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1.
Hemodial Int ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034069

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA) hyporesposiveness has been associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, the impact of decline of residual kidney function (RKF) on ESA hyporesposiveness has not been adequately elucidated among patients receiving HD. METHODS: The associations of RKF decline with erythropoietin resistance index (ERI; average weekly ESA dose [units])/post-dialysis body weight [kg]/hemoglobin [g/dL]) were retrospectively examined across four strata of annual change in RKF (residual renal urea clearance [KRU] < -3.0, -3.0 to <-1.5, -1.5 to <0, ≥0 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year; urinary volume < -600, -600 to<-300, -300 to <0, ≥0 mL/day per year) using logistic regression models adjusted for clinical characteristics and laboratory variables in 5239 incident HD patients in a large US dialysis organization between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011. FINDINGS: The median values of the annual change in KRU and urinary volume were -1.2 (interquartile range [IQR]: -2.8 to 0.1) mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and -250 (IQR: -600 to 100) mL/day per year. A faster KRU decline in the first year of HD was associated with higher odds for ESA hyporesponsiveness: KRU decline of <-3.0, -3.0 to <-1.5, and -1.5 to <0/min/1.73 m2 per year were associated with adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 2.07 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.66-2.58), 1.54 (95%CI: 1.28-1.85), and 1.26 (95%CI: 1.07-1.49), respectively (reference: ≥0 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year). These associations were consistent across strata of baseline KRU, age, sex, race, diabetes, congestive heart failure, hemoglobin, and serum albumin. Sensitivity analyses using urinary volume as another index of RKF showed consistent associations. DISCUSSION: A faster RKF decline during the first year of dialysis was associated with ESA hyporesponsiveness and low hemoglobin levels among incident HD patients.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constipation is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly among those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), partly due to their dietary restrictions, comorbidities and medications. Laxatives are typically used for constipation management; however, little is known about laxative use and its associated factors in patients with advanced CKD transitioning to ESRD. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort of 102 477 US veterans transitioning to dialysis between October 2007 and March 2015, we examined the proportion of patients who filled a prescription for any type of laxative within each 6-month period over 36 months pre- and post-transition to ESRD. Factors associated with laxative use during the last 1-year pre-ESRD period were identified by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The proportion of patients prescribed laxatives increased as patients progressed to ESRD, peaking at 37.1% in the 6 months immediately following ESRD transition, then remaining fairly stable throughout the post-ESRD transition period. Among laxative users, stool softeners were the most commonly prescribed (∼30%), followed by hyperosmotics (∼20%), stimulants (∼10%), bulk formers (∼3%), chloride channel activator (<1%) and several combinations of these. The use of anticoagulants, oral iron supplements, non-opioid analgesics, antihistamines and opioid analgesics were among the factors independently associated with pre-ESRD laxative use. CONCLUSION: The use of laxatives increased considerably as patients neared transition to ESRD, likely mirroring the increasing burden of drug-induced constipation during the ESRD transition period. Findings may provide novel insight into better management strategies to alleviate constipation symptoms and reduce medication requirements in patients with advanced CKD.

3.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010357

RESUMO

RATIONAL & OBJECTIVE: ß-blockers are recommended for heart failure (HF) patients but their benefit in the dialysis population is uncertain. ß-blockers are heterogeneous including with respect to their removal by hemodialysis. We sought to evaluate whether ß-blocker use and their dialyzability characteristics were associated with early mortality among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with HF who transitioned to dialysis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Adults patients with CKD (age ≥ 18 years) and HF who initiated either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis during 1/1/2007-6/30/2016 within an integrated health system were included. EXPOSURES: Patients were considered treated with ß-blockers if they had a quantity of drug dispensed covering the dialysis transition date. OUTCOMES: All-cause mortality within 6 months and 1 year, or hospitalization within 6 months after transition to maintenance dialysis ANALYTIC APPROACH: Inverse probability of treatment weights using the propensity scores was used to balance covariates between treatment groups. Cox proportional hazard analysis and logistic regression were used to investigate the association between ß-blocker use and study outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 3,503 patients were included in the study. There were 2,115 (60.4%) patients on ß-blockers at transition. Compared to non-users, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality within 6 months was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.65-0.94) among users of any ß-blocker, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53-0.88) among users of metoprolol at transition. There were no observed differences in all-cause or cardiovascular-related hospitalization. LIMITATIONS: The observational nature of our study could not fully account for residual confounding. CONCLUSION: ß-blockers were associated with a lower rate of mortality among incident hemodialysis patients with HF. Similar associations were not observed for hospitalizations within the first 6 months following transition to dialysis.

