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1.
Acta Vet Hung ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180030

RESUMO

The last surveys on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from bovine milk in Hungary took place in the 2000s. To elucidate the genetic variability and to estimate the burden of the pathogen, MRSA from our strain collection and prospectively collected Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolates originating from two milk hygiene laboratories were investigated. Between 2003 and 2018, 27 MRSA strains originating from 10 dairy farms were deposited and characterised. Most strains (n = 20) belonged to ST1-t127-SCCmecIV and were recovered from three unrelated farms. From other farms, variable genotypes were identified sporadically: ST22-t032-SCCmecIV from three farms; a newly described double locus variant of ST97, ST5982-t458-SCCmecIV from two farms; and ST398-t011-SCCmecIV and ST398-t011-SCCmecV from two respective farms. The prospective screening of 626 individual SA isolates originating from 42 dairy farms resulted in four (0.48 %) MRSA strains from three (7.14 %) farms. All MRSA isolates belonged to the clonal complex 398 and a novel spa-type t19251 was also identified. Most isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. The occurrence and significance of MRSA of dairy origin seems to be unchanged in the past decade in Hungary. However, the low host specificity and multiresistance of the identified genotypes calls for periodic revision on the role and distribution of the pathogen in the Hungarian dairy sector.

2.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 97, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in obesity treatment is to explain the high variability in the individual's response to specific dietary and physical activity interventions. With this study, we tested the hypothesis that specific DNA methylation changes reflect individual responsiveness to lifestyle intervention and may serve as epigenetic predictors for a successful weight-loss. METHODS: We conducted an explorative genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in blood samples from 120 subjects (90% men, mean ± SD age = 49 ± 9 years, body mass-index (BMI) = 30.2 ± 3.3 kg/m2) from the 18-month CENTRAL randomized controlled trial who underwent either Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet with or without physical activity. RESULTS: Analyses comparing male subjects with the most prominent body weight-loss (responders, mean weight change - 16%) vs. non-responders (+ 2.4%) (N = 10 each) revealed significant variation in DNA methylation of several genes including LRRC27, CRISP2, and SLFN12 (all adj. P < 1 × 10-5). Gene ontology analysis indicated that biological processes such as cell adhesion and molecular functions such as calcium ion binding could have an important role in determining the success of interventional therapies in obesity. Epigenome-wide association for relative weight-loss (%) identified 15 CpGs being negatively correlated with weight change after intervention (all combined P < 1 × 10- 4) including new and also known obesity candidates such as NUDT3 and NCOR2. A baseline DNA methylation score better predicted successful weight-loss [area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) = 0.95-1.0] than predictors such as age and BMI (AUC ROC = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: Body weight-loss following 18-month lifestyle intervention is associated with specific methylation signatures. Moreover, methylation differences in the identified genes could serve as prognostic biomarkers to predict a successful weight-loss therapy and thus contribute to advances in patient-tailored obesity treatment.

3.
Diabetes ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158932

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (AT) characterized by an increasing number of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and linked to type 2 diabetes. AT inflammation is histologically indicated by the formation of so-called crown-like structures (CLS), as accumulation of ATMs around dying adipocytes, and the occurrence of multi-nucleated giant cells (MGCs). However to date, the function of MGCs in obesity is unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterize MGCs in AT and unravel the function of these cells.We demonstrate that MGCs occur in obese patients and after 24 weeks of high fat diet (HFD) in mice, accompanying signs of AT inflammation and then represent ∼3% of ATMs in mice. Mechanistically, we found evidence that adipocyte death triggers MGC formation. Most importantly, MGCs in obese AT have a higher capacity to phagocytose oversized particles, such as adipocytes, as shown by live-imaging of AT, 45 µm bead uptake ex vivo and a higher lipid content in vivo Finally, we show that IL-4 treatment is sufficient to increase the number of MGCs in AT, whereas other factors maybe more important for endogenous MGC formation in vivoMost importantly, our data suggest that MGCs are specialized for clearance of dead adipocytes in obesity.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18172, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097797

