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1.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(10): 2617-2628, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622101

RESUMO

Introduction: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) experience disproportionately high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for the circulating microbiome in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about its association with premature cardiovascular mortality in ESRD. Methods: In a pilot case-control study of 17 hemodialysis patients who died of a cardiovascular event and 17 matched hemodialysis controls who remained alive during a median follow-up of 2.0 years, we compared the levels and composition of circulating microbiome, including Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi, in serum samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 16S or Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing, respectively. Associations of the circulating cell-free microbial signatures with clinical parameters and cardiovascular death were examined using the Spearman rank correlation and multivariable conditional logistic regression, respectively. Results: Both 16S and ITS rRNA were detectable in all (except 3 for ITS) examined patients' serum samples. Despite no significant difference in 16S rRNA levels and α diversity between cases and controls, taxonomic analysis demonstrated differential community membership between groups, with significantly greater Actinobacteria and less Proteobacteria observed in cases than in controls at the phylum level. Proportions of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla were significantly correlated with plasma nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) levels (rho = -0.41 and 0.42, P = 0.015 and 0.013, respectively) and marginally associated with risk of cardiovascular death (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] = 1.12 [0.98-1.29] and 0.88 [0.76-1.02] for 1% increase, respectively). Conclusion: Alterations of the circulating cell-free microbial signatures may be associated with higher premature cardiovascular mortality in ESRD.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum globulin is a major component of total protein and can be elevated in inflammatory disease states. While inflammation is common in hemodialysis patients and associated with mortality and morbidity, the association between serum globulin and mortality have never been examined in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort of 104,164 incident hemodialysis patients treated by a large dialysis organization from 2007 to 2011, we explored the association between baseline serum globulin, A/G ratio and serum protein levels and all-cause, cardiovascular and infection-related mortality with adjustments for demographic variables and laboratory markers of malnutrition and inflammation using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Patients with globulin concentration >3.8 g/dL had higher all-cause and infection-related mortality risk (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.11, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 1.06, 1.16 and HR 1.28, 95%CI: 1.09, 1.51; respectively) in the fully adjusted model when compared to the reference group of 3.0-<3.2 g/dL. In addition, patients with A/G ratio <0.75 had a 45% higher all-cause mortality hazard (HR 1.45, 95%CI: 1.38, 1.52) and patients with total serum protein <5.5 g/dL had a 34% higher risk of death (HR: 1.34, 95%CI: 1.27, 1.42) when compared to the reference (A/G ratio 1.05-<1.15 and total serum protein 6.5-<7 g/dL, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among incident hemodialysis patients, higher globulin level was associated with higher mortality risk independent of other markers of malnutrition and inflammation, including albumin. Lower A/G ratio and serum protein was also associated with higher mortality hazard. The mechanisms that contribute to elevated serum globulin should be further explored.

