis and the expression of leptin and its receptor (OB-Rb) genes in hypothalamus, pituitary and reproductive tissues are reported. Moreover, a strong emphasis was placed on the mechanism of PGE2 participation in the local endocrine regulations of reproductive processes occurring in the utero-ovarian area as well as on the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligand-receptor system in the ovary and uterus.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Corpo Lúteo/metabolismo , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/metabolismo , Feminino , Leptina/metabolismo , Leptina/fisiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/fisiologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Gravidez , Útero/metabolismo
15.
Reprod Biol ; 5(2): 151-69, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16100564

RESUMO

The present study was undertaken to elucidate the role of OT in myometrial contractility in sows. Spontaneous and OT-stimulated contractions of the inner circular (CM) and outer longitudinal (LM) layers isolated from cyclic (Days 14-16) and early pregnant (Days 14-16) sows were examined in six cyclic and six pregnant sows. In addition, the role of P(4) in the modulation of OT-induced uterine contractions was investigated. The contractile activity of the LM and CM layers was recorded in a tissue chamber filled with Krebs-Ringer solution. Myometrial contractility was expressed as area under the contractility curve (AUC) and frequency of contractions. Myometrial longitudinal and circular muscles exhibited spontaneous contractility in sows during both luteolysis and early-pregnancy. The mean AUC was higher (p<0.05) in the LM layer compared to the CM layer in both cyclic and pregnant animals. In addition, pregnant sows were characterized by higher AUC in both LM and CM layers in comparison to cyclic sows. The CM layer was unresponsive to examined treatments. Oxytocin (1-3x10(-8) and 1-3x10(-7)M) increased the AUC and frequency of contractions of the LM layer in both examined animal groups, being more effective during luteolysis (p<0.001) than early pregnancy (p<0.01). Response of the LM layer to OT appeared to be clearly related to the initial spontaneous level of contractility. This response to OT was inhibited (p<0.05) in the presence of OT antagonist (10(-6)M). Moreover, in pregnant sows, OT-stimulated contractile activity of myometrium was inhibited (p<0.05) by P(4) (10(-5)M). In conclusion, OT receptors present in myometrial cells (especially in the LM layer) are involved in the regulation of contractile activity of porcine myometrium during luteolysis and early-pregnancy. In addition, progesterone appears to be involved in this regulation.


Assuntos
Luteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Progesterona/farmacologia , Suínos , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Ocitocina/antagonistas & inibidores , Gravidez
16.
Reprod Biol ; 4(2): 177-84, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15297891

RESUMO

The possibility of PGF(2)alpha production and presence of prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS; PGD(2) 11-ketoreductase) was studied in control and oxytocin (OT)-stimulated myometrial slices isolated from cyclic (Days 14-16) and early pregnant (Days 14-16) sows. Oxytocin (10(-7) M) stimulated (p<0.01) PGF(2)alpha production in both cycling and early pregnant myometrial slices. Prostaglandin F(2)alpha release was higher (p<0.01) in control as well as OT-treated myometrium of early pregnant sows in comparison to cycling myometrium. Prostaglandin F synthase expression at protein level was evident in myometrial slices of cyclic as well as early pregnant sows. The signals of PGFS was stronger (p<0.05) in cycling myometrium exposed to OT compared to that of control. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in PGFS protein expression between control and OT-stimulated myometrial tissue of early-pregnant sows. The results of this study indicate the local PGF(2)alpha synthesis and the presence of PGFS in porcine cycling and early pregnant myometrial tissue. In addition, OT increased PGD(2) 11-ketoreductase protein expression in myometrium harvested during the porcine estrous cycle. However, the OT-stimulated PGF(2)alpha myometrial secretion was observed in both, cycling and pregnant gilts.