4.
J Ren Nutr ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Constipation is highly prevalent in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), due in part to dietary (e.g., fiber) restrictions, and is often managed by laxatives; however, the effect of laxative use on kidney function in advanced CKD remains unclear. We aimed to examine the association of laxative use with longitudinal change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with advanced CKD. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a retrospective cohort of 43,622 US veterans transitioning to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from 2007 to 2015, we estimated changes in eGFR (slope) by linear mixed-effects models using ≥2 available outpatient eGFR measurements during the 2-year period before transition to ESRD. The association of laxative use with change in eGFR was examined by testing the interaction of time-varying laxative use with time for eGFR slope in the mixed-effects models with adjustment for fixed and time-varying confounders. RESULTS: Laxatives were prescribed in 49.8% of patients during the last 2-year pre-ESRD period. In the crude model, time-varying laxative use was modestly associated with more progressive eGFR decline compared with non-use of laxatives (median [interquartile interval] -7.1 [-11.9, -4.3] vs. -6.8 [-11.6, -4.0] mL/min/1.73 m2/year, P < .001). After multivariable adjustment, a faster eGFR decline associated with laxative use (vs. non-use of laxatives) remained statistically significant, although the between-group difference in eGFR slope was minimal (median [interquartile interval] -8.8 [-12.9, -5.9] vs. -8.6 [-12.6, -5.6] mL/min/1.73 m2/year, P < .001). The significant association was no longer evident across different types of laxatives (i.e., stool softeners, stimulants, or hyperosmotics). CONCLUSIONS: There was a clinically negligible association of laxative use with change in eGFR during the last 2-year pre-ESRD period, suggesting the renal safety profile of laxatives in advanced CKD patients.

5.
Transpl Int ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935416

RESUMO

The kidney donor profile index (KDPI) defines an hepatitis C (HCV) positive donor based on HCV antibody (Ab) and/or nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) positivity, with donors who are not actively infected (Ab+/NAT-) also classified as HCV positive. From Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients dataset, we identified HCV-negative recipients, who received a kidney transplant from HCV Ab+/NAT- (n = 116) and HCV Ab-/NAT- (n = 25 574) donor kidneys. We then compared recipients' estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 6 months in matched cohorts, using combined exact matching (based on KDPI) and propensity score matching. We created two separate matched cohorts: for the first cohort, we used the allocation KDPI, while for the second cohort we used an optimal KDPI, where the HCV component of KDPI was considered negative in Ab+/NAT- patients. The mean ± SD age of the allocation KDPI-matched cohort at baseline was 59 ± 10 years, 69% were male, 61% were white. Recipients' eGFR at 6 months after transplantation was significantly higher in the HCV Ab+/NAT- group compared to the HCV Ab-/NAT- group (61.1 ± 17.9 vs. 55.6 ± 18.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 , P = 0.011) in the allocation KDPI-matched cohort, while it was similar (61.8 ± 19.5 vs. 62.1 ± 20.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 , P = 0.9) in the optimal KDPI-matched cohort. Recipients who received HCV Ab positive, but NAT-negative donor kidneys did not experience worse 6-month eGFR than correctly matched HCV Ab-/NAT- recipients.