RESUMO

Intramammary infections (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus are a common cause of bovine mastitis and can result in both clinical (CM) or subclinical mastitis (SCM). Although bacterial isolates of S. aureus differ in their virulence potential it is largely unclear which bacterial virulence factors are responsible for increased clinical severity. We performed a genome wide association study and used a generalized linear mixed model to investigate the correlation between gene carriage, lineage and clinical outcome of IMI in a collection of S. aureus isolates from cattle with CM (n = 125) and SCM (n = 151) from 11 European countries. An additional aim was to describe the genetic variation of bovine S. aureus in Europa. The dominant lineages in our collection were clonal complex (CC) 151 (81/276, 29.3%), CC97 (54/276, 19.6%), CC479 (32/276, 11.6%) and CC398 (19/276, 6.9%). Virulence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene carriage was highly associated with CC. Among a selection of nine virulence and AMR genes, CC151, CC479 and CC133 carried more virulence genes than other CCs, and CC398 was associated with AMR gene carriage. Whereas CC151, CC97 were widespread in Europe, CC479, CC398 and CC8 were only found in specific countries. Compared to CC151, CC479 was associated with CM rather than SCM (OR 3.62; 95% CI 1.38-9.50) and the other CCs were not. Multiple genes were associated with CM, but due to the clustering within CC of carriage of these genes, it was not possible to differentiate between the effect of gene carriage and CC on clinical outcome of IMI. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that characterization of S. aureus CC and virulence genes helps to predict the likelihood of the occurrence of CM following S. aureus IMI and highlights the potential benefit of diagnostics tools to identify S. aureus CC during bovine mastitis.

5.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 48(12): 1264-1270, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037044

RESUMO

Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1/3-mediated drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential is evaluated in vivo with rosuvastatin (RST) as a probe substrate in clinical studies. We calibrated our assay with RST and estradiol 17-ß-D-glucuronide (E217ßG)/cholecystokinin-8 (CCK8) as in vitro probes for qualitative and quantitative prediction of OATP1B-mediated DDI potential for RST. In vitro OATP1B1/1B3 inhibition using E217ßG and CCK8 yielded higher area under the curve (AUC) ratio (AUCR) values numerically with the static model, but all probes performed similarly from a qualitative cutoff-based prediction, as described in regulatory guidances. However, the magnitudes of DDI were not captured satisfactorily. Considering that clearance of RST is also mediated by gut breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), inhibition of BCRP was also incorporated in the DDI prediction if the gut inhibitor concentrations were 10 × IC50 for BCRP inhibition. This combined static model closely predicted the magnitude of RST DDI with root-mean-square error values of 0.767-0.812 and 1.24-1.31 with and without BCRP inhibition, respectively, for in vitro-in vivo correlation of DDI. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was also used to simulate DDI between RST and rifampicin, asunaprevir, and velpatasvir. Predicted AUCR for rifampicin and asunaprevir was within 1.5-fold of that observed, whereas that for velpatasvir showed a 2-fold underprediction. Overall, the combined static model incorporating both OATP1B and BCRP inhibition provides a quick and simple mathematical approach to quantitatively predict the magnitude of transporter-mediated DDI for RST for routine application. PBPK complements the static model and provides a framework for studying molecules when a dynamic model is needed. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Using 22 drugs, we show that a static model for organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1/1B3 inhibition can qualitatively predict potential for drug-drug interaction (DDI) using a cutoff-based approach, as in regulatory guidances. However, consideration of both OATP1B1/3 and gut breast cancer resistance protein inhibition provided a better prediction of the magnitude of the transporter-mediated DDI of these inhibitors with rosuvastatin. Based on these results, we have proposed an empirical mechanistic-static approach for a more reliable prediction of transporter-mediated DDI liability with rosuvastatin that drug development teams can leverage.

6.
Cell Rep ; 33(3): 108295, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086065

RESUMO

TMEM18 is the strongest candidate for childhood obesity identified from GWASs, yet as for most GWAS-derived obesity-susceptibility genes, the functional mechanism remains elusive. We here investigate the relevance of TMEM18 for adipose tissue development and obesity. We demonstrate that adipocyte TMEM18 expression is downregulated in children with obesity. Functionally, downregulation of TMEM18 impairs adipocyte formation in zebrafish and in human preadipocytes, indicating that TMEM18 is important for adipocyte differentiation in vivo and in vitro. On the molecular level, TMEM18 activates PPARG, particularly upregulating PPARG1 promoter activity, and this activation is repressed by inflammatory stimuli. The relationship between TMEM18 and PPARG1 is also evident in adipocytes of children and is clinically associated with obesity and adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Our findings indicate a role of TMEM18 as an upstream regulator of PPARG signaling driving healthy adipogenesis, which is dysregulated with adipose tissue dysfunction and obesity.