3.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 27(10): 1403-1415, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for dyskalemias, which may induce arrhythmias that require immediate emergent or hospital care. The association of dyskalemias with short-term hospital/emergency room (ER) visits in advanced CKD is understudied. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of dyskalemias with short-term hospital/ER visits in an advanced CKD population. METHODS: From among 102,477 US veterans transitioning to dialysis from 2007 to 2015, we identified 21,366 patients with 2 predialysis outpatient eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73m2 90-365 days apart (with the second eGFR serving as the index date) and at least 1 potassium (K) in the baseline period (1 year before index) and 1 outpatient K (oK) in the follow-up (1 year after the index but before dialysis initiation). We examined the association of time-varying hypokalemia (K < 3.5 mEq/L) and hyperkalemia (K > 5.5 mEq/L) vs referent (3.5-5.5 mEq/L) with separate hospital and ER visits within 2 calendar days following each oK value over the 1-year follow-up period from the index. We used generalized estimating equations with binary distribution and logit link to model the exposure-outcome relationship adjusted for various confounders. We conducted various subgroup and sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our results. RESULTS: Over the 1-year follow-up, 125,266 oK measurements were observed, of which 6.8% and 3.7% were classified as hyper- and hypokalemia, respectively. In the multivariable-adjusted model, hyperkalemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.88-2.21) and hypokalemia (aOR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.48-1.86) were associated with significantly higher odds of hospital visits. Similarly, hyperkalemia (aOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.65-2.03) and hypokalemia (aOR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.07-1.44) were associated with significantly higher odds of ER visits. Results were robust to subgroups and sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced CKD, dyskalemias are associated with higher risk of hospital/ER visits. Interventions targeted at lowering the risk of dyskalemias might help in reducing the health care utilization and associated economic burden among patients with advanced CKD experiencing dyskalemias. DISCLOSURES: This study was supported by grant 5U01DK102163 from the National Institute of Health (NIH) to Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh and Csaba P. Kovesdy and by resources from the US Department of Veterans Affairs. The data reported here have been supplied in part by the United States Renal Data System (USRDS). Support for VA/CMS data were provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Office of Research and Development, Health Services Research and Development, VA Information Resource Center (project numbers SDR 02-237 and 98-004). Opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the opinion of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the funding institution. Kovesdy has received honoraria from Akebia, Ardelyx, Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Cara Therapeutics, Reata, and Tricida unrelated to this study. Kalantar-Zadeh has received honoraria and/or support from Abbott, Abbvie, ACI Clinical (Cara Therapeutics), Akebia, Alexion, Amgen, American Society of Nephrology, Astra-Zeneca, Aveo, BBraun, Chugai, Cytokinetics, Daiichi, DaVita, Fresenius, Genentech, Haymarket Media, Hofstra Medical School, International Federation of Kidney Foundations, International Society of Hemodialysis, International Society of Renal Nutrition & Metabolism, Japanese Society of Dialysis Therapy, Hospira, Kabi, Keryx, Kissei, Novartis, OPKO, National Institutes of Health, National Kidney Foundations, Pfizer, Regulus, Relypsa, Resverlogix, Dr Schaer, Sandoz, Sanofi, Shire, Veterans Affairs, Vifor, UpToDate, and ZS-Pharma, unrelated to this study. Gatwood has received research support from AstraZeneca, Merck & Co., and GlaxoSmithKline unrelated to this study. Obi has received research support from Relypsa/Vifor Pharma Inc. The remaining authors declare that they have no relevant financial interests.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597156

RESUMO

Background: The current social and legal landscape is likely to foster the medicinal and recreational use of cannabis. Synthetic cannabinoid use is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in case reports; however, the association between natural cannabis use and AKI risk in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Materials and Methods: From a nationally representative cohort of 102,477 U.S. veterans transitioning to dialysis between 2007 and 2015, we identified 2215 patients with advanced CKD who had undergone urine toxicology (UTOX) tests within a year before dialysis initiation and had inpatient serial serum creatinine levels measured within 7 days after their UTOX test. The exposure of interest was cannabis use compared with no use as ascertained by the UTOX test. We examined the association of this exposure with AKI using logistic regression and inverse probability of treatment weighting with extensive adjustment for potential confounders. Results: The mean age of the overall cohort was 61 years; 97% were males, 51% were African Americans, 97% had hypertension, 76% had hyperlipidemia, and 75% were diabetic. AKI occurred in 56% of the cohort, and in multivariable-adjusted analysis, cannabis use (when compared with no substance use) was not associated with significantly higher odds of AKI (odds ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.38-1.87; p=0.7). These results were robust to various sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: In this observational study examining patients with advanced CKD, cannabis use was not associated with AKI risk. Additional studies are needed to characterize the impact of cannabis use on risk of kidney disease and injury.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte disturbances in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients and has been shown to be associated with higher mortality risk. However, the relationship between hyponatremia during late-stage CKD and the risk of poor outcomes after ESKD transition is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including 32,257 US veterans transitioning to ESKD from October 1, 2007 to March 30, 2015. We evaluated adjusted associations between the 3-month averaged pre-transition to ESKD serum sodium and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included cardiovascular (CV) mortality, infection-related mortalities, and hospitalization rate. RESULTS: Cohort mean±SD serum sodium was 139 ± 3 mEq/L, mean age was 67 ± 11 years, 98% were male, and 32% were African American. Over a median follow-up of 702 days (296, 1301) there were 17,162 deaths. Compared to the reference of 135-<144 mEq/L, the lowest serum sodium group (<130 mEq/L) had a 54% higher all-cause mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34, 1.76) in the fully adjusted model. Associations were similar for CV and infection-related mortality, and hospitalization outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Hyponatremia prior to ESKD transition is associated with higher risk of all-cause, CV, and infection-related mortalities and hospitalization rates after ESKD transition. Future studies evaluating management of pre-ESKD hyponatremia may be indicated to improve patient outcomes for those transitioning to ESKD.

