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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 222: 112263, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339994

RESUMO

The biosynthesis of polyphenolic compounds in cabbage waste, outer green leaves of white head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), was stimulated by postharvest irradiation with UVB lamps or sunlight. Both treatments boosted the content of kaempferol and quercetin glycosides, especially in the basal leaf zone, as determined by the HPLC analysis of leaf extracts and by a non-destructive optical sensor. The destructive analysis of samples irradiated by the sun for 6 days at the end of October 2015 in Skierniewice (Poland) showed an increase of leaf flavonols by 82% with respect to controls. The treatment by a broadband UVB fluorescent lamp, with irradiance of 0.38 W m-2 in the 290-315 nm range (and 0.59 W m-2 in the UVA region) for 12 h per day at 17 °C along with a white light of about 20 µmol m-2 s-1, produced a flavonols increase of 58% with respect to controls. The kinetics of flavonols accumulation in response to the photochemical treatments was monitored with the FLAV non-destructive index. The initial FLAV rate under the sun was proportional to the daily radiation doses with a better correlation for the sun global irradiance (R2 = 0.973), followed by the UVA (R2 = 0.965) and UVB (R2 = 0.899) irradiance. The sunlight turned out to be more efficient than the UVB lamp in increasing the flavonols level of waste leaves, because of a significant role played by UVA and visible solar radiation in the regulation of the flavonoid accumulation in cabbage. The FLAV index increase induced on the adaxial leaf side was accompanied by a lower but still significant FLAV increase on the unirradiated abaxial side, likely due to a systemic signaling by mean of the long-distance movement of macromolecules. Our present investigation provides useful data for the optimization of postharvest photochemical protocols of cabbage waste valorization. It can represent a novel and alternative tool of vegetable waste management for the recovery of beneficial phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Brassica/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonóis/análise , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Raios Ultravioleta
2.
Ambio ; 50(9): 1698-1717, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755895

RESUMO

The goal of this paper is to assess the current status and trends of total mercury (THg) contamination of the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems in Poland. The study shows that the reduced domestic and worldwide atmospheric emission of Hg resulted in decreased THg level in the terrestrial biotope and biosphere. Considering that Poland is one of the main Hg emitters in Europe, the THg concentrations in its abiotic environment are still elevated. However, the THg level in terrestrial organisms is relatively low, which is because a large proportion of Hg deposited on land is accumulated in organic-rich soils. Regarding the THg concentration, consumption of wildlife and livestock from Poland is safe for humans. Nevertheless, the authors indicate the need for effective environmental monitoring, based on selected bioindicators, which is crucial considering the slowing reduction of Hg emission combined with the consequences of the changing climate.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Atmosfera , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Polônia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445510

RESUMO

The correct fertilization of vegetable crops is commonly determined on the basis of soil and plant costly destructive analyses, demanding more sustainable non-invasive optical detection. Here, we tested the ability of the combined transmittance/fluorescence leaf clip Dualex device for determining the nitrogen (N) status of cabbage plants. Fully developed leaves from plants grown under different N rates of 0; 100; 200; 300 kg N ha-1 in 2018 and 2019 were measured in the field by the Dualex sensor twice a year in July and October. The chlorophyll (Chl) and nitrogen (nitrogen balance index, NBI) indices and the flavonols (Flav) index of the sensor were positively and negatively correlated to leaf nitrogen, respectively. Merging the two-years data, the NBI versus leaf N correlation was less point dispersed in October than July (R2 = 0.76 and 0.64, respectively). NBI was also correlated to cabbage yield, better in July than October. Our results showed that the multiparametric Dualex device can be used as precision agriculture tool for the early prediction of plant N and cabbage yield with economic advantage for the growers and reduced environmental contamination due to nitrate leaching.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Clorofila/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Fertilizantes , Fluorescência , Polônia
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(6): 2763-2774, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulation and stability of tomato lycopene markedly depends on the cultivar, plant growing and storage conditions. To estimate lycopene in open-field cultivated processing and fresh market tomatoes, we used a calibrated spectral reflectance portable sensor. RESULTS: Lycopene accumulation in fruits attached to the plant, starting from the Green ripening stage, followed a sigmoidal function. It was faster and reached higher levels in processing (cv. Calista) than fresh market (cv. Volna) tomatoes (90 and 62 mg kg-1 fresh weight, respectively). During storage at 12, 20 and 25 °C, Red tomatoes retained about 90% of harvest lycopene for three weeks. Pink tomatoes increased lycopene during the first week of storage, but never reached the lycopene values of Red tomatoes ripened on the vine. Storability at 12 °C retaining the highest quality in red tomatoes was limited to 14 and 7 days for Calista and Volna cultivars, respectively. CONCLUSION: Significant differences in lycopene accumulation and stability between processing and fresh market tomatoes were established by examining with time the very same fruits by a non-destructive optical tool. It can be useful in agronomical and post-harvest physiological studies and can be of interest for producers oriented to the niche nutraceutical market. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Licopeno/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Carotenoides/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Óptica e Fotônica
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(18): 4748-4757, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677447