8.
Horm Metab Res ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629517

RESUMO

The C57BL/6J (B6J) mouse strain has been widely used as a control strain for the study of metabolic diseases and diet induced obesity (DIO). B6J mice carry a spontaneous deletion mutation in the nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) gene eliminating exons 7-11, resulting in expression of a truncated form of Nnt, an enzyme that pumps protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It has been proposed that this mutation in B6J mice is associated with epigonadal fat mass and altered sensitivity to diet induced obesity. To define the role of Nnt in the development of diet induced obesity, we generated first backcross (BC1) hybrids of wild type Nnt C57BL/6NTac and mutated Nnt C57BL/6JRj [(C57BL/6NTac×C57BL/6JRj)F1×C57BL/6NTac]. Body weight gain and specific fat-pad depot mass were measured in BC1 hybrids under high fat diet conditions. Both sexes of BC1 hybrids indicate that mice with Nnt wild type allele are highly sensitive to DIO and exhibit higher relative fat mass. In summary, our data indicate that the Nnt mutation in mice is associated with sensitivity to DIO and fat mass.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661330

RESUMO

The functional and metabolic characteristics of specific adipose tissue (AT) depots seem to be determined by intrinsic mechanisms. We performed a comprehensive transcriptome profiling of human AT from distinct fat depots to unravel their unique features potentially explaining molecular mechanisms underlying AT distribution and their contribution to health and disease. Post-mortem AT samples of five body donors from 15 anatomical locations were collected. Global mRNA expression was measured by Illumina® Human HT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips. Data were validated using qPCR and Western Blot in a subset of ATs from seven additional body donors. Buccal and heel AT clearly separated from the "classical" subcutaneous AT depots, and perirenal and epicardial AT were distinct from visceral depots. Gene-set enrichment analyses pointed to an inflammatory environment and insulin resistance particularly in the carotid sheath AT depot. Moreover, the epicardial fat transcriptome was enriched for genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, inflammation, immune signaling, coagulation, thrombosis, beigeing, and apoptosis. Interestingly, a striking downregulation of the expression of leptin receptor was found in AT from heel compared with all other AT depots. The distinct gene expression patterns are likely to define fat depot specific AT functions in metabolism, energy storage, immunity, body insulation or as cushions. Improved knowledge of the gene expression profiles of various fat depots may strongly benefit studies aimed at better understanding of the genetics and the pathophysiology of obesity and adverse body fat composition.

10.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 98(8): 1139-1148, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620998

RESUMO

Progranulin is a glycoprotein marking chronic inflammation in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Previous studies suggested PSRC1 (proline and serine rich coiled-coil 1) to be a target of genetic variants associated with serum progranulin levels. We aimed to identify potentially functional variants and characterize their role in regulation of PSRC1. Phylogenetic module complexity analysis (PMCA) prioritized four polymorphisms (rs12740374, rs629301, rs660240, rs7528419) altering transcription factor binding sites with an overall score for potential regulatory function of Sall > 7.0. The effects of these variants on transcriptional activity and binding of transcription factors were tested by luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). In parallel, blood DNA promoter methylation of two regions was tested in subjects with a very high (N = 100) or a very low (N = 100) serum progranulin. Luciferase assays revealed lower activities in vectors carrying the rs629301-A compared with the C allele. Moreover, EMSA indicated a different binding pattern for the two rs629301 alleles, with an additional prominent band for the A allele, which was finally confirmed with the supershift for the Yin Yang 1 transcription factor (YY1). Subjects with high progranulin levels manifested a significantly higher mean DNA methylation (P < 1 × 10-7) in one promoter region, which was in line with a significantly lower PSRC1 mRNA expression levels in blood (P = 1 × 10-3). Consistently, rs629301-A allele was associated with lower PSRC1 mRNA expression (P < 1 × 10-7). Our data suggest that the progranulin-associated variant rs629301 modifies the transcription of PSRC1 through alteration of YY1 binding capacity. DNA methylation studies further support the role of PSRC1 in regulation of progranulin serum levels. KEY MESSAGES: PSRC1 (proline and serine rich coiled-coil 1) SNPs are associated with serum progranulin levels. rs629301 regulates PSRC1 expression by affecting Yin Yang 1 transcription factor (YY1) binding. PSRC1 is also epigenetically regulated in subjects with high progranulin levels.

