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1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 180: 103863, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334881

RESUMO

Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are the most common malignant tumors that arise in the head and neck. Despite advances in the management of affected patients, the mortality burden of these tumors is increasing every year. The discovery of a vast genetic landscape has revealed new opportunities for therapeutic intervention of head and neck SCC (HNSCC). Molecular alterations of tyrosine kinases are involved in the pathogenesis of cancer and may help keep cancer cells from growing. Currently, many drugs inhibit this enzyme family and are being studied by the pharmaceutical industry opening the room to expand the use and efficacy of this therapeutic modality alone or using combinatorial approaches including checkpoint inhibitors for treatment. In this paper, we explored the role of tyrosine kinases inhibitors of HNSCC, and clinical trials related to these molecules, expecting to provide references for HNSCC therapy.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6725, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344512

RESUMO

The poor prognosis of head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with metastasis within the lymph nodes (LNs). Herein, the proteome of 140 multisite samples from a 59-HNC patient cohort, including primary and matched LN-negative or -positive tissues, saliva, and blood cells, reveals insights into the biology and potential metastasis biomarkers that may assist in clinical decision-making. Protein profiles are strictly associated with immune modulation across datasets, and this provides the basis for investigating immune markers associated with metastasis. The proteome of LN metastatic cells recapitulates the proteome of the primary tumor sites. Conversely, the LN microenvironment proteome highlights the candidate prognostic markers. By integrating prioritized peptide, protein, and transcript levels with machine learning models, we identify nodal metastasis signatures in blood and saliva. We present a proteomic characterization wiring multiple sites in HNC, thus providing a promising basis for understanding tumoral biology and identifying metastasis-associated signatures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Proteoma , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Proteômica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-11, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426640

RESUMO

Head and neck cancer (HNC) significantly impacts nutritional status because the tumor limits swallowing function. In this sense, it is important to monitor the nutritional status throughout the life of any individual. A multicenter case-control study was carried out to analyze the BMI at 30 years of age, two years before diagnosis and at the time of diagnosis of individuals with oral cavity, oropharynx, and larynx cancers. It was observed that a 5% reduction in BMI during the two years before enrollment was associated with an increased risk of the oral cavity (OR = 3.73), oropharyngeal OR = 5.25), and laryngeal (OR = 5.22). Reduced BMI of more than 5% over two years before diagnosis was associated with HNC. Weight loss remained significant at diagnosis, but it is not possible to exclude reverse causality since most cases are at an advanced stage. BMI monitoring of individuals at potential risk for HNC can promote early diagnosis and nutritional interventions for HNC.

4.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 1108, 2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) is not well-documented in early oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). METHODS: A total of 310 cases of early (cT1-2N0) OTSCC were included in this multicenter study. Assessment of TLSs was conducted on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. TLSs were assessed both in the central part of the tumor and at the invasive front area. RESULTS: The presence of TLSs associated with improved survival of early OTSCC as presented by Kaplan-Meier survival analyses for disease-specific survival (P = 0.01) and overall survival (P = 0.006). In multivariable analyses, which included conventional prognostic factors, the absence of TLSs associated with worse disease-specific survival with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.96 (95% CI 1.09-3.54; P = 0.025) and poor overall survival (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.11-2.48; P = 0.014). CONCLUSION: Histological evaluation of TLSs predicts survival in early OTSCC. TLSs showed superior prognostic power independent of routine WHO grading and TNM staging system.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias , Neoplasias da Língua , Humanos , Neoplasias da Língua/patologia , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Prognóstico
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is growing significantly worldwide, especially among young people. This product has been associated with renormalizing smoking and hindering quit attempts in smokers. Moreover, among nonsmokers, it can lead to subsequent cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence. The present study aimed to assess the epidemiological profile of e-cigarette users worldwide. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review was performed using 3 main electronic databases (Medline/PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE). Studies were independently assessed by 2 reviewers based on established eligibility criteria. The risk of bias was assessed using the MAStARI critical appraisal instrument. RESULTS: From 4,496 records, 43 were included. Among the 1,238,392 participants, 132,786 (10.72%) were e-cigarette users. The age range with the highest percentage of e-cigarette users was 18-24 years old, with 40,989 (30.86%) males, 34,875 (26.26%) females, and 33.6% being current cigarette smokers. The highest prevalence of users was 52.88% in Croatia and 49.62% in New Zealand. Other possible correlations were observed with e-cigarette use, such as a high level of education. CONCLUSION: Overall, e-cigarette users tended to be male young adults with a higher level of education. The highest prevalence of use was found in Croatia. This systematic review provides valuable information to improve the development of appropriate intervention strategies targeting e-cigarette users for more accurate anti-smoking actions.