6.
Contrib Nephrol ; 199: 1-19, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343991

RESUMO

Clinical Background and Epidemiology: Nutrition and obesity are both important and common clinical issues in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Protein-energy wasting predicts adverse clinical outcomes in CKD. Obesity is associated with poor health outcomes. Nutrition management, specifically a protein-restricted diet, has been shown to ameliorate glomerular injury and progressive CKD by reducing glomerular hyperfiltration and hypertension. A protein-restricted diet has favorable metabolic and hemodynamic effects and effects on CKD-mineral bone disease that may favorably impact patients' outcomes. On the other hand, obesity may adversely affect kidney function both directly by placing an increased metabolic demand on the kidneys and indirectly through various humoral mechanisms mediated via adiponectin, leptin, and resistin that lead to hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, abnormal lipid metabolism, activation of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress, and could result in the development of obesity-related glomerulopathy. It is therefore important to raise more awareness of the two clinical issues and promote a healthy lifestyle with proper nutrition and exercise in CKD management. Challenges and Solutions: There are global shortage of dietitians and challenges in accessibility and availability of renal dietitians in many emerging countries as well as lack of reimbursement of dietitians' consultations. Many patients may not have the opportunity to be monitored and reviewed by dieticians on a regular basis. In addition, there are practical challenges in enforcing patients' adherence to a protein-restricted diet. Patients and nephrologists from developed countries may\not appreciate the need to adopt a protein restricted diets as dialysis is readily available. Furthermore, keto-analogues or nutrition supplements are not reimbursed in many parts of the world. Increased government advocacy, prioritization of renal nutrition care, and more trained renal dietitians are required in many parts of the world. More government resource allocation is required to increase renal dietitians' manpower in nephrology centers so to enable multidisciplinary nutrition management in CKD and end-stage kidney disease. On the other hand, prevention and treatment of obesity require lifestyle modifications including calorie restriction and adequate exercise, and they need to be maintained lifelong. Such changes may be difficult in modern societies with the "fast food culture" and increasing prevalence of sedentary lifestyles. Changes in lifestyle may become even more difficult as long-term complications such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease set in, which may further limit patients' mobility. To tackle the obesity epidemic, we need a global action plan to prevent and control non-communicable diseases. We need a concerted population-wide intervention by national governments, health policy planners, and professional organizations to target obesity and CKD by promoting healthy lifestyle factors and healthy diets. Pharmacologic and surgical interventions such as bariatric surgery for obesity require further evaluation in CKD.

8.
J Ren Nutr ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364782

RESUMO

Hyperkalemia (serum K+ >5.0 mmol/L) is commonly observed among patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis and associated with increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Current international guidelines may not reflect the latest evidence on managing hyperkalemia in patients undergoing hemodialysis, and there is a lack of high-quality published studies in this area. This consensus guideline aims to provide recommendations in relation to clinical practice. Available published evidence was evaluated through a systematic literature review, and the nominal group technique was used to develop consensus recommendations from a panel of experienced nephrologists, covering monitoring, dietary restrictions, prescription of K+ binders, and concomitant prescription of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors. Recent studies have shown that K+ binders reduce the incidence of hyperkalemia, but further evidence is needed in areas including whether reduced-K+ diets or treatment with K+ binders improve patient-centered outcomes. Treatment of hyperkalemia in the hemodialysis setting is complex, and decisions need to be tailored for individual patients.

