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1.
Adv Mater ; 31(39): e1903717, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402527

RESUMO

Cesium lead halide perovskites are of interest for light-emitting diodes and lasers. So far, thin-films of CsPbX3 have typically afforded very low photoluminescence quantum yields (PL-QY < 20%) and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) only at cryogenic temperatures, as defect related nonradiative recombination dominated at room temperature (RT). There is a current belief that, for efficient light emission from lead halide perovskites at RT, the charge carriers/excitons need to be confined on the nanometer scale, like in CsPbX3 nanoparticles (NPs). Here, thin films of cesium lead bromide, which show a high PL-QY of 68% and low-threshold ASE at RT, are presented. As-deposited layers are recrystallized by thermal imprint, which results in continuous films (100% coverage of the substrate), composed of large crystals with micrometer lateral extension. Using these layers, the first cesium lead bromide thin-film distributed feedback and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with ultralow threshold at RT that do not rely on the use of NPs are demonstrated. It is foreseen that these results will have a broader impact beyond perovskite lasers and will advise a revision of the paradigm that efficient light emission from CsPbX3 perovskites can only be achieved with NPs.

2.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4990, 2018 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478331

RESUMO

Improving lifetimes and efficiencies of blue organic light-emitting diodes is clearly a scientific challenge. Towards solving this challenge, we propose a unicolored phosphor-sensitized fluorescence approach, with phosphorescent and fluorescent emitters tailored to preserve the initial color of phosphorescence. Using this approach, we design an efficient sky-blue light-emitting diode with radiative decay times in the submicrosecond regime. By changing the concentration of fluorescent emitter, we show that the lifetime is proportional to the reduction of the radiative decay time and tune the operational stability to lifetimes of up to 320 h (80% decay, initial luminance of 1000 cd/m2). Unicolored phosphor-sensitized fluorescence provides a clear path towards efficient and stable blue light-emitting diodes, helping to overcome the limitations of thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(45): 39821-39829, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29052974

RESUMO

Nickel oxide (NiO) is a widely used material for efficient hole extraction in optoelectronic devices. However, its surface characteristics strongly depend on the processing history and exposure to adsorbates. To achieve controllability of the electronic and chemical properties of solution-processed nickel oxide (sNiO), we functionalize its surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-cyanophenylphosphonic acid. A detailed analysis of infrared and photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chemisorption of the molecules with a nominal layer thickness of around one monolayer and gives an insight into the chemical composition of the SAM. Density functional theory calculations reveal the possible binding configurations. By the application of the SAM, we increase the sNiO work function by up to 0.8 eV. When incorporated in organic solar cells, the increase in work function and improved energy level alignment to the donor does not lead to a higher fill factor of these cells. Instead, we observe the formation of a transport barrier, which can be reduced by increasing the conductivity of the sNiO through doping with copper oxide. We conclude that the widespread assumption of maximizing the fill factor by only matching the work function of the oxide charge extraction layer with the energy levels in the active material is a too narrow approach. Successful implementation of interface modifiers is only possible with a sufficiently high charge carrier concentration in the oxide interlayer to support efficient charge transfer across the interface.

4.
Adv Mater ; 29(30)2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585293

RESUMO

Stable electrical doping of organic semiconductors is fundamental for the functionality of high performance devices. It is known that dopants can be subjected to strong diffusion in certain organic semiconductors. This work studies the impact of operating conditions on thin films of the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the small molecule Spiro-MeOTAD, doped with two differently sized p-type dopants. The negatively charged dopants can drift upon application of an electric field in thin films of doped P3HT over surprisingly large distances. This drift is not observed in the small molecule Spiro-MeOTAD. Upon the dopants' directional movement in P3HT, a dedoped region forms at the negatively biased electrode, increasing the overall resistance of the thin film. In addition to electrical measurements, optical microscopy, spatially resolved infrared spectroscopy, and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy are used to investigate the drift of dopants. Dopant mobilities of 10-9 to 10-8 cm2 V-1 s-1 are estimated. This drift over several micrometers is reversible and can be controlled. Furthermore, this study presents a novel memory device to illustrate the applicability of this effect. The results emphasize the importance of dynamic processes under operating conditions that must be considered even for single doped layers.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(23): 3295-3298, 2017 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28239727