6.
Pathol Res Pract ; 238: 154113, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099718

RESUMO

Salivary gland neoplasms comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions with multiple histological subtypes, each with distinct growth patterns, resulting in a spectrum of tumor-specific prognoses; pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) are the most common representatives of these neoplasms. Many studies have associated specific profiles of membrane and adhesion molecules in salivary gland tissues; these profiles appear to be relevant in tumor biology as well as be interpreted as fingerprints for tumor classification, diagnostic prognostic and therapeutic targets. One of these membrane molecule complexes are the tight junctions, composed by various proteins, in which claudins are protagonists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expressions of genes that encode tight junction proteins (CLDN-1, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -11, occludin [OCLN], zonula occludens [TJP1, TJP2, and TJP3] and junctional adhesion molecule A [F11R]) in MEC and PA using real time RT-PCR. We observed high expression of CLDN-1 and -7 and low expression of CLDN-3, -11 and TJP2 in MEC compared to PA. PA samples demonstrated high OCLN expression when compared to MEC. CRTC1::MAML2 fusion was detected in 12 of 20 (60.0%) MEC samples and was associated with CLDN7 expression, while the absence of fusion was associated with high histological grade. Increased CLDN5 expression was associated with submandibular gland tumors. This study demonstrated differential expressions of genes encoding tight junction constituent proteins and their associations with tumor characteristics, suggesting their potential future role as diagnostic and prognostic markers.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36153299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review dedicated to pooling evidence for the associations of clinical features with malignant transformation (MT) and recurrence of 3 oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) (actinic cheilitis [AC], oral leukoplakia [OL], and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia [PVL]). STUDY DESIGN: We selected studies that included clinical features and risk factors (age, sex, site, size, appearance, alcohol intake, tobacco use, and sun exposure) of OL, PVL, and AC associated with recurrence and/or MT. RESULTS: Based on the meta-analysis results, non-homogeneous OL appears to have a 4.53 times higher chance of recurrence after treatment. We also found 6.52 higher chances of MT of non-homogeneous OL. Another clinical feature related to higher MT chances is the location (floor of the mouth and tongue has 4.48 higher chances) and the size (OL with >200 mm2 in size has 4.10 higher chances of MT). Regarding habits, nonsmoking patients with OL have a 3.20 higher chance of MT. The only clinical feature related to higher chances of MT in patients with PVL was sex (females have a 2.50 higher chance of MT). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that some clinical features may indicate greater chances of recurrence after treatment and MT of OPMD.

8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(4): 523-528, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394145