9.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332007

RESUMO

The National Kidney Foundation convened an interdisciplinary international workshop in March 2019 to discuss the potential role of a new class of agents for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD): the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF-PHIs). International experts with expertise in physiology, biochemistry, structural chemistry, translational medicine, and clinical management of anemia participated. Participants reviewed the unmet needs of current anemia treatment, the biology of hypoxia-inducible factor, the pharmacology of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors, and the results of phase 2 clinical trials of HIF-PHIs among patients with CKD, both those treated by dialysis and those not receiving kidney replacement therapy. The results of key phase 3 clinical trials of HIF-PHIs available as of the time of writing are also included in this report, although they appeared after the workshop was completed. Participants in the workshop developed a number of recommendations for further examination of HIF-PHIs, which are summarized in this report and include long-term safety issues, potential benefits, and practical considerations for implementation including patient and provider education.

10.
Am J Nephrol ; 52(7): 539-547, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289468

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypo- and hyperkalemia are associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke. However, this association has not been examined in an advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. METHODS: From among 102,477 US veterans transitioning to dialysis between 2007 and 2015, 21,357 patients with 2 pre-dialysis outpatient estimated glomerular filtration rates <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 90-365 days apart and at least 1 potassium (K) each in the baseline and follow-up period were identified. We separately examined the association of both baseline time-averaged K (chronic exposure) and time-updated K (acute exposure) treated as categorized (hypokalemia [K <3.5 mEq/L] and hyperkalemia [K >5.5 mEq/L] vs. referent [3.5-5.5 mEq/L]) and continuous exposure with time to the first ischemic stroke event prior to dialysis initiation using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. RESULTS: A total of 2,638 (12.4%) ischemic stroke events (crude event rate 41.9 per 1,000 patient years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 40.4-43.6) over a median (Q1-Q3) follow-up time of 2.56 (1.59-3.89) years were observed. The baseline time-averaged K category of hypokalemia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 95% CI: 1.35, 1.01-1.81) was marginally associated with a significantly higher risk of ischemic stroke. However, time-updated hyperkalemia was associated with a significantly lower risk of ischemic stroke (aHR, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.68-0.98). The exposure-outcome relationship remained consistent when using continuous K levels for both the exposures. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: In patients with advanced CKD, hypokalemia (chronic exposure) was associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke, whereas hyperkalemia (acute exposure) was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. Further studies in this population are needed to explore the mechanisms underlying these associations.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292479

RESUMO

Hyperkalemia is a common and potentially life-threatening complication following kidney transplantation that can be caused by a composite of factors such as medications, delayed graft function, and possibly potassium intake. Managing hyperkalemia after kidney transplantation is associated with increased morbidity and healthcare costs, and can be a cause of multiple hospital admissions and barriers to patient discharge. Medications used routinely after kidney transplantation are considered the most frequent culprit for post-transplant hyperkalemia in recipients with a well-functioning graft. These include calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) prophylactic agents, and antihypertensives (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers). CNIs can cause hyperkalemic renal tubular acidosis. When hyperkalemia develops following transplantation, the potential offending medication may be discontinued, switched to another agent, or dose-reduced. Belatacept and mTOR inhibitors offer an alternative to calcineurin inhibitors in the event of hyperkalemia, however should be prescribed in the appropriate patient. While trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) remains the gold standard for prevention of PCP, alternative agents (e.g. dapsone, atovaquone) have been studied and can be recommend in place of TMP/SMX. Antihypertensives that act on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System are generally avoided early after transplant but may be indicated later in the transplant course for patients with comorbidities. In cases of mild to moderate hyperkalemia, medical management can be used to normalize serum potassium levels and allow the transplant team additional time to evaluate the function of the graft. In the immediate post-operative setting following kidney transplantation, a rapidly rising potassium refractory to medical therapy can be an indication for dialysis. Patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9) may play an important role in the management of chronic hyperkalemia in kidney transplant patients, although additional long-term studies are necessary to confirm these effects.

