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1.
Theranostics ; 10(23): 10743-10768, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929378

RESUMO

The origin and functions of mast cells (MCs) have been debated since their description by Paul Ehrlich in 1879. MCs have long been considered 'reactive bystanders' and 'amplifiers' in inflammatory processes, allergic reactions, and host responses to infectious diseases. However, knowledge about the origin, phenotypes and functions of MCs has increased substantially over the past 50 years. MCs are now known to be derived from multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which, through a process of differentiation and maturation, form a unique hematopoietic lineage residing in multiple organs. In particular, MCs are distinguishable from basophils and other hematopoietic cells by their unique phenotype, origin(s), and spectrum of functions, both in innate and adaptive immune responses and in other settings. The concept of a unique MC lineage is further supported by the development of a distinct group of neoplasms, collectively referred to as mastocytosis, in which MC precursors expand as clonal cells. The clinical consequences of the expansion and/or activation of MCs are best established in mastocytosis and in allergic inflammation. However, MCs have also been implicated as important participants in a number of additional pathologic conditions and physiological processes. In this article, we review concepts regarding MC development, factors controlling MC expansion and activation, and some of the fundamental roles MCs may play in both health and disease. We also discuss new concepts for suppressing MC expansion and/or activation using molecularly-targeted drugs.

2.
Atherosclerosis ; 312: 1-7, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In focal areas of advanced human atherosclerotic lesions, the intimal fluid is acidic. An acidic medium impairs the ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages, so tending to increase their content of free cholesterol, which is then available for esterification by the macrophage enzyme ACAT1. Here we investigated whether low extracellular pH would affect the activity of ACAT1. METHODS: - Human monocyte-derived macrophages were first incubated with acetyl-LDL at neutral and acidic conditions (pH 7.5, 6.5, and 5.5) to generate foam cells, and then the foam cells were incubated with [3H]oleate-BSA complexes, and the formation of [3H]oleate-labeled cholesteryl esters was measured. ACAT1 activity was also measured in cell-free macrophage extracts. RESULTS: - In acidic media, ACAT1-dependent cholesteryl [3H]oleate generation became compromised in the developing foam cells and their content of free cholesterol increased. In line with this finding, ACAT1 activity in the soluble cell-free fraction derived from macrophage foam cells peaked at pH 7, and gradually decreased under acidic pH with a rapid drop below pH 6.5. Incubation of macrophages under progressively more acidic conditions (until pH 5.5) lowered the cytosolic pH of macrophages (down to pH 6.0). Such intracellular acidification did not affect macrophage gene expression of ACAT1 or the neutral CEH. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of human macrophage foam cells to acidic conditions lowers their intracellular pH with simultaneous decrease in ACAT1 activity. This reduces cholesterol esterification and thus leads to accumulation of potentially toxic levels of free cholesterol, a contributing factor to macrophage foam cell death.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781511

RESUMO

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) cause every fifth death worldwide. However, it is possible to prevent the progression of ASCVDs by reducing circulating concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Recent large meta-analyses demonstrated that by reducing the dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, it is possible to reduce the risk of ASCVD events. Plant stanols, as fatty-acid esters, were developed as a dietary adjunct to reduce LDL-C levels as part of a heart-healthy diet. They reduce cholesterol absorption so that less cholesterol is transported to the liver, and the expression of LDL receptors is upregulated. Ultimately, LDL-C concentrations are reduced on average by 9-12% by consuming 2-3 g of plant stanol esters per day. In this review, we discuss recent information regarding the prevention of ASCVDs with a focus on dietary means. We also present new estimates on the effect of plant stanol ester consumption on LDL-C levels and the risk of ASCVD events. Plant stanol esters as part of a heart-healthy diet plausibly offer a means to reduce the risk of ASCVD events at a population level. This approach is not only appropriate for subjects with a high risk of ASCVD, but also for subjects at an apparently lower risk to prevent subclinical atherosclerosis.