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent endocrine neoplasia and its incidence has tripled over the past 35years. Although papillary thyroid carcinoma carries a good prognosis, 10%-30% of patients still develop recurrence and metastasis. Some clinical and genetic features are associated with worse prognosis. The most frequent mutation is the BRAF p.V600E, which has been associated with many clinical features of poor prognosis. However, many studies have produced controversial results without any association between BRAF mutation and clinicopathological features of poor prognosis. Objective: Since the prognostic value of BRAF mutations remains controversial, this study aims to investigate the importance of this mutation in therapeutic decisions for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Methods: Therefore, we evaluated whether the presence of BRAF mutation is associated with features of poor prognosis in 85 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma older than 45years treated at A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, from 1980 to 2007. BRAF mutation was evaluated by pyrosequencing. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: The mean age of patients was 54 years (range: 45 - 77 years), 73 were women (85.8%) and 12 were men (14.2%). Among them, 39 cases (45.9%) presented extrathyroidal extension and 11 cases had recurrent disease. BRAF mutation was detected in 57 (67%) patients. No significant association was observed between BRAF mutation and gender (p =0.743), age (p = 0.236), N-stage (p =0.423), vascular and perineural infiltration (p =0.085 or multifocality (p = 1.0). Although not statistically significant, the majority of patients with recurrent disease were BRAF positive (9 out of 11) (p =0.325). Patients affected by BRAF mutation are associated with tumors larger than 1 cm (p =0.034) and with extrathyroidal extension (p =0.033). Conclusion: Although BRAF testing is widely available, there are no consistent data to support improvement in outcomes from incorporating it into therapeutic decision for thyroid cancer.


Resumo Introdução: O carcinoma papilífero de tireoide é a neoplasia endócrina mais frequente e sua incidência triplicou nos últimos 35 anos. Embora o carcinoma papilífero de tireoide tenha um bom prognóstico, 1% a 30% dos pacientes desenvolvem recorrência e metástase. Algumas características clínicas e genéticas estão associadas a um pior prognóstico. A mutação mais frequente é a BRAF p.V600E, a qual tem sido associada a muitas características clínicas de pior prognóstico. No entanto, muitos estudos apresentam resultados controversos, sem qualquer associação entre a mutação em BRAF e características clinicopatológicas de pior prognóstico. Objetivo: Uma vez que o valor prognóstico das mutações em BRAF permanece controverso, investigar a importância dessa mutação em decisões terapêuticas para o carcinoma papilífero de tireoide. Método: Foi avaliada a associação da mutação em BRAF com características de pior prognóstico em 85 pacientes com carcinoma papilífero de tireoide acima de 45 anos tratados no A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, de 1980 a 2007. A mutação em BRAF foi avaliada por pirossequenciamento. A análise estatística foi feita com o software SPSS. Resultados: A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 54 anos (variação de 45 - 77), 73 eram mulheres (85,8%) e 12 eram homens (14,2%). Entre eles, 39 casos (45,9%) apresentaram extensão extratireoidiana e 11, doença recorrente. A mutação em BRAF foi detectada em 57 (67%) pacientes. Não foi observada associação significante entre mutação em BRAF e sexo (p = 0,743), idade (p = 0,236), estágio N (p = 0,423), infiltração vascular e perineural (p = 0,085) ou multi-focalidade (p = 1,0). Apesar de não apresentar associação estatística, a maioria dos pacientes com doença recorrente foi positiva para BRAF (9 em 11) (p = 0,325). Os pacientes afetados pela mutação em BRAF estão associados a tumores maiores do que 1 cm (p = 0,034) e com extensão extratireoidiana (p = 0,033). Conclusão: Embora a mutação em BRAF seja amplamente avaliada, não há dados consistentes que demonstrem uma melhor sobrevida ou benefício clínico ao incorporá-la à decisão terapêutica para o câncer de tireoide.

9.
Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 26(3): e370-e379, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846820

RESUMO

Introduction Treatment of stage III laryngeal cancer suffered a major paradigm change with surgery being substituted by radiation therapy with chemotherapy. Objective To evaluate the oncological outcome of different treatment modalities for stage III laryngeal cancer using a population database. Methods A population database representing patients treated in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, was analyzed. Demographic, clinical and treatment variables were included, and the outcomes of interest were disease-specific and overall survival. Propensity score with nearest neighbor matching was used to compensate for imbalances in treatment groups. Results We retrieved data from 1,804 patients. In multivariate analysis, age, female gender, payment source, clinical N stage (cN) stages, and treatment modality were significant for disease-specific and overall survival. Patients submitted to surgery treatment had a significantly better disease-specific ( p < 0.001) and overall survival ( p < 0.001) compared with chemoradiation. Propensity score matching was based on cN stage, gender, age, topography, and payment modality, and allowed the pairing of 685 patients from each treatment modality. There was a significant difference in disease-specific survival favoring surgery-based treatment ( p = 0.017). Conclusion The treatment choice has a significant impact on survival in patients with stage III laryngeal cancer with surgery-based treatment being superior to chemoradiotherapy (CRT).