6.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 407, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of dialysis patients has been little studied in developing countries and economies in transition. We examined the prevalence, incidence and mortality rate of dialysis patients in Kazakhstan, via aggregation and utilization of large-scale administrative healthcare data. METHODS: The registry data of 8898 patients receiving dialysis therapy between 2014 and 2018 years were extracted from the Unified National Electronic Health System (UNEHS) and linked with the national population registry of Kazakhstan. We provide descriptive statistics of demographic, comorbidity and dialysis-related characteristics. RESULTS: Among all patients undergoing maintenance dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), there were 3941 (44%) females and 4957 (56%) males. 98.7% of patients received hemodialysis and 1.3% peritoneal dialysis. The majority of the patients (63%) were ethnic Kazakhs, 18% were Russians and 19% were of other ethnicities. The prevalence and incidence rate in 2014 were 135.2 and 68.9 per million population (PMP), respectively, which were different in 2018 [350.2 and 94.9 PMP, respectively]. Overall mortality rate among dialysis patients reduced from 1667/1000 patient-years [95%Confidence Interval (CI): 1473-1886] (PY) in 2014 to 710/1000PY [95%CI: 658-767] in 2018. We observed 13% lower crude survival probability in females compared to males and in older patients compared to younger ones. Russian ethnicity had 58% higher risk of death, while other ethnicities had 34% higher risk of death compared to in those of Kazakh ethnicity. CONCLUSION: We describe for the first time in Kazakhstan an increase in the prevalence and incidence of ESRD on dialysis, while mortality rate decreased over time, during 2014-2018. We observed statistically significant lower survival probability in female dialysis patients compared to males, in older patients compared to younger ones, and in patients of Russian ethnicity compared to Kazakh.

7.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800844

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Approximately 11% of people with kidney failure worldwide are treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This study examined PD use and practice patterns across the globe. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Stakeholders including clinicians, policymakers, and patient representatives in 182 countries convened by the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) between July and September 2018. OUTCOMES: PD use, availability, accessibility, affordability, delivery and reporting of quality outcome measures. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Descriptive statistics RESULTS: Responses were received from 160 (88%) countries; 313 participants (nephrologist n=257 [82%], non-nephrologist physician n=22 [7%], other health professional n=6 [2%], administrator/policy maker/civil servant n=17 [5%], other n=11 [4%]); from 156 (86%) countries responded to questions about PD. Median PD use was 38.1 per million population. PD was not available in 30 countries (19%), particularly in Africa (20/41) and other low-income (15/22) countries. In 69% of countries, PD was the initial dialysis modality for ≤10% of patients with newly diagnosed kidney failure. Patients receiving PD were expected to pay 1-25% of treatment costs and higher (>75%) co-payments were more common in South Asia and low-income countries. Average exchange volumes were adequate (defined as 3-4 exchanges/day or equivalent on automated PD) in 72% of countries. PD quality outcome monitoring and reporting were variable. Most countries did not measure patient-reported PD outcomes. LIMITATIONS: Low responses from policymakers; limited ability to provide more in-depth explanations underpinning outcomes from each country due to lack of granular data; lack of objective data. CONCLUSIONS: Large inter- and intra-regional disparities exist in PD availability, accessibility, affordability, delivery and reporting of quality outcome measures around the world, with the greatest gaps observed in Africa and South Asia.

8.
J Ren Nutr ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737016

RESUMO

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the National Kidney Foundation collaborated to provide an update to the Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) for nutrition in chronic kidney disease (CKD). These guidelines provide a valuable update to many aspects of the nutrition care process. They include changes in the recommendations for nutrition screening and assessment, macronutrients, and targets for electrolytes and minerals. The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism assembled a special review panel of experts and evaluated these recommendations prior to public review. As one of the highlights of the CPG, the recommended dietary protein intake range for patients with diabetic kidney disease is 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day, whereas for CKD patients without diabetes it is 0.55-0.6 g/kg/day. The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism endorses the CPG with the suggestion that clinicians may consider a more streamlined target of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day, regardless of CKD etiology, while striving to achieve intakes closer to 0.6 g/kg/day. For implementation of these guidelines, it will be important that all stakeholders work to detect kidney disease early to ensure effective primary and secondary prevention. Once identified, patients should be referred to registered dietitians or the region-specific equivalent, for individualized medical nutrition therapy to slow the progression of CKD. As we turn our attention to the new CPG, we as the renal nutrition community should come together to strengthen the evidence base by standardizing outcomes, increasing collaboration, and funding well-designed observational studies and randomized controlled trials with nutritional and dietary interventions in patients with CKD.