4.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2310-2321, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Plant stanol ester supplementation (2-3 g plant stanols/d) reduces plasma LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol concentration by 9% to 12% and is, therefore, recommended as part of prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In addition to plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration, also qualitative properties of LDL particles can influence atherogenesis. However, the effect of plant stanol ester consumption on the proatherogenic properties of LDL has not been studied. Approach and Results: Study subjects (n=90) were randomized to consume either a plant stanol ester-enriched spread (3.0 g plant stanols/d) or the same spread without added plant stanol esters for 6 months. Blood samples were taken at baseline and after the intervention. The aggregation susceptibility of LDL particles was analyzed by inducing aggregation of isolated LDL and following aggregate formation. LDL lipidome was determined by mass spectrometry. Binding of serum lipoproteins to proteoglycans was measured using a microtiter well-based assay. LDL aggregation susceptibility was decreased in the plant stanol ester group, and the median aggregate size after incubation for 2 hours decreased from 1490 to 620 nm, P=0.001. Plant stanol ester-induced decrease in LDL aggregation was more extensive in participants having body mass index<25 kg/m2. Decreased LDL aggregation susceptibility was associated with decreased proportion of LDL-sphingomyelins and increased proportion of LDL-triacylglycerols. LDL binding to proteoglycans was decreased in the plant stanol ester group, the decrease depending on decreased serum LDL-cholesterol concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of plant stanol esters decreases the aggregation susceptibility of LDL particles by modifying LDL lipidome. The resulting improvement of LDL quality may be beneficial for cardiovascular health. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01315964.

6.
Trends Immunol ; 41(8): 734-746, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605802

RESUMO

Mast cells are multifarious immune cells with complex roles in tissue homeostasis and disease. They produce a plethora of mediators that play roles in inflammation, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. Recent insights into the heterogeneity of cardiac mast cell (CMC) subpopulations have renewed interest in their functional diversity in homeostasis and disease. They are located within the human heart in the myocardium, in atherosclerotic plaques, in the aortic valve, and in close proximity to nerves. Their plasticity enables different and even opposite functions in response to changing tissue contexts. These characteristics render CMCs intriguing, with a dichotomous role in protecting against, or accelerating, cardiovascular diseases. Future work should aim to identify CMC subsets, which could reveal novel therapeutic opportunities for cardiovascular disorders.

7.
Pharmacol Ther ; 214: 107620, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599008

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease resulting from subendothelial accumulation of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol in susceptible arterial segments, ultimately leading to the formation of clinically significant atherosclerotic plaques. Despite significant advances in the treatment of atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death and disabilities worldwide. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for novel therapies. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides produced from many sources of starch by enzymatic degradation. The frequently used cyclodextrins are α-, ß-, and γ-cyclodextrins, which are composed of six, seven, and eight glucose moieties, respectively. Especially ß-cyclodextrin can entrap hydrophobic compounds, such as cholesterol, into its hydrophobic cavity and form stable inclusion complexes with cholesterol. This inherent affinity of cyclodextrins has been exploited to extract excess cholesterol from cultured cells, as well as intra- and extracellular cholesterol stores present in atherosclerotic lesions of experimental animals. Accordingly, cyclodextrins could be considered as potentially effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of atherosclerosis. In this review, we address recent advances and the current status of the development of cyclodextrins and provide an update of the latest in vitro and in vivo experiments that pave the way to clinical studies. The emerging therapeutic opportunities by using cyclodextrins could aid us in our efforts to ultimately eradicate the residual risk after other cholesterol-lowering pharmacotherapies, and also reduce the associated burden of premature deaths due to atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