RESUMO

The first successful meridional to facial isomerization of homoleptic carbenic iridium(iii) complexes is presented. The Brønsted-acid-mediated procedure allows the conversion of large amounts of material and additionally provides an in situ purification because of precipitation of the target material during the reaction. The pronounced acid-dependency of the reaction yield observed for tris(N-phenyl,N-methyl-benzimidazol-2-yl)iridium(iii) and tris(N-phenyl,N-benzyl-benzimidazol-2-yl)iridium(iii) was investigated by labelling experiments and quantum chemical calculations. The results reveal a subtle balance between the strength of the acid, the coordinating power of the corresponding base and steric effects of the ligand sphere. Based on these findings, general rules are given for a systematic and material-specific modification of the reaction conditions for the mer-fac isomerization of homoleptic carbenic Ir(iii) complexes.

6.
Adv Mater ; 29(12)2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28102599

RESUMO

Photonic nanostructures are created in organo-metal halide perovskites by thermal nanoimprint lithography at a temperature of 100 °C. The imprinted layers are significantly smoothened compared to the initially rough, polycrystalline layers and the impact of surface defects is substantially mitigated upon imprint. As a case study, 2D photonic crystals are shown to afford lasing with ultralow lasing thresholds at room temperature.

7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 9(2)2017 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970711

RESUMO

Waveguides made of poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) play a major role in the homogeneous distribution of display backlights as a matrix for solid-state dye lasers and polymer optical fibers (POFs). PMMA is favored because of its transparency in the visible spectrum, low price, and well-controlled processability. Nevertheless, technical drawbacks, such as its limited temperature stability, call for new materials. In this work, the copolymerization technique is used to modify the properties of the corresponding homopolymers. The analytical investigation of fourteen copolymers made of methyl-methacrylate (MMA) or ethyl-methacrylate (EMA) as the basis monomer is summarized. Their polymerization behaviors are examined by NMR spectroscopy with subsequent copolymerization parameter evaluation according to Fineman-Ross and Kelen-Tüdös. Therefore, some r-parameter sets are shown to be capable of copolymerizations with very high conversions. The first applications as high-temperature resistant (HT) materials for HT-POFs are presented. Copolymers containing isobornyl-methacrylate (IBMA) as the comonomer are well-suited for this demanding application.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(7): 4940-5, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26829619

RESUMO

Multilayer solution-processed devices in organic electronics show the tendency of intermixing of subsequently deposited layers. Here, we synthesize naphthalene tetracarboxydiimide (NDI)-based n-type semiconducting polymers with thermally cleavable side chains which upon removal render the polymer insoluble. Infrared and photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to investigate the pyrolysis process. Characterization of organic field-effect transistors provides insight into charge transport. After the pyrolysis homogeneous films could be produced which are insoluble in the primary solvent. By varying curing temperature and time we show that these process parameters govern the amount of side chains in the film and influence the device performance.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(15): 2913-8, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267180

RESUMO

The organic cation and its interplay with the inorganic lattice underlie the exceptional optoelectronic properties of organo-metallic halide perovskites. Herein we report high-quality infrared spectroscopic measurements of methylammonium lead halide perovskite (CH3NH3Pb(I/Br/Cl)3) films and single crystals at room temperature, from which the dielectric function in the investigated spectral range is derived. Comparison with electronic structure calculations in vacuum of the free methylammonium cation allows for a detailed peak assignment. We analyze the shifts of the vibrational peak positions between the different halides and infer the extent of interaction between organic moiety and the surrounding inorganic cage. The positions of the NH3(+) stretching vibrations point to significant hydrogen bonding between the methylammonium and the halides for all three perovskites.