9.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844546

RESUMO

National data on patient characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) solid organ transplant (SOT) patients are limited. We analyzed data from a multicenter cohort study of adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at 68 hospitals across the United States from March 4 to May 8, 2020. From 4153 patients, we created a propensity score matched cohort of 386 patients, including 98 SOT patients and 288 non-SOT patients. We used a binomial generalized linear model (log-binomial model) to examine the association of SOT status with death and other clinical outcomes. Among the 386 patients, the median age was 60 years, 72% were male, and 41% were black. Death within 28 days of ICU admission was similar in SOT and non-SOT patients (40% and 43%, respectively; relative risk [RR] 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-1.22). Other outcomes and requirement for organ support including receipt of mechanical ventilation, development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and receipt of vasopressors were also similar between groups. There was a trend toward higher risk of acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy in SOT vs. non-SOT patients (37% vs. 27%; RR [95% CI]: 1.34 [0.97-1.85]). Death and organ support requirement were similar between SOT and non-SOT critically ill patients with COVID-19.

10.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800843

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Hemodialysis (HD) is the most common form of kidney replacement therapy. This study aimed to examine the use, availability, accessibility, affordability, and quality of HD care worldwide. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Stakeholders (clinicians, policy makers, and consumer representatives) in 182 countries were convened by the International Society of Nephrology from July to September 2018. OUTCOMES: Use, availability, accessibility, affordability, and quality of HD care. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Overall, representatives from 160 (88%) countries participated. Median country-specific use of maintenance HD was 298.4 (IQR, 80.5-599.4) per million population (pmp). Global median HD use among incident patients with kidney failure was 98.0 (IQR, 81.5-140.8) pmp and median number of HD centers was 4.5 (IQR, 1.2-9.9) pmp. Adequate HD services (3-4 hours 3 times weekly) were generally available in 27% of low-income countries. Home HD was generally available in 36% of high-income countries. 32% of countries performed monitoring of patient-reported outcomes; 61%, monitoring of small-solute clearance; 60%, monitoring of bone mineral markers; 51%, monitoring of technique survival; and 60%, monitoring of patient survival. At initiation of maintenance dialysis, only 5% of countries used an arteriovenous access in almost all patients. Vascular access education was suboptimal, funding for vascular access procedures was not uniform, and copayments were greater in countries with lower levels of income. Patients in 23% of the low-income countries had to pay >75% of HD costs compared with patients in only 4% of high-income countries. LIMITATIONS: A cross-sectional survey with possibility of response bias, social desirability bias, and limited data collection preventing in-depth analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, findings reveal substantial variations in global HD use, availability, accessibility, quality, and affordability worldwide, with the lowest use evident in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

11.
Am J Nephrol ; 51(9): 715-725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies show there is a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients suffering from chronic pain. While opiates are frequently prescribed in non-dialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD) patients, there may be toxic accumulation of metabolites, particularly among those progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We examined the association of opiate versus other analgesic use during the pre-ESRD period with post-ESRD mortality among NDD-CKD patients transitioning to dialysis. METHODS: We examined a national cohort of US Veterans with NDD-CKD who transitioned to dialysis over 2007-14. Among patients who received ≥1 prescription(s) in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System within 1 year of transitioning to dialysis, we examined associations of pre-ESRD analgesic status, defined as opiate, gabapentin/pregabalin, other non-opiate analgesic, versus no analgesic use, with post-ESRD mortality using multivariable Cox models. RESULTS: Among 57,764 patients who met eligibility criteria, pre-ESRD opiate and gabapentin/pregabalin use were each associated with higher post-ESRD mortality (ref: no analgesic use), whereas non-opiate analgesic use was not associated with higher mortality in expanded case-mix analyses: HRs (95% CIs) 1.07 (1.05-1.10), 1.07 (1.01-1.13), and 1.00 (0.94-1.06), respectively. In secondary analyses, increasing frequency of opiate prescriptions exceeding 1 opiate prescription in the 1-year pre-ESRD period was associated with incrementally higher post-ESRD mortality (ref: no analgesic use). CONCLUSIONS: In NDD-CKD patients transitioning to dialysis, pre-ESRD opiate and gabapentin/pregabalin use were associated with higher post-ESRD mortality, whereas non-opiate analgesic use was not associated with death. There was a graded association between increasing frequency of pre-ESRD opiate use and incrementally higher mortality.

