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2.
Am J Nephrol ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in serum potassium are risk factors for sudden cardiac death and arrhythmias among dialysis patients. Although a previous study in hemodialysis patients has shown that race/ethnicity may impact the relationship between serum potassium and mortality, the relationship remains unclear among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients where the dynamics of serum potassium is more stable. METHODS: Among 17,664 patients who started PD between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011 in a large US dialysis organization, we evaluated the association of serum potassium levels with all-cause and arrhythmia-related deaths across race/ethnicity using time-dependent Cox models with adjustments for demographics. We also used restricted cubic spline functions for serum potassium levels to explore non-linear associations. RESULTS: Baseline serum potassium levels were the highest among Hispanics (4.2 ± 0.7 mEq/L) and lowest among non-Hispanic blacks (4.0 ± 0.7 mEq/L). Among 2,949 deaths during the follow-up of median 2.2 (interquartile ranges 1.3-3.2) years, 683 (23%) were arrhythmia-related deaths. Overall, both hyperkalemia and hypokalemia (i.e., serum potassium levels >5.0 and <3.5 mEq/L, respectively) were associated with higher all-cause and arrhythmia-related mortality. In a stratified analysis according to race/ethnicity, the association of hypokalemia with all-cause and arrhythmia-related mortality was consistent with an attenuation for arrhythmia-related mortality in non-Hispanic blacks. Hyperkalemia was associated with all-cause and arrhythmia-related mortality in non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks, but no association was observed in Hispanics. CONCLUSION: Among incident PD patients, hypokalemia was consistently associated with all-cause and arrhythmia-related deaths irrespective of race/ethnicity. However, while hyperkalemia was associated with both death outcomes in non-Hispanic blacks and whites, it was not associated with either death outcome in Hispanic patients. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether different strategies should be followed for the management of serum potassium levels according to race/ethnicity.

3.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the general population, elevated triglyceride (TG) levels are an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. However, in chronic kidney disease, the association of serum TGs with mortality is less clear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the association of TGs with mortality across chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages in a large cohort of U.S. veterans. METHODS: We examined 2,086,904 U.S. veterans with a TG measurement obtained between a baseline period of October 2004 and September 2006, with follow-up until December 2014 (median [interquartile range {IQR}]: 9.2 [6.5, 9.9] years). Associations of TGs with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality across CKD stages were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Patients were 64 ± 14 years old with a median (IQR) baseline TG of 129 [88, 193] mg/dL and estimated glomerular filtration rate of 76 [61, 91] mL/min/1.73 m2. More advanced CKD was associated with higher odds of TGs ≥ 240 mg/dL. Low levels of TGs < 80 mg/dL were associated with a higher risk of mortality across all stages, whereas TG levels ≥ 240 mg/dL were only associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality in non-CKD and CKD stages 3A, 3B, and 4 (reference: TG 120 to <160 mg/dL). The relationship of higher TGs with mortality incrementally attenuated across worsening stages of CKD and attenuated to the null among patients with CKD stage 5/end-stage renal disease. Similar results were observed for cardiovascular mortality, in strata by age and diabetes, and further adjustment for high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein. CONCLUSION: Associations of elevated TGs with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were incrementally attenuated across more advanced stages of CKD.

4.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 157(3): 976-983.e7, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431793

RESUMO

Objectives: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with better survival than percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) and End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). However, the optimal strategy for coronary artery revascularization in advanced CKD patients who transition to ESRD is unclear. Methods: We examined a contemporary national cohort of 971 US veterans with incident ESRD, who underwent first CABG or PCI up to 5 years prior to dialysis initiation. We examined the association of a history of CABG versus PCI with all-cause mortality following transition to dialysis, using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for time between procedure and dialysis initiation, socio-demographics, comorbidities and medications. Results: 582 patients underwent CABG and 389 patients underwent PCI. The mean age was 66±8 years, 99% of patients were male, 79% were white, 19% were African Americans, and 84% were diabetics. The all-cause post-dialysis mortality rates after CABG and PCI were 229/1000 patient-years (PY) [95% CI: 205-256] and 311/1000PY [95% CI: 272-356], respectively. Compared to PCI, patients who underwent CABG had 34% lower risk of death [multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI) 0.66 (0.51-0.86), p=0.002] after initiation of dialysis. Results were similar in all subgroups of patients stratified by age, race, type of intervention, presence/absence of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and diabetes. Conclusion: CABG in advanced CKD patients was associated lower risk of death after initiation of dialysis compared to PCI.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3842, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451708