RESUMO

Reflectance spectroscopy represents a useful tool for the nondestructive assessment of tomato lycopene, even in the field. For this reason, a compact, low-cost, light emitting diode-based sensor has been developed to measure reflectance in the 400-750 nm spectral range. It was calibrated against wet chemistry and evaluated by partial least squares (PLS) regression analyses. The lycopene prediction models were defined for two open-field cultivated red-tomato varieties: the processing oblong tomatoes of the cv. Calista (average weight: 76 g) and the fresh-consumption round tomatoes of the cv. Volna (average weight: 130 g), over a period of two consecutive years. The lycopene prediction models were dependent on both cultivar and season. The lycopene root mean square error of prediction produced by the 2014 single-cultivar calibrations validated on the 2015 samples was large (33 mg kg-1) in the Calista tomatoes and acceptable (9.5 mg kg-1) in the Volna tomatoes. A more general bicultivar and biyear model could still explain almost 80% of the predicted lycopene variance, with a relative error in red tomatoes of less than 20%. In 2016, the in-field applications of the multiseasonal prediction models, built with the 2014 and 2015 data, showed significant ( P < 0.001) differences in the average lycopene estimated in the crop on two sampling dates that were 20 days apart: on August 19 and September 7, 2016, the lycopene was 98.9 ± 9.3 and 92.2 ± 10.8 mg kg-1 FW for cv. Calista and 54.6 ± 13.2 and 60.8 ± 6.8 mg kg-1 FW for cv. Volna. The sensor was also able to monitor the temporal evolution of lycopene accumulation on the very same fruits attached to the plants. These results indicated that a simple, compact reflectance device and PLS analysis could provide adequately precise and robust (through-seasons) models for the nondestructive assessment of lycopene in whole tomatoes. This technique could guarantee tomatoes with the highest nutraceutical value from the production, during storage and distribution, and finally to consumers.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Frutas/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Licopeno , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(10): 9614-24, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26846237