12.
Hemodial Int ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231302

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thyroid dysfunction is a highly prevalent yet under-recognized complication in hemodialysis patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism has been associated with endothelial dysfunction due to impaired vasodilator synthesis and activity. Little is known about the association of serum thyrotropin (TSH), the most sensitive and specific single biochemical metric of thyroid function, with endothelial function in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: In a secondary analysis of 99 patients from the Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative nutrition in hypoalbuminemic dialysis patients (AIONID) trial, we examined measurements of serum TSH and endothelial function ascertained by fingertip digital thermal monitoring (DTM), a novel method used to measure micro-vascular reactivity, collected within a 90-day period. DTM was used to measure changes in fingertip temperature during and after an ischemic stimulus (blood pressure cuff occlusion) as an indicator of changes in blood flow, and two DTM indices were assessed, namely adjusted (a) Temperature Rebound (TR), defined as the maximum temperature rebound post-cuff deflation, and adjusted (b) Area Under the Temperature Curve (TMP-AUC), defined as area under the curve between the maximum and minimum temperatures. We examined the relationship between serum TSH with impaired TR (separately) and TMP-AUC (both defined as less than the median level of observed values) using multivariable logistic regression. FINDINGS: In unadjusted and case-mix analyses, higher serum TSH levels (defined as the three highest quartiles) were associated with lower (worse) TR (ref: lowest TSH quartile): ORs (95% CI) 2.64 (1.01-6.88) and 2.85 (1.08-7.57), respectively. In unadjusted and case-mix analyses, higher TSH levels were associated with lower (worse) TMP-AUC: ORs (95% CI) 2.64 (1.01-6.88) and 2.79 (1.06-7.38), respectively. DISCUSSION: In HD patients, higher serum TSH levels were associated with worse micro-vascular reactivity measured by DTM. Further studies are needed to determine if thyroid hormone supplementation improves endothelial function in hemodialysis patients with lower levels of thyroid function.

14.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(6): 1657-1664, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34084461

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), one of the most common complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D), is associated with poor health outcomes and high healthcare expenditures. As the CKD population increases, a better understanding of the prevalence and progression of CKD is critical. However, few contemporary studies have explored the progression of CKD relative to its onset in T2D patients using established markers derived from real-world care settings. Methods: This retrospective, population-based cohort study assessed CKD progression among adults with T2D and with newly recognized CKD identified from US administrative claims data between 1 January 2008 and 30 September 2018. Included were patients with T2D and laboratory evidence of CKD as indicated by the established estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) criteria. Disease progression was described as transitions across the eGFR- and UACR-based stages. Results: A total of 65 731 and 23 035 patients with T2D contributed to the analysis of eGFR- and UACR-based CKD stage progression, respectively. CKD worsening was observed in approximately 10-17% of patients over a median follow-up of 2 years. Approximately one-third of patients experienced an increase in eGFR values or a decrease in UACR values during follow-up. Conclusions: A relatively high proportion of patients were observed with disease progression over a short period of time, highlighting the need for better identification of patients at risk of rapidly progressive CKD. Future studies are needed to determine the clinical characteristics of these patients to inform earlier diagnostic and therapeutic interventions aimed at slowing disease progression.

15.
Semin Nephrol ; 41(2): 96-103, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140100

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is among the most prevalent and dire complications of diabetes mellitus in adults across the world. Diabetes substantially contributes to the burden of kidney disease, such that one third to one half of CKD in the United States and many other countries is attributable to diabetic kidney disease (DKD). As DKD progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), patients are at heightened risk for atypical glycemic complications, including the development of burnt-out diabetes, manifested by hypoglycemic bouts and poor outcomes. Furthermore, even in the absence of diabetes, hypoglycemia is a frequent occurrence in CKD patients that may contribute to their high burden of cardiovascular disease and death. Extrapolation of data from clinical trials in high-cardiovascular-risk populations and observational studies in patients with non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) CKD and ESRD suggest that moderate glycemic targets defined by glycated hemoglobin levels of 6% to 8% and glucose levels of 100 to 150 mg/dL are associated with better survival in DKD patients. However, given the imprecision of glycated hemoglobin levels in kidney disease, further research is needed to determine the optimal glycemic metric and target in diabetic NDD-CKD and ESRD patients. Given their exceedingly high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, there is a compelling need for further investigation of how to optimally manage dysglycemia in the NDD-CKD and ESRD populations.