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined by low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), contributes to global morbidity and mortality. Here we conduct a transethnic Genome-Wide Association Study of eGFR in 280,722 participants of the Million Veteran Program (MVP), with replication in 765,289 participants from the Chronic Kidney Disease Genetics (CKDGen) Consortium. We identify 82 previously unreported variants, confirm 54 loci, and report interesting findings including association of the sickle cell allele of betaglobin among non-Hispanic blacks. Our transcriptome-wide association study of kidney function in healthy kidney tissue identifies 36 previously unreported and nine known genes, and maps gene expression to renal cell types. In a Phenome-Wide Association Study in 192,868 MVP participants using a weighted genetic score we detect associations with CKD stages and complications and kidney stones. This investigation reinterprets the genetic architecture of kidney function to identify the gene, tissue, and anatomical context of renal homeostasis and the clinical consequences of dysregulation.

6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(9): 1746-1755, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decline in eGFR is a biologically plausible surrogate end point for the progression of CKD in clinical trials. However, it must first be tested to ensure strong associations with clinical outcomes in diverse populations, including patients with higher eGFR. METHODS: To investigate the association between 1-, 2-, and 3-year changes in eGFR (slope) with clinical outcomes over the long term, we conducted a random effects meta-analysis of 3,758,551 participants with baseline eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and 122,664 participants with eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 from 14 cohorts followed for an average of 4.2 years. RESULTS: Slower eGFR decline by 0.75 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year over 2 years was associated with lower risk of ESKD in participants with baseline eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.72) and eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (0.71; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.74). The relationship was stronger with 3-year slope. For a rapidly progressing population with predicted 5-year risk of ESKD of 8.3%, an intervention that reduced eGFR decline by 0.75 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year over 2 years would reduce the ESKD risk by 1.6%. For a hypothetical low-risk population with a predicted 5-year ESKD risk of 0.58%, the same intervention would reduce the risk by only 0.13%. CONCLUSIONS: Slower decline in eGFR was associated with lower risk of subsequent ESKD, even in participants with eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, but those with the highest risk would be expected to benefit the most.

7.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 204, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the interrelationships between obesity, eGFR and albuminuria, few large studies examine how obesity modifies the association between these markers of kidney function and adverse clinical outcomes. METHODS: We examined the joint associations between obesity, eGFR and albuminuria on four clinical outcomes (death, end-stage renal disease [ESRD], myocardial infarction [MI], and placement in a long-term care facility) using a population-based cohort with procedures from Alberta. Obesity was defined by body mass index ≥35 kg/m2 as defined by a fee modifier applied to an eligible procedure. RESULTS: We studied 1,293,362 participants, of whom 171,650 (13.3%) had documented obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 based on claims data) and 1,121,712 (86.7%) did not. The association between eGFR and death was J-shaped for participants with and without documented obesity. After full adjustment, obesity tended to be associated with slightly lower odds of mortality (OR range 0.71-1.02; p for interaction between obesity and eGFR 0.008). For participants with and without obesity, the adjusted odds of ESRD were lowest for participants with eGFR > 90 mL/min*1.73m2 and increased with lower eGFR, with no evidence of an interaction with obesity (p = 0.37). Although albuminuria and obesity were both associated with higher odds of ESRD, the excess risk associated with obesity was substantially attenuated at higher levels of albuminuria (p for interaction 0.0006). The excess risk of MI associated with obesity was observed at eGFR > 60 mL/min*1.73m2 but not at lower eGFR (p for interaction < 0.0001). Participants with obesity had a higher adjusted likelihood of placement in long-term care than those without, and the likelihood of such placement was higher at lower eGFR for those with and without obesity (p for interaction = 0.57). CONCLUSIONS: We found significant interactions between obesity and eGFR and/or albuminuria on the likelihood of adverse outcomes including death and ESRD. Since obesity is common, risk prediction tools for people with CKD might be improved by adding information on BMI or other proxies for body size in addition to eGFR and albuminuria.

8.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 34(7): 1084-1089, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190058

RESUMO

Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) experience extremely high morbidity and mortality and there are virtually no therapeutic interventions besides dialysis treatment that are proven in properly designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to improve patients' outcomes. Historically, the number of RCTs performed in the ESRD population has been very low compared with other medical subspecialties, and several of the few large RCTs have yielded inconclusive or negative results, dampening enthusiasm for future investment in similar trials. Recent initiatives promoting a focus on patient-centered outcomes and more active patient and caregiver involvement in the planning and conduct of clinical trials may result in more clinically relevant RCTs and broader participation from patients representing the diversity of the ESRD population. The adoption of novel clinical trial design elements characteristic of pragmatic clinical trials and platform trials could help improve both the internal and external validity of RCTs in ESRD, ultimately resulting in the adoption of therapeutic interventions that can be rapidly translated to clinical practice.