RESUMO

In this paper, we present the results of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of maple (Acer platanoides-Ap) and linden (Tilia platyphyllos-Tp) collected in four periods of the growing season of trees, i.e. in April (IV), June (VI), August (VIII) and November (IX) in 2013, from the area of Poznan city (Poland). The highest average concentration of mercury for 88 samples was determined in soils and it equaled 65.8 ± 41.7 ng g(-1) (range 14.5-238.9 ng g(-1)); lower average concentration was found in Ap samples (n = 66): 55.4 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) (range 26.5-106.9 ng g(-1)); in Tp samples 50.4 ± 15.8 ng g(-1) (range 23.1-88.7 ng g(-1)) and in 22 samples of Tp buds 40.8 ± 22.7 ng g(-1) (range 12.4-98.7 ng g(-1)) and Ap buds 28.2 ± 13.6 ng g(-1) (range 8.0-59.5 ng g(-1)). Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the highest concentration of mercury in soils occurred in the centre of Poznan city (95.5 ± 39.1 ng g(-1)), and it was two times higher than the concentration of mercury in other parts of the city. Similar dependencies were not observed for the leaf samples of Ap and Tp. It was found that mercury concentrations in the soil and leaves of maple and linden were different depending on the period of the growing season (April to November). Mercury content in the examined samples was higher in the first two research periods (April IV, June VI), and then, in the following periods, the accumulation of mercury decreased both in soil and leaf samples of the two tree species. There was no correlation found between mercury concentration in leaves and mercury concentration in soils during the four research periods (April-November). When considering the transfer coefficient, it was observed that the main source of mercury in leaves is the mercury coming from the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Acer/química , Mercúrio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tilia/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Polônia
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(1): 85-94, 2016 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26679081

RESUMO

A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Clorofila/química , Flavonóis/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica/metabolismo , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2015: 815648, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26357659

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the content of particular elements Ca, Mg, P, Na, K, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mo, Cr, Ni, Ba, Sr, and Pb in the proximal femur bone tissue (cancellous and cortical bone) of 96 patients undergoing total hip replacement for osteoarthritis using ICP-AES and FAAS analytical techniques. The interdependencies among these elements and their correlations depended on factors including age, gender, place of residence, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption, exposure to environmental pollution, physical activity, and type of degenerative change which were examined by statistical and chemometric methods. The factors that exerted the greatest influence on the elements in the femoral head and neck were tobacco smoking (higher Cr and Ni content in smokers), alcohol consumption (higher concentrations of Ni, Cu in people who consume alcohol), and gender (higher Cu, Zn, and Ni concentrations in men). The factors influencing Pb accumulation in bone tissue were tobacco, alcohol, gender, and age. In primary and secondary osteoarthritis of the hip, the content and interactions of elements are different (mainly those of Fe and Pb). There were no significant differences in the concentrations of elements in the femoral head and neck that could be attributed to residence or physical activity.


Assuntos
Cabeça do Fêmur/metabolismo , Articulação do Quadril/metabolismo , Metais/análise , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 73(1): 396-400, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26260655

RESUMO

Determination of mercury is important in the case of pharmaceuticals for which the European Union regulations have not defined the maximum permissible concentration of this metal. The aim of the study was to determine the levels of mercury in the following groups of drugs (n = 119): analgesics, diuretics, cardiacs, antihypertensives, anti-influenza, antibiotics, anti-allergics, tranquilizers, antibacterials and in dietary supplements (n = 33) available on the Polish market. Mercury was analyzed using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry CV-AFS. Its content in the samples varied in the range of 0.9-476.1 ng g(-1). Higher mercury concentrations were reported for prescription drugs (Rx): 0.9-476.1 ng g(-1) (median: 7.4 ng g(-1)), lower--for non-prescription medicines (OTC): 1.2-45.8 ng g(-1) (median: 6.0 ng g(-1)). In the analyzed dietary supplements the concentrations were: 0.9-16.7 ng g(-1) (median: 5.9 ng g(-1)). On the basis of the information contained in the leaflet accompanying the medicine, a daily dose of mercury taken into the body with an analyzed medicament was estimated and the health risk posed by using such medicines was assessed. The study indicates that it is justified to carry out measurements of mercury in pharmaceuticals due to its high, potentially harmful.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos , Mercúrio/química , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/análise , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/análise , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Polônia , Risco
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(4): 2546-57, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25189806