11.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(3): 233-244, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508317

RESUMO

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of premature cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and show increased mortality. Pro-neurotensin (Pro-NT) was associated with metabolic diseases and predicted incident CVD and mortality. However, Pro-NT regulation in CKD and its potential role linking CKD and mortality have not been investigated, so far. Methods: In a central lab, circulating Pro-NT was quantified in three independent cohorts comprising 4715 participants (cohort 1: patients with CKD; cohort 2: general population study; and cohort 3: non-diabetic population study). Urinary Pro-NT was assessed in part of the patients from cohort 1. In a 4th independent cohort, serum Pro-NT was further related to mortality in patients with advanced CKD. Tissue-specific Nts expression was further investigated in two mouse models of diabetic CKD and compared to non-diabetic control mice. Results: Pro-NT significantly increased with deteriorating renal function (P < 0.001). In meta-analysis of cohorts 1-3, Pro-NT was significantly and independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (P ≤ 0.002). Patients in the middle/high Pro-NT tertiles at baseline had a higher all-cause mortality compared to the low Pro-NT tertile (Hazard ratio: 2.11, P = 0.046). Mice with severe diabetic CKD did not show increased Nts mRNA expression in different tissues compared to control animals. Conclusions: Circulating Pro-NT is associated with impaired renal function in independent cohorts comprising 4715 subjects and is related to all-cause mortality in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Our human and rodent data are in accordance with the hypotheses that Pro-NT is eliminated by the kidneys and could potentially contribute to increased mortality observed in patients with CKD.


Assuntos
Neurotensina/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurotensina/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
12.
Cytokine ; 131: 155088, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283441

RESUMO

AIMS: Adipose tissue-secreted proteins, i.e. adipocytokines, have been identified as potential mediators linking fat mass and adipose tissue dysfunction with impaired glucose homeostasis, alterations in the inflammatory status, and risk of diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether seven circulating adipocytokines are associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or are altered by metabolic and weight changes during pregnancy itself. METHODS: A panel of seven adipocytokines (i.e. adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, chemerin, leptin, Pro-Enkephalin, progranulin, and Pro-Neurotensin) was quantified in serum in a cross-sectional cohort of 222 women with the following three groups matched for age and body mass index: (i) 74 pregnant women with GDM; (ii) 74 pregnant women without GDM; and (iii) 74 non-pregnant and healthy women. A stepwise statistical approach was used by performing pairwise comparisons, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). RESULTS: Five out of seven adipocytokines were dysregulated between pregnant and non-pregnant women, i.e. adiponectin, chemerin, leptin, Pro-Enkephalin, and progranulin. None of the adipocytokines significantly differed between GDM and non-GDM status during pregnancy. The same five adipocytokines clustered in a principal component representing pregnancy-induced effects. Fasting insulin was the most relevant parameter in the discrimination of GDM as compared to pregnant women without GDM, whereas chemerin and adiponectin were most relevant factors to discriminate pregnancy status. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy status but not presence of GDM can be distinguished by the seven investigated adipocytokines in discrimination analyses.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273869

RESUMO

Subcutaneous (sc) and visceral (vis) adipose tissue (AT) contribute to the variability in pathophysiological consequences of obesity and adverse fat distribution. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms distinguishing vis and sc fat, we compared the transcriptome during differentiation of immortalized adipocytes from murine epididymal (epi) and inguinal (ing) AT. RNA was extracted on different days of adipogenesis (-2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8) and analyzed using Clariom™ D mouse assays (Affymetrix) covering >214,900 transcripts in >66,100 genes. Transcript Time Course Analysis revealed 137 differentially expressed genes. The top genes with most divergent expression dynamics included developmental genes like Alx1, Lhx8, Irx1/2, Hoxc10, Hoxa5/10, and Tbx5/15. According to pathway analysis the majority of the genes were enriched in pathways related to AT development. Finally, in paired samples of human vis and sc AT (N = 63), several of these genes exhibited depot-specific variability in expression which correlated closely with body mass index and/or waist-to-hip ratio. In conclusion, intrinsically programmed differences in gene expression patterns during adipogenesis suggest that fat depot specific regulation of adipogenesis contributes to individual risk of obesity.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295104