10.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(3): 337-344, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384170

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is the second most prevalent malignancy among head and neck tumors, and the treatment of patients with stage I or II disease can be performed with surgery or radiation therapy. National population studies describing therapeutic results comparing these modalities are unusual, but they can be very important to direct treatment guidelines. Objective To evaluate the survival results of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma at clinical stages I or II, according to the main therapeutic modalities used. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study using the database of Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo from January 2000 to March 2019. Inclusion criteria were patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in clinical stages cT1-2N0. To compensate for the non-random allocation of patients and the imbalance between confounding variables between groups, we used the propensity score methodology. Results A total of 3786 patients met the inclusion criteria. Regarding the cT stage, there were 2171 patients (57.3%) with cT1 tumors. Patients in the public health system had a longer time between diagnosis and treatment (p< 0.001). The analysis by propensity score showed that patients treated with surgery had a tendency towards better disease-specific survival (p = 0.012). Comparing radiotherapy alone versus its combination with radiochemotherapy, radiotherapy alone showed a tendency towards a better survival rate (p< 0.001). Conclusion Analysis by propensity score identified better results for disease-specific survival in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma at clinical stages I and II treated by surgery when compared to radiotherapy.


Resumo Introdução O carcinoma epidermoide de laringe é o segundo mais prevalente entre os tumores de cabeça e pescoço e o tratamento dos pacientes com doença em estádio I ou II pode ser feito com cirurgia ou radioterapia. Estudos populacionais nacionais que descrevem os resultados terapêuticos e compararam essas modalidades são poucos frequentes, mas podem ser muito importantes para orientar diretrizes de tratamento. Objetivo Avaliar os resultados de sobrevida dos pacientes com carcinoma epidermoide de laringe em estádios clínicos I ou II de acordo com as principais modalidades terapêuticas usadas. Método Estudo transversal de base populacional com a base de dados da Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo de janeiro de 2000 a março de 2019. Os critérios de inclusão foram pacientes com carcinoma epidermoide de laringe em estádios clínicos cT1-2N0. Para compensar pela alocação não randômica dos pacientes e pelo desequilíbrio entre variáveis confundidoras entre os grupos, usamos a metodologia do escore de propensão. Resultados Preencheram os critérios de inclusão 3.786 pacientes. Em relação ao estádio cT, houve 2.171 pacientes (57,3%) com tumores cT1. Os pacientes do sistema único de saúde (SUS) apresentaram um maior tempo entre o diagnóstico e o tratamento (p < 0,001). A análise por escore de propensão mostrou que os pacientes submetidos a cirurgia apresentaram uma tendência de melhor sobrevida doença específica (p = 0,012). Comparando-se radioterapia isolada versus combinação com radioquimioterapia, o tratamento isolado demonstrou tendência a melhor taxa de sobrevida (p< 0,001). Conclusão A análise por escore de propensão identificou melhores resultados de sobrevida doença específica em pacientes com carcinoma epidermoide de laringe estádios clínicos I e II tratados por cirurgia quando comparados a radioterapia.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725962

RESUMO

High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is recognized as a primary etiologic factor of anogenital cancers and more recently of a subgroup of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC). The incidence of HPV-related OPSCC has increased dramatically in several developed countries in the past 3 decades and is currently the most common cancer caused by HR-HPV in the United States and Germany, surpassing cervical cancer. Consequently, the patient's demographic and clinicopathologic profile has shifted to nonsmoking and nondrinking younger men with higher schooling level and with a history of multiple oral sex partners. Patients with HPV-related OPSCC often show better treatment outcomes and higher survival rates than their HPV-unrelated counterparts, which has led to a change in tumor staging for HPV-related cases. HPV vaccination is emerging as an effective primary prevention strategy, and systematic screening of HPV DNA in blood and salivary oral rinse samples of HR patients is being examined to determine if it may provide a surveillance method and support early diagnosis of HPV-related OPSCC. In this context, a narrative review was conducted to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of HPV-related OPSCC, including epidemiology, risk factors, clinicopathologic and molecular features, screening, prevention, management, and prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Prognóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
12.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 27(3): e274-e284, may. 2022. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-204656