RESUMO

An investigation of atmospheric mercury was conducted in the urban coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland) in 2008. Rainwater samples were collected in bulk samplers and Hg concentration was determined using AAS method. Total mercury concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14.8 ng l(-1) (the mean was 8.3 ng l(-1) with standard deviation ±3.7), out of which about 34 % were water-soluble Hg(II) forms. Distribution of Hg species in rainwater was related to both the emission source and the atmospheric processes. During the sampling period, two maxima of Hg concentration in precipitation were observed: the first in the cold season and the second one in the warm season. Elevated concentrations of Hg in wintertime precipitation were generally the result of local urban atmospheric emission connected with the following anthropogenic sources: intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces, individual power/heat generating plants, and motor vehicles. During summertime, Hg° re-emitted from contaminated land and sea surfaces was photochemically oxidized by active atmospheric substances (e.g., hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, halogens) and could be an additional source of atmospherically deposited Hg. The results presented in this work indicate that rainwater Hg concentration and deposition values are not much higher in comparison with other urban locations along the Baltic Sea basin and other coastal cities. However, the elevated mercury concentration in rainwater and, consequently, higher deposition ratio could appear occasionally as an effect of intensive anthropogenic emissions (domestic heating) and/or photochemical reactions.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Chuva/química , Neve/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oceanos e Mares , Polônia , Estações do Ano
11.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2014: 167631, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25401126

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal variability of biometric features and the carbonate production of two charophytes: Chara polyacantha A. Braun and Chara rudis A. Braun against the background of the physical-chemical properties of water. The investigation was carried out in a small, mid-forest Lake Jasne (western Poland). It is a polymictic, mesotrophic, hardwater ecosystem dominated by charophyte vegetation. Each month, 10 individuals of each species were characterized in terms of morphometric features, fresh and dry weight, and the percentage of calcium carbonate. Additionally, physical-chemical parameters of the water were studied. The results of physical-chemical analyses indicated similar habitat conditions for both species. Despite smaller dry weight C. polyacantha was characterized by greater morphological variability and higher rates of growth and percentage share of calcium carbonate in dry mass than C. rudis. The percentage of calcium carbonates in dry mass did not differ significantly between the species and exceeded 60%, reaching the maximum (76% in C. polyacantha) in July and August. For both species, distinct correlations between the structure of biomass and morphological features were found. The obtained results show the great importance of charophyte vegetation in carbon cycling and functioning of lake ecosystems.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Carbonatos/química , Chara/química , Lagos/química , Estações do Ano , Água/química , Carbonatos/análise , Carbonatos/metabolismo , Chara/genética , Água Doce/análise , Água Doce/química , Lagos/análise
12.
Ginekol Pol ; 85(2): 101-4, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24745154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine a relation between the level of total serum bile acids in pregnant women and the condition of their newborns on the basis of select parameters of acid-base balance in the cord blood. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 64 pregnant women with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy and 78 healthy pregnant women constituted the control group. Colorimetric enzymatic measurements of serum total bile acids were performed in both groups. RESULTS: In the mild cholestasis group, mean concentration of bile acids amounted to 20.6 +/- 1.0 micromol/l and was statistically significantly lower as compared to women with severe cholestasis (58.9 +/- 9.5 micromol/l). In the control group, mean concentration of bile acids was 4.1 +/- 0.3 micromol/l and was statistically significantly lower as compared to groups with cholestasis. Caesarean section was performed in 60.9% of women with cholestasis as compared to 19.2% of controls. Also, neonatal condition in the first minute of life was worse in the group with cholestasis as compared to the infants in the control group. The body weight of newborns of mothers with cholestasis was statistically significantly lower than in infants born to controls. Lowered neonatal pH (below 7.20) was noted in 2.6% of the newborns from the control group and was statistically significantly less frequent as compared to infants from the group with cholestasis. CONCLUSIONS: Periodic measurements of total bile acid concentrations in serum of pregnant women with cholestasis is of high value in establishing the diagnosis and determining severity of the disease in the mother as well as potential hazard for the fetus. Simultaneous monitoring of the changes total bile acids concentrations in the blood serum and the well-being allows to reduce the rates of neonatal distresses after birth and cesarean sections.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Colestase Intra-Hepática/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Colestase Intra-Hepática/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Adulto Jovem
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