8.
Circ Res ; 127(6): 778-792, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495699

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-mediated stimulation of cellular cholesterol efflux initiates macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (m-RCT), which ends in the fecal excretion of macrophage-derived unesterified cholesterol (UC). Early studies established that LDL (low-density lipoprotein) particles could act as efficient intermediate acceptors of cellular-derived UC, thereby preventing the saturation of HDL particles and facilitating their cholesterol efflux capacity. However, the capacity of LDL to act as a plasma cholesterol reservoir and its potential impact in supporting the m-RCT pathway in vivo both remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated LDL contributions to the m-RCT pathway in hypercholesterolemic mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Macrophage cholesterol efflux induced in vitro by LDL added to the culture media either alone or together with HDL or ex vivo by plasma derived from subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia was assessed. In vivo, m-RCT was evaluated in mouse models of hypercholesterolemia that were naturally deficient in CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) and fed a Western-type diet. LDL induced the efflux of radiolabeled UC from cultured macrophages, and, in the simultaneous presence of HDL, a rapid transfer of the radiolabeled UC from HDL to LDL occurred. However, LDL did not exert a synergistic effect on HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in the familial hypercholesterolemia plasma. The m-RCT rates of the LDLr (LDL receptor)-KO (knockout), LDLr-KO/APOB100, and PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9)-overexpressing mice were all significantly reduced relative to the wild-type mice. In contrast, m-RCT remained unchanged in HAPOB100 Tg (human APOB100 transgenic) mice with fully functional LDLr, despite increased levels of plasma APO (apolipoprotein)-B-containing lipoproteins. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic LDLr plays a critical role in the flow of macrophage-derived UC to feces, while the plasma increase of APOB-containing lipoproteins is unable to stimulate m-RCT. The results indicate that, besides the major HDL-dependent m-RCT pathway via SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B type 1) to the liver, a CETP-independent m-RCT path exists, in which LDL mediates the transfer of cholesterol from macrophages to feces. Graphical Abstract: A graphical abstract is available for this article.

9.
Allergy ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446274

RESUMO

The emergence and evolution of the complement system and mast cells (MCs) can be traced back to sea urchins and the ascidian Styela plicata, respectively. Acting as a cascade of enzymatic reactions, complement is activated through the classical (CP), the alternative (AP), and the lectin pathway (LP) based on the recognized molecules. The system's main biological functions include lysis, opsonization, and recruitment of phagocytes. MCs, beyond their classic role as master cells of allergic reactions, play a role in other settings, as well. Thus, MCs are considered as extrahepatic producers of complement proteins. They express various complement receptors, including those for C3a and C5a. C3a and C5a not only activate the C3aR and C5aR expressing MCs but also act as chemoattractants for MCs derived from different anatomic sites, such as from the bone marrow, human umbilical cord blood, or skin in vitro. Cross talk between MCs and complement is facilitated by the production of complement proteins by MCs and their activation by the MC tryptase. The coordinated activity between MCs and the complement system plays a key role, for example, in a number of allergic, cutaneous, and vascular diseases. At a molecular level, MCs and complement system interactions are based on the production of several complement zymogens by MCs and their activation by MC-released proteases. Additionally, at a cellular level, MCs act as potent effector cells of complement activation by expressing receptors for C3a and C5a through which their chemoattraction and activation are mediated by anaphylatoxins in a paracrine and autocrine fashion.

13.
JCI Insight ; 5(5)2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161197

RESUMO

Carriers of the hydroxysteroid 17-ß dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) gene variant (rs72613567:TA) have a reduced risk of NASH and cirrhosis but not steatosis. We determined its effect on liver histology, lipidome, and transcriptome using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and RNA-seq. In carriers and noncarriers of the gene variant, we also measured pathways of hepatic fatty acids (de novo lipogenesis [DNL] and adipose tissue lipolysis [ATL] using 2H2O and 2H-glycerol) and insulin sensitivity using 3H-glucose and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp) and plasma cytokines. Carriers and noncarriers had similar age, sex and BMI. Fibrosis was significantly less frequent while phospholipids, but not other lipids, were enriched in the liver in carriers compared with noncarriers. Expression of 274 genes was altered in carriers compared with noncarriers, consisting predominantly of downregulated inflammation-related gene sets. Plasma IL-6 concentrations were lower, but DNL, ATL and hepatic insulin sensitivity were similar between the groups. In conclusion, carriers of the HSD17B13 variant have decreased fibrosis and expression of inflammation-related genes but increased phospholipids in the liver. These changes are not secondary to steatosis, DNL, ATL, or hepatic insulin sensitivity. The increase in phospholipids and decrease in fibrosis are opposite to features of choline-deficient models of liver disease and suggest HSD17B13 as an attractive therapeutic target.