RESUMO

Background: Lip, oral cavity, and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represent a major health problem in the global scenario. In South America, the highest incidence rates are seen in Brazil. Therefore, the epidemiological and clinical profile and survival outcomes of lip, oral cavity, and oropharyngeal SCC was studied in São Paulo State, Brazil. Material and Methods: The clinicopathological data of 12,099 patients with lip, oral cavity, and oropharyngeal SCC were obtained from hospital cancer registries of the Fundação Oncocentro de São Paulo, Brazil (2010–2015). Survival rates and other analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results: A clear male predominance was observed, particularly for patients with oropharyngeal SCC (88.3%). The average age of patients was higher for lip cases (65 ± 13.5 years) compared to other sites. The schooling level was low for most patients, especially in lip cases (87.9%). Most of the patients with oral cavity (71.8%) and oropharyngeal (86.3%) SCC had advanced-stage (III–IV) disease. However, the majority of lip cases (83.3%) were at an early stage (I–II). Surgical excision was the main treatment for lip (72%) and oral cavity SCC (23.5%), and chemoradiotherapy was the main treatment for oropharyngeal SCC (40.2%). The 5-year overall survival (OS) for patients with lip, oral cavity, and oropharyngeal SCC were 66.3, 30.9, and 22.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the determinants of OS were different for lip, oral cavity, and oropharyngeal SCC, except for those at the clinical stage, which was an independent predictor for all sites. Conclusions: OS-independent determinants varied according to the affected site. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCC presented worse survival rates than those for lip SCC.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Lábio/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia
13.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 30: e20210702, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that play a critical role in the immune response against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and represent a therapeutic target in cancer. OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify DCs in tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) under the influence of HPV infection. METHODOLOGY: CD1a and CD83 antibodies were used to identify immature dendritic cells and mature dendritic cells by immunohistochemistry in 33 primary TSCC and 10 normal tonsils (NTs), respectively. For the TSCC samples, the number of DCs per area was evaluated in the intra- and peritumoral compartments. For the NTs, the quantification of DCs was evaluated in the intra- and peritonsillar compartments. HPV detection methods were determined according to the ASCO Clinical Practice Guidelines from the College of American Pathologists Guideline (2018). RESULTS: There were fewer intratumoral CD1a+ DCs in the HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC groups than in the NT group (p<0.05). In the peritumoral compartment, there were fewer CD83+ DCs in the HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC groups than in the NT group (p<0.001). The quantification of DCs subtypes showed no statistical differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC groups (p>0.137). Patients with HPV-positive TSCC had significantly better overall survival rate than those with HPV-negative TSCC (p=0.004). CONCLUSION: Tumor activity contributes to DC depletion regardless of intralesional HPV positivity. An improved prognosis has been reported in patients with HPV-positive TSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias Tonsilares , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Tonsilares/patologia
14.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 78: 102143, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced tobacco consumption in the population has not been associated with reduced incidence rates of head and neck cancer in several countries. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between HNC and sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle of former smokers from three Brazilian cancer centers. METHODS: A multicenter case-control study was conducted with 229 former smokers diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and 318 controls (former smokers without head and neck cancer). Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: 11-20 years after smoking cessation showed significant impact on HNC reduction (OR 0.22, 95% CI, 0.12-0.39), which reached 82% (95% CI, 0.09-0.35) among 20 + former smokers when compared to individuals who had stopped smoking for up to 5 years. A history of high-intensity smoking (>40 pack-years) increased HNC risk by 2.09 times (95% CI 1.13-3.89) when compared to subjects who smoked up to 20 pack-years. Past alcohol consumption (OR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.06-3.82) was also associated with head and neck cancer risk in former smokers when compared to no alcohol consumption. There was a decreased head and neck cancer risk in former smokers who had high school level of education (OR 0.38, 95% CI, 0.16-0.91) compared to illiterate former smokers; and former smokers with moderate intake of vegetables (OR 0.49, 95% CI, 0.28-0.85) and fruits (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.25-0.73) compared to those with low intake. CONCLUSION: Head and neck cancer risk in former smokers decreases after 11 years after smoking cessation, former smokers with past alcohol consumption showed an increased risk of HNC. High school level of education and moderate intake of vegetables and fruits reduced HNC risk among former smokers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Fumantes , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Verduras
15.
Head Neck ; 44(7): 1604-1615, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and oncological results of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with early lip and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a real-world scenario. METHODS: Retrospective study including seven Brazilian centers. RESULTS: Four-hundred and seven cN0 patients were accrued for 20 years. The rate of occult metastasis was 23.1% and 22 patients (5.4%) had regional failure. We found, for 5 years of follow-up, 85.3% of regional recurrence-free survival; 77.1% of disease-free survival; 73.7% of overall survival; and 86.7% of disease-specific survival. The rate of false-negative cases was 5.4%. CONCLUSION: In a real-world scenario, sentinel lymph node biopsy for patients with SCC of the lip and oral cavity proved feasible in different settings and to be oncologically safe, with similar rates of occult lymph node metastasis and false-negative cases, when compared to elective neck dissection, and with similar long-term survival to that reported historically.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Brasil , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Lábio/patologia , Esvaziamento Cervical/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos
16.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 77: 100022, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate Incidental Thyroid Carcinoma (ITC) by comparing the results of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) cytology and the postoperative pathological findings. METHODS: Data of 1479 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy were retrieved. Three hundred eighty-six patients were excluded due to insufficient data. Each surgical specimen studied received two histopathological diagnoses: the local diagnosis ‒ for the same area in which the FNAB was performed; and the final diagnosis, which includes a study of the entire surgical specimen. RESULTS: A thousand and ninety-three patients were investigated. FNAB result was malignant in 187 patients, benign in 204, suspicious or indeterminate in 668 cases, and inconclusive in 34 cases. The prevalence of ITC was 15.1%. Most of the ITC in this series was less than 0.5 cm. The incidence of ITC was higher in Bethesda III (17.5% ITC) and IV (19% ITC) than in Bethesda II cases (1.5% false negatives and 9% ITC). CONCLUSION: Although the incidence of false-negative results in Bethesda II nodules is only 1.5%, 9% of these patients had ITC in the thyroid parenchyma outside the nodule that underwent preoperative FNAB. The incidence of ITC in the same scenario was even higher in Bethesda III (17.5%) and Bethesda IV cases (19%). Ultrasonography-guided FNAB is an excellent method for the assessment of thyroid nodules. However, biopsy sites should be carefully selected. Despite the high incidence of incidentalomas, total thyroidectomy should not always be the treatment of choice due to its rare but potentially serious complications. The findings of the present study can assist future clinical decisions towards active surveillance strategies for the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia
17.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 42(1): 17-25, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292785