16.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(8 Suppl): S160-S167, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between relative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) change and outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study utilized administrative claims (Humana Research Database) for patients with T2D aged 65 to 89 years, enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan, with an initial eGFR of 25 to 89 mL/min/1.73m2 in 2008 to 2017, and a second eGFR measurement within 3 to 24 months after the identification date. METHODS: The primary exposure was relative decline in eGFR of 40% or more in a 2-year period. Outcomes included end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) or kidney failure, a composite cardiovascular (CV) outcome, and all-cause mortality assessed with multivariable adjusted survival models. Days out of the home and all-cause total costs were assessed using multivariable adjusted generalized linear models. RESULTS: A total of 288,170 patients were included. The adjusted HR for ESKD or kidney failure was 4.38 (95% CI, 3.99-4.81) in patients with 40% or greater decline versus those with a decline of less than 40%. The adjusted HR was 1.67 (95% CI, 1.53-1.82) for the composite CV outcome and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.87-2.10) for all-cause mortality. Patients with a 40% or greater relative decline had 2.23 times higher all-cause total per patient per month costs ($1910 difference) and 1.82 times higher odds of 7 or more days out of the home versus those with less than 40% relative eGFR decline. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that a relative eGFR decline of 40% or greater is associated with an increased risk of ESKD or kidney failure, CV outcomes and all-cause mortality, and increased health care resource utilization and costs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Falência Renal Crônica , Idoso , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(8 Suppl): S168-S177, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly prevalent among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). CKD is associated with increased mortality rates, clinical and humanistic burden, and substantial health care costs in the T2D population. The objective of this review was to summarize the burden of illness among patients with CKD and T2D, including the profile of patients, incidence, prevalence, mortality, progression, diagnosis and screening rates, and cardiovascular (CV) events. METHODS: A targeted literature review of published studies was conducted using Embase; Medline; Medline In-Process Citations, Daily Update, and Epub Ahead of Print; Igaku Chuo Zasshi databases; and 7 websites. Methods recommended by the Cochrane collaboration handbook, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, and the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist were employed. RESULTS: A total of 1290 full-text articles were reviewed for eligibility and 73 were included in this analysis. Patient profiles indicated older age was associated with more severe disease and number of comorbidities. The definition of kidney disease varied between studies reporting incidence and prevalence, with reported values up to 37.0% and 43.5% for incidence and prevalence, respectively. CKD among patients with T2D contributed to higher mortality rates. Higher disease progression rates were associated with higher albuminuria and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate levels. The available literature suggested annual screening rates for CKD declined over time. CV events were reported to have a substantial effect on morbidity and resource use. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the burden of CKD among patients with T2D and underscores a need for new treatment alternatives to reduce the burden of disease.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Incidência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
18.
Kidney Int Suppl (2011) ; 11(2): e66-e76, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981472

RESUMO

The International Society of Nephrology established the Global Kidney Health Atlas project to define the global capacity for kidney replacement therapy and conservative kidney care, and this second iteration was to describe the availability, accessibility, quality, and affordability of kidney failure (KF) care worldwide. This report presents results for the International Society of Nephrology North America and the Caribbean region. Relative to other regions, the North America and Caribbean region had better infrastructure and funding for health care and more health care workers relative to the population. Various essential medicines were also more available and accessible. There was substantial variation in the prevalence of treated KF in the region, ranging from 137.4 per million population (pmp) in Jamaica to 2196 pmp in the United States. A mix of public and private funding systems cover costs for nondialysis chronic kidney disease care in 60% of countries and for dialysis in 70% of countries. Although the median number of nephrologists is 18.1 (interquartile range, 15.3-29.5) pmp, which is approximately twice the global median of 9.9 (interquartile range, 1.2-22.7) pmp, some countries reported shortages of other health care workers. Dialysis was available in all countries, but peritoneal dialysis was underutilized and unavailable in Barbados, Cayman Islands, and Turks and Caicos. Kidney transplantation was primarily available in Canada and the United States. Economic factors were the major barriers to optimal KF care in the Caribbean countries, and few countries in the region have chronic kidney disease-specific national health care policies. To address regional gaps in KF care delivery, efforts should be directed toward augmenting the workforce, improving the monitoring and reporting of kidney replacement therapy indicators, and implementing noncommunicable disease and chronic kidney disease-specific policies in all countries.