12.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730135

RESUMO

National data on patient characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) solid organ transplant (SOT) patients are limited. We analyzed data from a multicenter cohort study of adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at 68 hospitals across the United States from March 4 to May 8, 2020. From 4153 patients, we created a propensity score matched cohort of 386 patients, including 98 SOT patients and 288 non-SOT patients. We used a binomial generalized linear model (log-binomial model) to examine the association of SOT status with death and other clinical outcomes. Among the 386 patients, the median age was 60 years, 72% were male, and 41% were black. Death within 28 days of ICU admission was similar in SOT and non-SOT patients (40% and 43%, respectively; relative risk [RR] 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-1.22). Other outcomes and requirement for organ support including receipt of mechanical ventilation, development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and receipt of vasopressors were also similar between groups. There was a trend toward higher risk of acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy in SOT vs. non-SOT patients (37% vs. 27%; RR [95% CI]: 1.34 [0.97-1.85]). Death and organ support requirement were similar between SOT and non-SOT critically ill patients with COVID-19.

13.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771650

RESUMO

Phosphate binders are among the most common medications prescribed to patients with kidney failure on dialysis and are often used in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Clinical practice guidelines suggest "lowering elevated phosphate levels towards the normal range" in CKD G3a through kidney failure on dialysis with possible strategies including dietary phosphate restriction or use of binders. Additionally, guidelines suggest restricting the use of oral elemental calcium often contained in phosphate binders. Nutrition guidelines in CKD suggest <800-1,000 mg calcium daily, while CKD bone and mineral disorder guidelines do not provide clear targets, but <1,500 mg in kidney failure has been previously recommended. Many different classes of phosphate binders are now available, and clinical trials have not definitively demonstrated superiority of any class of phosphate binders over another with regards to clinical outcomes. Use of phosphate binders contributes substantially to patients' pill burden and out of pocket costs, and many have side effects. This has led to uncertainty regarding the use of and best choice of phosphate binders for patients with CKD or kidney failure. In this controversies perspective, we discuss the evidence base around binder use in CKD and kidney failure with a focus on comparisons of available binders.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610641

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects >10% of the adult population. Each year, approximately 120,000 Americans develop end-stage kidney disease and initiate dialysis, which is costly and associated with functional impairments, worse health-related quality of life, and high early-mortality rates, exceeding 20% in the first year. Recent declarations by the World Kidney Day and the U.S. Government Executive Order seek to implement strategies that reduce the burden of kidney failure by slowing CKD progression and controlling uremia without dialysis. Pragmatic dietary interventions may have a role in improving CKD outcomes and preventing or delaying dialysis initiation. Evidence suggests that a patient-centered plant-dominant low-protein diet (PLADO) of 0.6­0.8 g/kg/day composed of >50% plant-based sources, administered by dietitians trained in non-dialysis CKD care, is promising and consistent with the precision nutrition. The scientific premise of the PLADO stems from the observations that high protein diets with high meat intake not only result in higher cardiovascular disease risk but also higher CKD incidence and faster CKD progression due to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. Meat intake increases production of nitrogenous end-products, worsens uremia, and may increase the risk of constipation with resulting hyperkalemia from the typical low fiber intake. A plant-dominant, fiber-rich, low-protein diet may lead to favorable alterations in the gut microbiome, which can modulate uremic toxin generation and slow CKD progression, along with reducing cardiovascular risk. PLADO is a heart-healthy, safe, flexible, and feasible diet that could be the centerpiece of a conservative and preservative CKD-management strategy that challenges the prevailing dialysis-centered paradigm.