10.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(5): 890-903, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from clinical trials to inform practice in maintenance hemodialysis are limited. Incorporating randomized trials into dialysis clinical care delivery should help generate practice-guiding evidence, but the feasibility of this approach has not been established. METHODS: To develop approaches for embedding trials into routine delivery of maintenance hemodialysis, we performed a cluster-randomized, pragmatic trial demonstration project, the Time to Reduce Mortality in ESRD (TiME) trial, evaluating effects of session duration on mortality (primary outcome) and hospitalization rate. Dialysis facilities randomized to the intervention adopted a default session duration ≥4.25 hours (255 minutes) for incident patients; those randomized to usual care had no trial-driven approach to session duration. Implementation was highly centralized, with no on-site research personnel and complete reliance on clinically acquired data. We used multiple strategies to engage facility personnel and participating patients. RESULTS: The trial enrolled 7035 incident patients from 266 dialysis units. We discontinued the trial at a median follow-up of 1.1 years because of an inadequate between-group difference in session duration. For the primary analysis population (participants with estimated body water ≤42.5 L), mean session duration was 216 minutes for the intervention group and 207 minutes for the usual care group. We found no reduction in mortality or hospitalization rate for the intervention versus usual care. CONCLUSIONS: Although a highly pragmatic design allowed efficient enrollment, data acquisition, and monitoring, intervention uptake was insufficient to determine whether longer hemodialysis sessions improve outcomes. More effective strategies for engaging clinical personnel and patients are likely required to evaluate clinical trial interventions that are fully embedded in care delivery.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(6): e011869, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885048

RESUMO

Background Although studies have shown that statin therapy in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease was associated with a lower risk of death, this was not observed in dialysis patients newly initiated on statins. It is unclear if statin therapy benefits administered during the predialysis period persist after transitioning to end-stage renal disease. Methods and Results In 47 720 veterans who transitioned to end-stage renal disease during 2007 to 2014, we examined the association of statin therapy use 1 year before transition with posttransition all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization incidence rates over the first 12 months of follow-up. Associations were examined using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models and negative binomial regressions. Sensitivity analyses included propensity score and subgroup analyses. The cohort's mean± SD age was 71±11 years, and the cohort included 4% women, 23% blacks, and 66% diabetics. Over 12 months of follow-up, there were 13 411 deaths, with an incidence rate of 35.3 (95% CI , 34.7-35.8) deaths per 100 person-years. In adjusted models, statin therapy compared with no statin therapy was associated with lower risks of 12-month all-cause (hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.79 [0.76-0.82]) and cardiovascular (hazard ratio [95% CI ], 0.83 [0.78-0.88]) mortality, as well as with a lower rate of hospitalizations (incidence rate ratio [95% CI ], 0.89 [0.87-0.92]) after initiating dialysis. These lower outcome risks persisted across strata of clinical characteristics, and in propensity score analyses. Conclusions Among veterans with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease, treatment with statin therapy within the 1 year before transitioning to end-stage renal disease is associated with favorable early end-stage renal disease outcomes.

12.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 74(1): 23-35, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898360

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for adults 65 years and older and those younger than 65 years with clinical indications (eg, diabetes, lung/heart disease, kidney failure, and nephrotic syndrome). Its cost-effectiveness in less severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncharacterized. STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis. SETTING & POPULATION: US adults aged 50 to 64 and 65 to 79 years stratified by CKD risk status: no CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate≥60mL/min/1.73m2 and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio<30mg/g), CKD with moderate risk, CKD with high risk, and kidney failure (estimated glomerular filtration rate<15mL/min/1.73m2) or nephrotic-range albuminuria (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio≥2,000mg/g). Data sources were the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2004, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. INTERVENTION(S): Vaccination compared to no vaccination. OUTCOMES: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios based on US dollars per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). MODEL, PERSPECTIVE, & TIMEFRAME: Markov model, US health sector perspective, and lifetime horizon. RESULTS: The prevalence of pneumococcal vaccination in NHANES 1999 to 2004 was 56.6% (aged 65-79 years), 28.5% (aged 50-64 years with an indication), and 9.7% (aged 50-64 years without an indication), with similar prevalences across CKD risk status. Pneumococcal vaccination was overall cost-effective (