14.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 120: 105684, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911118

RESUMO

During the growing process of the atherosclerotic lesions, lipid-filled macrophage foam cells form, accumulate, and ultimately undergo apoptotic death. If the apoptotic foam cells are not timely removed, they may undergo secondary necrosis, and form a necrotic lipid core which renders the plaque unstable and susceptible to rupture. Therefore, the non-lipid-filled fellow macrophages, as the main phagocytic cells in atherosclerotic lesions, need to effectively remove the apoptotic foam cells. In general, in apoptotic macrophages, caspases are the central regulators of several key processes required for their efficient efferocytosis. The processes include the generation of "Find-Me" signals (such as adenosine triphosphate/uridine triphosphate, fractalkine, lysophosphatidylcholine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate) for the recruitment of viable macrophages, generation of the "Eat-Me" signals (for example, phosphatidylserine) for the engulfment process, and, finally, release of anti-inflammatory mediators (including transforming factor ß and interleukin-10) as a tolerance-enhancing and an anti-inflammatory response, and for the motile behavior of the apoptotic cell. The caspase-dependent mechanisms are operative also in apoptotic macrophages driving the atherogenesis. In this review, we explore the role of the molecular pathways related to the caspase-dependent events in efferocytosis in the context of atherosclerosis. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of apoptotic cell death in atherosclerotic lesions is essential when searching for new leads to treat atherosclerosis.

15.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 58(1): 82-91, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267470

RESUMO

Resolvins, belonging to the group of specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs), are metabolic products of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) and are synthesized during the initial phases of acute inflammatory responses to promote the resolution of inflammation. Resolvins are produced for termination of neutrophil infiltration, stimulation of the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages, and promotion of tissue remodeling and homeostasis. Metabolic dysregulation due to either uncontrolled activity of pro-inflammatory responses or to inefficient resolution of inflammation results in chronic inflammation and may also lead to atherosclerosis or other chronic autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. The pathogenesis of such diseases involves a complex interplay between the immune system and, environmental factors (non-infectious or infectious), and critically depends on individual susceptibility to such factors. In the present review, resolvins and their roles in the resolution of inflammation, as well as the role of these mediators as potential therapeutic agents to counteract specific chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases are discussed.

16.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766552

RESUMO

In atherosclerosis, macrophages in the arterial wall ingest plasma lipoprotein-derived lipids and become lipid-filled foam cells with a limited lifespan. Thus, efficient removal of apoptotic foam cells by efferocytic macrophages is vital to preventing the dying foam cells from forming a large necrotic lipid core, which, otherwise, would render the atherosclerotic plaque vulnerable to rupture and would cause clinical complications. Ca2+ plays a role in macrophage migration, survival, and foam cell generation. Importantly, in efferocytic macrophages, Ca2+ induces actin polymerization, thereby promoting the formation of a phagocytic cup necessary for efferocytosis. Moreover, in the efferocytic macrophages, Ca2+ enhances the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Various Ca2+ antagonists have been seminal for the demonstration of the role of Ca2+ in the multiple steps of efferocytosis by macrophages. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo experiments and clinical investigations have revealed the capability of Ca2+ antagonists in attenuating the development of atherosclerotic plaques by interfering with the deposition of lipids in macrophages and by reducing plaque calcification. However, the regulation of cellular Ca2+ fluxes in the processes of efferocytic clearance of apoptotic foam cells and in the extracellular calcification in atherosclerosis remains unknown. Here, we attempted to unravel the molecular links between Ca2+ and efferocytosis in atherosclerosis and to evaluate cellular Ca2+ fluxes as potential treatment targets in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(11)2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common inherited metabolic diseases and is an autosomal dominant disorder meaning heterozygotes, or carriers, are affected. Those who are homozygous have severe disease. The average worldwide prevalence of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is at least 1 in 500, although recent genetic epidemiological data from Denmark and next generation sequencing data suggest the frequency may be closer to 1 in 250. Diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia in children is based on elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels or DNA-based analysis, or both. Coronary atherosclerosis has been detected in men with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia as young as 17 years old and in women with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia at 25 years old. Since the clinical complications of atherosclerosis occur prematurely, especially in men, lifelong treatment, started in childhood, is needed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In children with the disease, diet was the cornerstone of treatment but the addition of lipid-lowering medications has resulted in a significant improvement in treatment. Anion exchange resins, such as cholestyramine and colestipol, were found to be effective, but they are poorly tolerated. Since the 1990s studies carried out on children aged 6 to 17 years with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia have demonstrated significant reductions in their serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. While statins seem to be safe and well-tolerated in children, their long-term safety in this age group is not firmly established. This is an update of a previously published version of this Cochane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of statins in children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. SEARCH METHODS: Relevant studies were identified from the Group's Inborn Errors and Metabolism Trials Register and Medline. Date of most recent search: 04 November 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized and controlled clinical studies including participants up to 18 years old, comparing a statin to placebo or to diet alone. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: We found 26 potentially eligible studies, of which we included nine randomized placebo-controlled studies (1177 participants). In general, the intervention and follow-up time was short (median 24 weeks; range from six weeks to two years). Statins reduced the mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration at all time points (high-quality evidence). There may be little or no difference in liver function (serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, as well as creatinine kinase concentrations) between treated and placebo groups at any time point (low-quality evidence). There may be little or no difference in myopathy (as measured in change in creatinine levels) (low-quality evidence) or clinical adverse events (moderate-quality evidence) with statins compared to placebo. One study on simvastatin showed that this may slightly improve flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery (low-quality evidence), and on pravastatin for two years may have induced a regression in carotid intima media thickness (low-quality evidence). No studies reported rhabdomyolysis (degeneration of skeletal muscle tissue) or death due to rhabdomyolysis, quality of life or compliance to study medication. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Statin treatment is an effective lipid-lowering therapy in children with familial hypercholesterolemia. Few or no safety issues were identified. Statin treatment seems to be safe in the short term, but long-term safety remains unknown. Children treated with statins should be carefully monitored and followed up by their pediatricians and their care transferred to an adult lipidologist once they reach 18 years of age. Large long-term randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the long-term safety issues of statins.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514285