15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(16): 16357-16367, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661200

RESUMO

Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) display phenotypic features of premature biological aging, characterized by disproportionately high morbidity and mortality at a younger age. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity, a master regulator of antioxidative responses, declines with age and is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related disorders; however, little is known about the association between Nrf2 and premature biological aging in ESRD patients. In a cross-sectional pilot cohort of 34 ESRD patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis, we measured the expression of Nrf2 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A, or p16INK4a, a biomarker of biological aging) genes in whole blood and examined the association of Nrf2 with CDKN2A expression, using Spearman's rank correlation and multivariable linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounders. There was a significant negative correlation between Nrf2 and CDKN2A expression (rho=-0.51, P=0.002); while no significant correlation was found between Nrf2 expression and chronological age (rho=-0.02, P=0.91). After multivariable adjustment, Nrf2 expression remained significantly and negatively associated with CDKN2A expression (ß coefficient=-1.51, P=0.01), independent of chronological age, gender, race, and diabetes status. These findings suggest a potential contribution of Nrf2 dysfunction to the development of premature biological aging and its related morbidities in ESRD patients.

16.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(6): 426-435, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although measuring albuminuria is the preferred method for defining and staging chronic kidney disease (CKD), total urine protein or dipstick protein is often measured instead. OBJECTIVE: To develop equations for converting urine protein-creatinine ratio (PCR) and dipstick protein to urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and to test their diagnostic accuracy in CKD screening and staging. DESIGN: Individual participant-based meta-analysis. SETTING: 12 research and 21 clinical cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: 919 383 adults with same-day measures of ACR and PCR or dipstick protein. MEASUREMENTS: Equations to convert urine PCR and dipstick protein to ACR were developed and tested for purposes of CKD screening (ACR ≥30 mg/g) and staging (stage A2: ACR of 30 to 299 mg/g; stage A3: ACR ≥300 mg/g). RESULTS: Median ACR was 14 mg/g (25th to 75th percentile of cohorts, 5 to 25 mg/g). The association between PCR and ACR was inconsistent for PCR values less than 50 mg/g. For higher PCR values, the PCR conversion equations demonstrated moderate sensitivity (91%, 75%, and 87%) and specificity (87%, 89%, and 98%) for screening (ACR >30 mg/g) and classification into stages A2 and A3, respectively. Urine dipstick categories of trace or greater, trace to +, and ++ for screening for ACR values greater than 30 mg/g and classification into stages A2 and A3, respectively, had moderate sensitivity (62%, 36%, and 78%) and high specificity (88%, 88%, and 98%). For individual risk prediction, the estimated 2-year 4-variable kidney failure risk equation using predicted ACR from PCR had discrimination similar to that of using observed ACR. LIMITATION: Diverse methods of ACR and PCR quantification were used; measurements were not always performed in the same urine sample. CONCLUSION: Urine ACR is the preferred measure of albuminuria; however, if ACR is not available, predicted ACR from PCR or urine dipstick protein may help in CKD screening, staging, and prognosis. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and National Kidney Foundation.