RESUMO

The emerging evidence on the interconnectedness between the gut microbiome and host metabolism has led to a paradigm shift in the study of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes with implications on both underlying pathophysiology and potential treatment. Mounting preclinical and clinical evidence of gut microbiota shifts, increased intestinal permeability in metabolic disease, and the critical positioning of the intestinal barrier at the interface between environment and internal milieu have led to the rekindling of the "leaky gut" concept. Although increased circulation of surrogate markers and directly measurable intestinal permeability have been linked to increased systemic inflammation in metabolic disease, mechanistic models behind this phenomenon are underdeveloped. Given repeated observations of microorganisms in several tissues with congruent phylogenetic findings, we review current evidence on these unanticipated niches, focusing specifically on the interaction between gut permeability and intestinal as well as extra-intestinal bacteria and their joint contributions to systemic inflammation and metabolism. We further address limitations of current studies and suggest strategies drawing on standard techniques for permeability measurement, recent advancements in microbial culture independent techniques and computational methodologies to robustly develop these concepts, which may be of considerable value for the development of prevention and treatment strategies.

15.
Gut ; 69(10): 1796-1806, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bacterial translocation to various organs including human adipose tissue (AT) due to increased intestinal permeability remains poorly understood. We hypothesised that: (1) bacterial presence is highly tissue specific and (2) related in composition and quantity to immune inflammatory and metabolic burden. DESIGN: We quantified and sequenced the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in blood and AT samples (omental, mesenteric and subcutaneous) of 75 subjects with obesity with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D) and used catalysed reporter deposition (CARD) - fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to detect bacteria in AT. RESULTS: Under stringent experimental and bioinformatic control for contaminants, bacterial DNA was detected in blood and omental, subcutaneous and mesenteric AT samples in the range of 0.1 to 5 pg/µg DNA isolate. Moreover, CARD-FISH allowed the detection of living, AT-borne bacteria. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the predominant phyla, and bacterial quantity was associated with immune cell infiltration, inflammatory and metabolic parameters in a tissue-specific manner. Bacterial composition differed between subjects with and without T2D and was associated with related clinical measures, including systemic and tissues-specific inflammatory markers. Finally, treatment of adipocytes with bacterial DNA in vitro stimulated the expression of TNFA and IL6. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides contaminant aware evidence for the presence of bacteria and bacterial DNA in several ATs in obesity and T2D and suggests an important role of bacteria in initiating and sustaining local AT subclinical inflammation and therefore impacting metabolic sequelae of obesity.

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974565

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Common genetic susceptibility may underlie the frequently observed co-occurrence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in families. Given the role of HLA class II genes in the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes, the aim of the present study was to test the association of high density imputed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: Three cohorts (Ntotal = 10 413) from Leipzig, Germany were included in this study: LIFE-Adult (N = 4649), LIFE-Heart (N = 4815) and the Sorbs (N = 949) cohort. Detailed metabolic phenotyping and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were available for all subjects. Using 1000 Genome imputation data, HLA genotypes were imputed on 4-digit level and association tests for type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic traits were conducted. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis including all 3 cohorts, the absence of HLA-DRB5 was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001). In contrast, HLA-DQB*06:02 and HLA-DQA*01:02 had a protective effect on type 2 diabetes (P = 0.005 and 0.003, respectively). Both alleles are part of the well-established type 1 diabetes protective haplotype DRB1*15:01~DQA1*01:02~DQB1*06:02, which was also associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.84; P = 0.005). On the contrary, the DRB1*07:01~DQA1*02:01~DQB1*03:03 was identified as a risk haplotype in non-insulin-treated diabetes (OR 1.37; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in the HLA class II locus exerts risk and protective effects on non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Our data suggest that the genetic architecture of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes might share common components on the HLA class II locus.