RESUMO

Introduction: Numerous studies have evaluated the prognostic significance of perineural invasion (PNI) in oral cancer; however, the results are inconclusive. Purpose: To identify the prognostic value of PNI in oral cancer through a metanalysis. Methods: A literature review was carried out, searching the MedLine databases via Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, Cochrane and Websco. Results: A total of 56 studies were included. The results indicate that PNI in oral cancer has an incidence of 28% (95% confidence interval (CI) 24-31%); 5-year survival with relative risk (RR) 0.67 (0.59-0.75); 5-year disease-free survival RR 0.71 (0.68-0.75); locoregional recurrence with RR 2.09 (1.86-2.35). Conclusions: PNI is a negative prognostic factor in oral cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico
18.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 30(2): 114-118, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255047

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rates of distant metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma varies from 3 to 50%. Metastases are usually multiple, diagnosed within 24 months after treatment and sited in the lungs, bone or liver. This review highlights the importance of a personalized treatment approach in such patients. RECENT FINDINGS: In patients with primary tumor controlled and with oligometastatic disease, surgical options can be considered, especially for lung metastases. Overall survival for patients who are candidates for lung metastasectomy can be as high as 59%. In bone and liver metastases, resection is not frequently used but radiofrequency ablation is a promising option. Finally, mediastinal and axillary lymph node metastasis are classified as distant metastases, and lymph node dissection is the treatment of choice whenever the disease is limited to these sites. SUMMARY: Patients with distant metastases usually are considered incurable; however, an aggressive local treatment of solitary distant metastases should be considered in highly selected patients, with a potential increase of overall survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Excisão de Linfonodo , Metástase Linfática , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 92-96, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364301

RESUMO

SUMMARY We report a rare case of Cushing's syndrome in a 37-year-old female who initially presented with localized acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. In January 2014, she underwent a right parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation and adjuvant radiotherapy. In August 2018, she presented a histologically-proven local regional relapse. The patient was considered for salvage surgery with facial nerve sacrifice and remained with no evidence of disease. One year later the patient developed pulmonary dissemination and started to gain weight and developed facial plethora and acne on the face and upper trunk. In a physical examination, the patient presented moon face, buffalo hump, acne and stage 2 hypertension. Biochemical evaluation confirmed ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. IHC for ACTH in the lung biopsy revealed strong positive staining for ACTH confirming a diagnosis of ectopic ACTH secretion by a metastatic parotid acinic cell carcinoma. Ketoconazole (600 mg/d) was started to treat the CS. In addition, as chemotherapy was initiated to treat the metastatic disease. After the fifth cycle of chemotherapy, ketoconazole was suspended and the patient remained in remission of CS for four months, when CS recurred. A unique feature of this case is related to the clinical CS relapse associated with disease progression, which needed prompt treatment with ketoconazole, resulting in a significant improvement in the patient's condition. Although rare, should be attentive for possible CS features in patients with high-grade salivary gland carcinomas, since the diagnosis of ectopic secretion of ACTH may significantly impact their management and outcomes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico/complicações , Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Parotídeas/complicações , Carcinoma/complicações , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
20.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 66(1): 92-96, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029850

RESUMO

We report a rare case of Cushing's syndrome in a 37-year-old female who initially presented with localized acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. In January 2014, she underwent a right parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation and adjuvant radiotherapy. In August 2018, she presented a histologically-proven local regional relapse. The patient was considered for salvage surgery with facial nerve sacrifice and remained with no evidence of disease. One year later the patient developed pulmonary dissemination and started to gain weight and developed facial plethora and acne on the face and upper trunk. In a physical examination, the patient presented moon face, buffalo hump, acne and stage 2 hypertension. Biochemical evaluation confirmed ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. IHC for ACTH in the lung biopsy revealed strong positive staining for ACTH confirming a diagnosis of ectopic ACTH secretion by a metastatic parotid acinic cell carcinoma. Ketoconazole (600 mg/d) was started to treat the CS. In addition, as chemotherapy was initiated to treat the metastatic disease. After the fifth cycle of chemotherapy, ketoconazole was suspended and the patient remained in remission of CS for four months, when CS recurred. A unique feature of this case is related to the clinical CS relapse associated with disease progression, which needed prompt treatment with ketoconazole, resulting in a significant improvement in the patient's condition. Although rare, should be attentive for possible CS features in patients with high-grade salivary gland carcinomas, since the diagnosis of ectopic secretion of ACTH may significantly impact their management and outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico , Carcinoma , Síndrome de Cushing , Neoplasias Parotídeas/complicações , Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico/complicações , Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico/diagnóstico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Adulto , Carcinoma/complicações , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
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