Assuntos
Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Hidroxiprostaglandina Desidrogenases/biossíntese , Miométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Miométrio/enzimologia , Miométrio/metabolismo , Gravidez
17.
Reprod Biol ; 4(1): 35-50, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15094794

RESUMO

Oxytocin (OT) may be implicated in the modulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) at each level. In mature females the influence of OT on the HPA axis appeared to be dependent on ovarian steroid milieu and stress. In cyclic sows, the role of OT in the regulation of corticoid secretion is unknown. In the present study changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone concentrations in response to exogenous OT (in vivo experiment) and a direct influence of OT on adrenocortical steroidogenesis (in vitro experiment) were determined in luteal- and follicular-phase gilts. In the luteal-phase gilts (n=5), OT injections increased both cortisol (p<0.01) and corticosterone (p<0.05) plasma concentrations, but in the follicular-phase gilts (n=5) only the concentration of cortisol (p<0.05) was elevated in response to the treatment. Areas under the cortisol and corticosterone curves calculated for 30 min period after the OT injection were statistically higher (p<0.05) during the luteal than the follicular phase. In the in vitro experiment, two doses of OT (10(-7) and 10(-6) M) increased (p<0.05) secretion of cortisol by porcine adrenocortical cells representing the luteal phase, but not the follicular phase. However, OT did not affect the release of corticosterone by the cells. Incubation of the cells with the OT-antagonist (10(-5) M) abolished the effects of OT on cortisol secretion. Thus, in the present study, stimulatory effects of OT on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis were demonstrated in cyclic gilts. The changes in plasma corticoid concentrations in response to exogenous OT were more prominent during the luteal than the follicular phase of the estrous cycle. Moreover, the in vitro experiment revealed a possibility of direct action of OT on adrenocortical cells isolated from luteal phase gilts. These results suggest that OT may participate in the modulation of HPA axis activity in pigs.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Animais , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Feminino , Fase Folicular/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Fase Luteal/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo
18.
Reprod Biol ; 3(1): 63-80, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14666144

RESUMO

Steroid hormones are known to affect synthesis and/or release of some peptides in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. In the present study we determined changes in beta-endorphin, GnRH and galanin contents in uterine and oviductal tissues of ovariectomized (OVX) gilts following treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) at a dose inducing a preovulatory-like LH surge. Seven month old gilts (90-100 kg of body weight; BW) were used in the study. Four weeks after ovariectomy, experimental animals were injected intramuscularly with EB (15 microg/kg BW) at 24 h (n=5), 48 h (n=6) or 72 h (n=5) before slaughter. Three control gilts received corn oil vehicle. Tissues were sampled from the ampulla and isthmus of the oviduct and from the perioviductal, middle and paracervical regions of the uterine horn for determination of beta-endorphin, GnRH and galanin content. Significant increases of beta-endorphin content were found in all regions of the uterus either 24 h or 48 h after priming with EB. In oviductal tissue, beta-endorphin concentration only tended to increase in response to EB. GnRH content in tissues originating from gilts receiving EB fluctuated from a stimulation in the ampulla of the oviduct and in the paracervical uterus to an inhibition in the middle part of the uterus. A significantly increased concentration of galanin in response to EB was observed exclusively in the paracervical part of the OVX pig uterus. The results suggest an involvement of beta-endorphin, GnRH and galanin in the regulation of uterine function in pigs during the periovulatory period.


Assuntos
Estradiol/farmacologia , Galanina/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Oviductos/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo , beta-Endorfina/metabolismo , Animais , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Ovariectomia , Oviductos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovulação/fisiologia , Sus scrofa , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Reprod Biol ; 2(1): 25-37, 2002 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14666160