13.
J Ren Nutr ; 29(3): 188-195, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE(S): Prealbumin, a transport protein mostly synthesized in the liver, is a marker of nutrition. Although decreased prealbumin levels are associated with increased mortality in end-stage kidney disease patients, its association with mortality in kidney transplant recipients remains unknown. We evaluated the association between prealbumin levels and outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. DESIGN: This was a prospective prevalent cohort study. This study included 991 kidney transplant recipients enrolled from December 31, 2006, to December 31, 2007, and followed over a 6-year period. Sociodemographic, past medical history, clinical, and laboratory data were collected at the study entry. Associations between prealbumin levels and death with functioning graft, all-cause mortality, and graft loss were examined using survival models. RESULTS: Serum prealbumin levels showed significant negative correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate (R = -0.28; P < .001) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (R = -0.24; P < .001). Each 5 mg/dL lower serum prealbumin level was associated with 20% higher risk of death with functioning graft (subdistribution hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.20 [1.08-1.35]; P = .001), which persisted after multivariable adjustments (subdistribution hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.13 [1.00-1.28]; P = .039). Qualitatively similar trend was observed in all-cause mortality; however, there was no association between prealbumin levels and graft loss. CONCLUSION(S): Lower serum prealbumin level is associated with increased risk of death with functioning graft in prevalent kidney transplant recipients.

15.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 51(2): 375-376, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604233

RESUMO

In the original publication, age stratified mortality rates were incorrectly added in Fig. 2. The correct Fig. 2 is given below.

16.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 20(6): 743-750.e1, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Among kidney disease patients ≥80 years progressing to end-stage renal disease, there is growing interest in conservative nondialytic management approaches. However, among those who have initiated hemodialysis, little is known about the impact of withdrawal from dialysis on mortality, nor the patient characteristics associated with withdrawal from dialysis. STUDY DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We examined 133,162 incident hemodialysis patients receiving care within a large national dialysis organization from 2007 to 2011. MEASURES: We identified patients who withdrew from dialysis, either as a listed cause of death or censor reason. Incidence rates and subdistribution hazard ratios for withdrawal from dialysis as well as 4 other censoring reasons were examined across age groups. In addition, demographic and clinical characteristics associated with withdrawal from dialysis therapy among patients ≥80 years old was assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 17,296 patients aged ≥80 years, 10% of patients withdrew from dialysis. Duration from the last hemodialysis treatment to death was 10 [interquartile range 6-16] days in patients with available data. Withdrawal from dialysis was the second and third most common cause of death among patients aged ≥80 years and <80 years, respectively. Among patients ≥80 years, minorities were much less likely than non-Hispanic whites to stop dialysis. Other factors associated with higher odds of dialysis withdrawal included having a central venous catheter compared to an arteriovenous fistula at dialysis start, dementia, living in mid-west regions, and less favorable markers associated with malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome such as higher white blood cell counts and lower body mass index, albumin, and normalized protein catabolic rate. CONCLUSION/IMPLICATIONS: Among very-elderly incident hemodialysis patients, dialysis therapy withdrawal exhibits wide variations across age, race and ethnicity, regions, cognitive status, dialysis vascular access, and nutritional status. Further studies examining implications of withdrawal from dialysis in older patients are warranted.

17.
Nephron ; 141(3): 188-200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Anemia is common in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). A proportion of patients present with macrocytic anemia, manifested by elevated mean corpuscular volume (MCV), which has been associated with worse outcomes in CKD patients. However, it is unknown whether elevated MCV is associated with higher mortality risk in incident hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study examined all-cause, cardiovascular, and infectious mortality associations with both baseline and time-varying MCV in 109,501 incident HD patients using Cox proportional hazards models with 3 levels of hierarchical multivariable adjustment. Odds ratios of high versus low baseline MCV were evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 65 ± 15 (standard deviation) years and the cohort was 44% female, 58% diabetic, and 31% African American. Higher MCV was associated with older age, female sex, non-Hispanic White race-ethnicity, alcohol consumption, and having a decreased albumin or protein intake. Patients with higher MCV levels (> 98 fL) had a higher all-cause, cardiovascular, and infectious mortality risk in both baseline and time varying models, and across all levels of adjustment. In the fully adjusted models, compared to a reference of MCV 92-< 94 fL, patients with a baseline MCV > 100+ fL had a 28% higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.28, 95% CI 1.22-1.34), 27% higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.18-1.36), and 18% higher risk of infectious mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.38). Associations of higher MCV with these adverse outcomes persisted across all examined subgroups of clinical characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Higher MCV was associated with higher all-cause, cardiovascular, and infectious mortality in HD patients. Further investigation is necessary to understand the underlying nature of the observed association.