19.
Am J Nephrol ; 52(4): 304-317, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum bicarbonate or total carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations decline as chronic kidney disease (CKD) progresses and rise after dialysis initiation. While metabolic acidosis accelerates the progression of CKD and is associated with higher mortality among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD), there are scarce data on the association of CO2 concentrations before ESRD transition with post-ESRD mortality. METHODS: A historical cohort from the Transition of Care in CKD (TC-CKD) study includes 85,505 veterans who transitioned to ESRD from October 1, 2007, through March 31, 2014. After 1,958 patients without follow-up data, 3 patients with missing date of birth, and 50,889 patients without CO2 6 months prior to ESRD transition were excluded, the study population includes 32,655 patients. Associations between CO2 concentrations averaged over the last 6 months and its rate of decline during the 12 months prior to ESRD transition and post-ESRD all-cause, cardiovascular (CV), and non-CV mortality were examined by using hierarchical adjustment with Cox regression models. RESULTS: The cohort was on average 68 ± 11 years old and included 29% Black veterans. Baseline concentrations of CO2 were 23 ± 4 mEq/L, and median (interquartile range) change in CO2 were -1.8 [-3.4, -0.2] mEq/L/year. High (≥28 mEq/L) and low (<18 mEq/L) CO2 concentrations showed higher adjusted mortality risk while there was no clear trend in the middle range. Consistent associations were observed irrespective of sodium bicarbonate use. There was also a U-shaped association between the change in CO2 and all-cause, CV, and non-CV mortality with the lowest risk approximately at -2.0 and 0.0 mEq/L/year among sodium bicarbonate nonusers and users, respectively, and the highest mortality was among patients with decline in CO2 >4 mEq/L/year. CONCLUSION: Both high and low pre-ESRD CO2 levels (≥28 and <18 mEq/L) during 6 months prior to dialysis transition and rate of CO2 decline >4 mEq/L/year during 1 year before dialysis initiation were associated with greater post-ESRD all-cause, CV, and non-CV mortality. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal management of CO2 in patients with advanced CKD stages transitioning to ESRD.

20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(8): 1879-1885, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908689

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the glycaemic efficacy of metformin in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD3). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study including 145980 US veterans with T2D and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2 who initiated metformin monotherapy between November 1999 and July 2017. Propensity-score-matched cohorts were generated based on baseline variables associated with CKD3 (eGFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) to evaluate the independent association between CKD3 and metformin discontinuation, the addition of a second hypoglycaemic agent, and changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline in those with and without CKD3. Associations were examined using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable regression models, adjusted for baseline and 12-month average metformin dose. RESULTS: The mean age of the entire cohort was 60.7 years, and 95% of the cohort were men, 21% were African American and 9% had CKD3. In the adjusted analyses, patients with CKD3 had a higher risk of metformin discontinuation or addition of a second hypoglycaemic agent, as compared with patients without CKD (hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.26, and HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13-1.40, respectively). Among metformin monotherapy users, there were no differences in the average HbA1c reduction from baseline to 12 or 24 months between patients with and without CKD3. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with CKD3 and T2D were at increased risk of metformin monotherapy failure. However, the HbA1c-lowering efficacy of metformin was similar in patients with and without CKD3, highlighting that metformin is a valuable treatment option for newly treated individuals with T2D and CKD3.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metformina , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Veteranos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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