17.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(10): 1786-1793, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at dialysis initiation, known as earlier start of dialysis, is often a surrogate of poor outcomes including higher mortality. We hypothesized that earlier dialysis initiation is associated with a faster decline in residual kidney function (RKF), which is also associated with higher mortality among incident hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: In a cohort of 4911 incident HD patients who initiated HD over a 5-year period (July 2001 to June 2006), we examined the trajectories of RKF, ascertained by renal urea clearance (KRU), over 2 years after HD initiation across strata of eGFR at HD initiation using case-mix adjusted linear mixed-effect models. We then investigated the association between annual change in RKF and mortality using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) baseline KRU was 2.20 (1.13-3.63) mL/min/1.73 m2. The decline of KRU was faster in patients who initiated HD at higher eGFR. The relative changes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in KRU at 1 year after HD initiation were -1.29 (-1.28 to -1.30), -1.17 (-1.16 to -1.18), -1.11 (-1.10 to -1.12) and -0.78 (-0.78 to -0.79) mL/min/1.73 m2 in the eGFR categories of ≥10, 8-<10, 6-<8 and <6 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The faster decline of KRU at 1 year was associated with higher all-cause mortality (reference: ≥0 mL/min/1.73 m2): hazard ratios (95% CIs) for change in KRU of -1.5 to <0, -3 to less than -1.5 and less than -3 mL/min/1.73 m2 were 1.20 (1.03-1.40), 1.42 (1.17-1.72) and 1.88 (1.47-2.40), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The faster decline of RKF happens with earlier dialysis initiation and is associated with higher all-cause mortality.

18.
Nephron ; 144(7): 321-330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434210

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the effect of posttransplant opioid use on adherence to immunosuppressant therapy (IST) among adult renal transplant recipients (RTRs). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between opioid use and IST adherence among adult RTRs during the first year posttransplant. METHODS: Longitudinal data were analyzed from a retrospective cohort study examining US veterans undergoing renal transplant from October 1, 2007, through March 31, 2015. Data were collected from the US Renal Data System, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Data (Medicare Part D), and Veterans Affairs pharmacy records. Dose of opioid prescriptions was collected and divided based on annual morphine milligram equivalent within a year of transplant. Proportion of days covered of greater than or equal to 80% indicated adherence to tacrolimus. Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: A study population of 1,229 RTRs included 258 with no opioid use, while 971 opioid users were identified within the first year after transplantation. Compared to RTRs without opioid usage, RTRs with opioid usage had a lower probability of being adherent to tacrolimus in unadjusted logistic regression (odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]): 0.22 [0.07-0.72]) and adjusted logistic regression (OR [95% CI]: 0.11 [0.03-0.44]). These patterns generally remained consistent in unadjusted and adjusted main and sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate RTRs who use prescription opioids during the first year posttransplant, regardless of the dosage/amount, are less likely to be adherent to tacrolimus. Future studies are needed to better understand underlying causes of the association between opioid use and tacrolimus nonadherence.

19.
Am J Med ; 133(9): 1065-1073.e3, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARB) improve predialysis outcomes; however, ACEi/ARB are underused in patients transitioning to dialysis. We examined the association of different patterns of predialysis ACEi/ARB use with postdialysis survival and whether potentially modifiable adverse events are associated with lower predialysis ACEi/ARB use. METHODS: This was a historic cohort study of 34,676 US veterans with, and 10,690 without, ACEi/ARB exposure in the 3-year predialysis period who subsequently transitioned to dialysis between 2007 and 2014. Associations of different patterns of predialysis ACEi/ARB use with postdialysis all-cause mortality and with predialysis acute kidney injury and hyperkalemia events were examined using multivariable adjusted regression analyses. RESULTS: The mean age of the cohort was 70 years, 98% were males and 27% were African Americans. Compared to ACEi/ARB nonuse, continuous ACEi/ARB use was associated with lower postdialysis all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.87; 0.83-0.92). In analyses modeling the duration of predialysis ACEi/ARB use, ACEi/ARB use of 50%-74% and ≥75% were associated with lower mortality compared to nonuse (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval 0.96, 0.92-0.99 and 0.91; 0.88-0.94, respectively), whereas no increase in postdialysis survival was observed with shorter predialysis ACEi/ARB use. Predialysis acute kidney injury was associated with shorter duration (<50%) of ACEi/ARB use and hyperkalemia was associated with interrupted and ACEi/ARB use of <75%. CONCLUSIONS: Longer predialysis ACEi/ARB exposure was associated with lower postdialysis mortality. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the benefits of strategies enabling uninterrupted predialysis ACEi/ARB use.

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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160285
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