18.
Am J Nephrol ; 49(2): 133-142, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the association of vancomycin with acute kidney injury (AKI) in relation to its serum concentration value and to examine the risk of AKI in patients treated with vancomycin when compared with a matched cohort of patients receiving non-glycopeptide antibiotics (linezolid/daptomycin). METHODS: From a cohort of > 3 million US veterans with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, we identified 33,527 patients who received either intravenous vancomycin (n = 22,057) or non-glycopeptide antibiotics (linezolid/daptomycin, n = 11,470). We examined the association of the serum trough vancomycin level recorded within the first 48 h of administration with subsequent AKI in all patients treated with vancomycin and association of vancomycin vs. non-glycopeptide antibiotics use with the risk of incident AKI. RESULTS: The overall multivariable adjusted ORs of AKI stages 1, 2, and 3 in patients on vancomycin vs. non-glycopeptides were 1.1 (1.1-1.2), 1.2 (1-1.4), and 1.4 (1.1-1.7), respectively. When examined in strata divided by vancomycin trough level, the odds of AKI were similar or lower in patients receiving vancomycin compared to non-glycopeptide antibiotics as long as serum vancomycin levels were ≤20 mg/L. However, in patients with serum vancomycin levels > 20 mg/L, the ORs of AKI stages 1, 2, and 3 in patients on vancomycin vs. non-glycopeptide antibiotics were 1.5 (1.4-1.7), 1.9 (1.5-2.3), and 2.7 (2-3.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Vancomycin use is associated with a higher risk of AKI when serum levels exceed > 20 mg/L.

19.
Am J Transplant ; 19(8): 2294-2305, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672107

RESUMO

A history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), if uncontrolled, represents a contraindication for kidney transplantation. However, no previous large study has assessed the association between pretransplant history of PTSD and posttransplantation outcomes. We examined 4479 US veterans who had undergone transplantation. The diagnosis of history of PTSD was based on a validated algorithm. Measured covariates were used to create a matched cohort (n = 560). Associations between pretransplant PTSD and death with functioning graft, all-cause death, and graft loss were examined in survival models. Posttransplant medication nonadherence was assessed using proportion of days covered (PDC). From among 4479 veterans, 282 (6.3%) had a history of PTSD. The mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of the cohort at baseline was 61 ± 11 years, 91% were male, and 66% and 28% of patients were white and African American, respectively. Compared to patients without a history of PTSD, patients with a history of PTSD had a similar risk of death with a functioning graft (subhazard ratio [SHR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-1.54), all-cause death (1.05, 0.69-1.58), and graft loss (1.09, 0.53-2.26). Moreover, there was no difference in immunosuppressive drug PDC in patients with and without a history of PTSD (PDC: 98 ± 4% vs 99 ± 3%, P = .733 for tacrolimus; PDC: 99 ± 4% vs 98 ± 7%, P = .369 for mycophenolic acid). A history of PTSD in US veterans with end-stage renal disease should not on its own preclude a veteran from being considered for transplantation.

20.
J Ren Nutr ; 29(4): 310-321, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Serum albumin is a marker of malnutrition and inflammation and has been demonstrated as a strong predictor of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Yet, whether serum albumin levels in late-stage CKD are associated with adverse outcomes after the transition to ESRD is unknown. We hypothesize that lower levels and a decline in serum albumin in late-stage CKD are associated with higher risk of mortality and hospitalization rates 1 year after transition to ESRD. DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 29,124 US veterans with advanced CKD transitioning to ESRD between 2007 and 2015. We evaluated the association of pre-ESRD (91 days before transition) serum albumin with 12-month post-ESRD all-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortalities and hospitalization rates as well as the association of 1-year pre-ESRD albumin slope and 12-month post-ESRD mortality using hierarchical multivariable adjustments. RESULTS: There was a negative linear association between serum albumin and all-cause mortality, such that risk doubled (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.87, 2.28) for patients with the lowest serum albumin <2.8 g/dL (ref: ≥4.0 g/dL) after full adjustment. A consistent relationship was observed between serum albumin and cardiovascular and infection-related mortality, and hospitalization outcomes. An increase in serum albumin of >0.25 g/dL/year was associated with reduced mortality risk (HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91) compared with a slight decline in albumin (ref: >-0.25 to 0 g/dL/year), whereas a decline more than 0.5 g/dL/year was associated with a 55% higher risk in mortality (HR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.43, 1.68) in fully adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: Lower pre-ESRD serum albumin was associated with higher post-ESRD all-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortalities and hospitalization rates. Declining serum albumin levels in the pre-ESRD period were also associated with worse 12-month post-ESRD mortality.

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