17.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 26(1): 317-325, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225783

RESUMO

Ipilimumab was the first immunotherapy approved for metastatic melanoma in decades and is currently registered as a second-line treatment. However, new immunotherapies, in combination with ipilimumab, offer even better clinical outcomes for patients compared with single-agent treatments, at the expense of improved toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of ipilimumab outside the clinical trials and to identify survival predictors for treatment benefit. Data were collected on 47 advanced melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab between 2010 and 2015 at a single center. Association of clinical characteristics (including primary tumor characteristics), serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, absolute eosinophil, lymphocyte, and neutrophil count, neutrophil/lymphocyte and eosinophil/lymphocyte ratio with toxicity and clinical outcome were assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Median progression-free survival at a median follow-up of 10 months was 2.7 months and median overall survival was 9.8 months. Objective response was observed in 17% of patients and the disease control rate at week 24 was 40%. The 1- and 2-year survival rates documented were 40 and 28%, respectively. Significant association between high LDH level (>1.5× upper limit of normal) and decreased overall survival was demonstrated in uni- and multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.554, 95% CI: 1.225-10.306, p = 0.019). Neither biomarkers nor clinical outcome were associated with toxicity. Using baseline serum LDH to identify patients most likely to benefit from ipilimumab therapy could serve as a simple and inexpensive biomarker of clinical outcome.

18.
Pancreatology ; 20(2): 187-192, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: /Objectives: AGE and their receptors like RAGE and Galectin-3 can activate inflammatory pathways and have been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. Several studies investigated the role of AGE, Galectin-3 and sRAGE in pancreatic diseases, whereas no comprehensive data for chronic pancreatitis (CP) are available. METHODS: Serum samples from CP patients without an active inflammatory process (85 ACP; 26 NACP patients) and 40 healthy controls were collected. Levels of AGE, sRAGE and Galectin-3 were measured by ELISA. To exclude potential influences of previously described RAGE SNPs on detected serum levels, we analyzed variants rs207128, rs207060, rs1800625, and rs1800624 by melting curve technique in 378 CP patients and 338 controls. RESULTS: AGE and Galectin-3 serum levels were significantly elevated in both ACP and NACP patients compared to controls (AGE: 56.61 ± 3.043 vs. 31.71 ± 2.308 ng/mL; p < 0.001; Galectin-3: 16.63 ± 0.6297 vs. 10.81 ± 0.4835 ng/mL; p < 0.001). In contrast, mean serum sRAGE levels were significantly reduced in CP patients compared to controls (sRAGE: 829.7 ± 37.10 vs. 1135 ± 55.74 ng/mL; p < 0.001). All results were consistent after correction for gender, age and diabetes mellitus. No genetic association with CP was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our extensive analysis demonstrated the importance of aging related pathways in the pathogenesis of CP. As the results were consistent in ACP and NACP, both entities most likely share common pathomechanisms. Most probably the involved pathways are a general hallmark of an inflammatory state in CP that is even present in symptom-free intervals.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19908, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882958

RESUMO

It is unclear if additional inoculation with Bradyrhizobia at varying soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] growth stages can impact biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), increase yield and improve seed composition [protein, oil, and amino acid (AA) concentrations]. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different soybean inoculation strategies (seed coating and additional soil inoculation at V4 or R1) on: (i) seed yield, (ii) seed composition, and (iii) BNF traits [nodule number and relative abundance of ureides (RAU)]. Soybean field trials were conducted in 11 environments (four states of the US) to evaluate four treatments: (i) control without inoculation, (ii) seed inoculation, (iii) seed inoculation + soil inoculation at V4, and (iv) seed inoculation + soil inoculation at R1. Results demonstrated no effect of seed or additional soil inoculation at V4 or R1 on either soybean seed yield or composition. Also, inoculation strategies produced similar values to the non-inoculated control in terms of nodule number and RAU, a reflection of BNF. Therefore, we conclude that in soils with previous history of soybean and under non-severe stress conditions (e.g. high early-season temperature and/or saturated soils), there is no benefit to implementing additional inoculation on soybean yield and seed composition.


Assuntos
Sementes/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Bradyrhizobium/fisiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Estados Unidos
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