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The involvement of oxytocin (OT) in the regulation of glucocorticoid secretion during stress reaction, parturition, and suckling has been documented in various species. In this study four in vivo experiments were conducted on gilts (1) to demonstrate the influence of mating stimuli on plasma cortisol concentration, (2) to test the effect of OT alone and (3) OT combined with OT-antagonist on cortisol secretion and (4) to clarify the role of progesterone and estradiol in cortisol response to exogenous OT. In experiment 1, plasma cortisol concentration in gilts (n=4) increased (p<0.05) from 16.1 +/- 5.3 ng ml(-)1 (control period: 30 min before mating) to 42.8 +/- 11.6 ng ml(-1) and 46.6 +/- 9.6 ng ml(-1) at the time of leaving the pen and during the first visual and olfactory contact with the boar, respectively. During coitus the elevation was maintained (48.8 +/- 9.8 ng ml(-1); p<0.05 vs. control). The plasma cortisol concentration returned to pre-mating levels within 30 min after mating. In experiment 2, gilts (n=7) were treated, according to Latin square design, with saline (2 ml; i.v.) and OT (10, 20, and 30 IU; i.v.). The magnitude of cortisol response (area under cortisol curve) was higher (p<0.01) only after treatments with 20 and 30 IU OT vs. control period (30 min before OT). Gilts (n=3) of experiment 3 were infused with OT-antagonist (Atosiban; 25 mg per gilt per 2 hours; i.v.) and then were injected with OT (20 IU; i.v.) 60 min after the beginning of Atosiban administration. Blockage of OT receptors by Atosiban reversed the stimulatory effect of OT on cortisol secretion. In experiment 4, ovariectomized gilts (n=25) primed (i.m.) with corn oil (n=7), progesterone (P4; n=7), estradiol benzoate (EB; n=4) or EB+P4 (n=7) were treated with OT (20 IU; i.v.). Plasma cortisol concentrations were increased following OT administration in all gilts of experiment 4. The highest cortisol response to OT was noted in gilts primed with EB+P4 (p<0.01 vs. other groups). IN CONCLUSION: (1) leaving the pens, visual and olfactory contact with the boar as well as coitus, increased plasma cortisol concentrations in gilts to similar levels; (2) exogenous OT (20 and 30 IU per gilt) increased cortisol plasma concentration, (3) this effect was abolished by OT-antagonist and (4) E2+P4 elevated cortisol response to OT. Oxytocin may be included to secretagogues of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in pigs.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/sangue , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Vasotocina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Copulação , Estradiol/fisiologia , Feminino , Ovariectomia , Ocitocina/antagonistas & inibidores , Progesterona/fisiologia , Vasotocina/farmacologia
20.
Reprod Nutr Dev ; 42(4): 327-38, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12510874

RESUMO

Peripubertal gilts (n = 25) were treated with corn oil (CO) or ovarian steroids, one month following an ovariectomy. The first day of treatment was assigned as the first day of the experiment. The gilts received: Group (Gr) I (n = 4)--CO (2 mL x day(-1) from 1st to 12th day), Gr II (n = 4) and Gr III (n = 4)--progesterone (P4; 10 to 100 mg x day(-1) from 1st to 12th day), Gr IV (n = 5)--estradiol benzoate (EB; 400 microg x day(-1) from 1st to 3rd day), Gr V (n = 4) and Gr VI (n = 4)--EB + P4 (EB 400 microg x day(-1) from 1st to 3rd day, 20 microg x day(-1) at 6th and 9th day, 50 microg at 12th day plus P4 10 to 100 mg from 4th to 15th day). All gilts were injected with oxytocin (OT; 20 IU; i.v.) on the following days of the experiment: 13th (Gr I and Gr II), 15th (Gr III and Gr IV), 16th (Gr V) and 18th (Gr VI). Concentrations of the PGF2alpha metabolite--PGFM were determined in blood samples, collected from 30 min before to 120 min after OT injection. Baseline PGFM concentrations (30 min before OT) differed among treatment groups and were the highest in Gr V and Gr VI (P < 0.01 vs. other groups). The magnitude of the PGFM response to OT increased only in four of the five gilts of Gr IV and in three of the four gilts of Gr VI, and it was higher (P = 0.009) in Gr VI than in Gr IV. In the remaining groups, PGFM concentrations did not increase above the baseline in response to OT. The day after OT injection, oxytocin receptors (OTR) were found in the uterine tissues of all animals studied. The lowest OTR concentrations were in Gr I--75.5 +/- 11.2 fmol x mg protein(-1) and the highest in Gr IV--712.9 +/- 86.7 fmol x mg protein(-1); (P < 0.05 vs. other groups). The values of K of OTR differed among groups (P < 0.001) and ranged from 1.62 +/- 0.44 nM in Gr I to 12. 08 +/- 1.9 nM in Gr VI. A positive correlation (r = 0.54; P < 0.01) between plasma E2 and uterine OTR concentrations was observed. In conclusion, E2 and P4 are involved in both PGF2 synthesis/secretion and OTR formation, however, full PGF response to OT does not develop before puberty. Estrogens are evident stimulators of uterine OTR synthesis ingilts.


Assuntos
Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/sangue , Estradiol/farmacologia , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Progesterona/farmacologia , Receptores de Ocitocina/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Estradiol/fisiologia , Feminino , Cinética , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Progesterona/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo
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