RESUMO

Mast cells are present in atherosclerotic lesions throughout their development. The process of atherogenesis itself is characterized by infiltration and retention of cholesterol-containing blood-derived low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the intimal layer of the arterial wall, where the particles become modified and ingested by macrophages, resulting in the formation of cholesterol-filled foam cells. Provided the blood-derived high-density lipoproteins (HDL) particles are able to efficiently carry cholesterol from the foam cells back to the circulation, the early lesions may stay stable or even disappear. However, the modified LDL particles also trigger a permanent local inflammatory reaction characterized by the presence of activated macrophages, T cells, and mast cells, which drive lesion progression. Then, the HDL particles become modified and unable to remove cholesterol from the foam cells. Ultimately, the aging foam cells die and form a necrotic lipid core. In such advanced lesions, the lipid core is separated from the circulating blood by a collagenous cap, which may become thin and fragile and susceptible to rupture, so causing an acute atherothrombotic event. Regarding the potential contribution of mast cells in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions, immunohistochemical studies in autopsied human subjects and studies in cell culture systems and in atherosclerotic mouse models have collectively provided evidence that the compounds released by activated mast cells may promote atherogenesis at various steps along the path of lesion development. This review focuses on the presence of activated mast cells in human atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, some of the molecular mechanisms potentially governing activation and effector functions of mast cells in such lesions are presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Mastócitos/patologia , Animais , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Humanos
19.
Atheroscler Suppl ; 39: e1-e8, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451336
20.
Pharmacol Ther ; 199: 91-110, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877022

RESUMO

Mast cells are tissue-resident cells, which have been proposed to participate in various inflammatory diseases, among them the cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). For mast cells to be able to contribute to an inflammatory process, they need to be activated to exocytose their cytoplasmic secretory granules. The granules contain a vast array of highly bioactive effector molecules, the neutral protease tryptase being the most abundant protein among them. The released tryptase may act locally in the inflamed cardiac or vascular tissue, so contributing directly to the pathogenesis of CVDs. Moreover, a fraction of the released tryptase reaches the systemic circulation, thereby serving as a biomarker of mast cell activation. Actually, increased levels of circulating tryptase have been found to associate with CVDs. Here we review the biological relevance of the circulating tryptase as a biomarker of mast cell activity in CVDs, with special emphasis on the relationship between activation of mast cells in their tissue microenvironments and the pathophysiological pathways of CVDs. Based on the available in vitro and in vivo studies, we highlight the potential molecular mechanisms by which tryptase may contribute to the pathogenesis of CVDs. Finally, the synthetic and natural inhibitors of tryptase are reviewed for their potential utility as therapeutic agents in CVDs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Mastócitos/enzimologia , Triptases/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Mastócitos/fisiologia , Triptases/antagonistas & inibidores , Triptases/química
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