10.
Langmuir ; 31(37): 10303-9, 2015 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26315142

RESUMO

In this work we examine small conjugated molecules bearing a thiol headgroup as self assembled monolayers (SAM). Functional groups in the SAM-active molecule shift the work function of gold to n-channel semiconductor regimes and improve the wettability of the surface. We examine the effect of the presence of methylene linkers on the orientation of the molecule within the SAM. 3,4,5-Trimethoxythiophenol (TMP-SH) and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylthiol (TMP-CH2-SH) were first subjected to computational analysis, predicting work function shifts of -430 and -310 meV. Contact angle measurements show an increase in the wetting envelope compared to that of pristine gold. Infrared (IR) measurements show tilt angles of 22 and 63°, with the methylene-linked molecule (TMP-CH2-SH) attaining a flatter orientation. The actual work function shift as measured with photoemission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS) is even larger, -600 and -430 meV, respectively. The contact resistance between gold electrodes and poly[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene) (Polyera Aktive Ink, N2200) in n-type OFETs is demonstrated to decrease by 3 orders of magnitude due to the use of TMP-SH and TMP-CH2-SH. The effective mobility was enhanced by two orders of magnitude, significantly decreasing the contact resistance to match the mobilities reported for N2200 with optimized electrodes.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(22): 20234-41, 2014 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25323064

RESUMO

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organic molecules can be used to tune interface energetics and thereby improve charge carrier injection at metal-semiconductor contacts. We investigate the compatibility of SAM formation with high-throughput processing techniques. Therefore, we examine the quality of SAMs, in terms of work function shift and chemical composition as measured with photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy and in dependency on molecular exposure during SAM formation. The functionality of the SAMs is determined by the performance increase of organic field-effect transistors upon SAM treatment of the source/drain contacts. This combined analytical and device-based approach enables us to minimize the necessary formation times via an optimization of the deposition conditions. Our findings demonstrate that SAMs composed of partially fluorinated alkanethiols can be prepared in ambient atmosphere from ethanol solution using immersion times as short as 5 s and still exhibit almost full charge injection functionality if process parameters are chosen carefully. This renders solution-processed SAMs compatible with high-throughput solution-based deposition techniques.

12.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 9(1): 223, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24936155

RESUMO

A widely used application of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods is the preparation of permeation barrier layers against water vapour. Especially in the field of organic electronics, these films are highly demanded as such devices are very sensitive to moisture and oxygen. In this work, multilayers of aluminium oxide (AlO x ) and plasma polymer (PP) were coated on polyethylene naphthalate substrates by plasma-enhanced ALD and plasma-enhanced CVD at 80â"ƒ in the same reactor, respectively. As precursor, trimethylaluminium was used together with oxygen radicals in order to prepare AlO x , and benzene served as precursor to deposit the PP. This hybrid structure allows the decoupling of defects between the single AlO x layers and extends the permeation path for water molecules towards the entire barrier film. Furthermore, the combination of two plasma techniques in a single reactor system enables short process times without vacuum breaks. Single aluminium oxide films by plasma-enhanced ALD were compared to thermally grown layers and showed a significantly better barrier performance. The water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) was determined by means of electrical calcium tests. For a multilayer with 3.5 dyads of 25-nm AlO x and 125-nm PP, a WVTR of 1.2 × 10 (-3) gm (-2) d (-1) at 60â"ƒ and 90% relative humidity could be observed.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(9): 6616-22, 2014 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24703464

RESUMO

We study two types of water/alcohol-soluble aliphatic amines, polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyethylenimine-ethoxylated (PEIE), for their suitability as electron injection layers in solution-processed blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to determine the nominal thickness of the polymer layers while ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is carried out to determine the induced work-function change of the silver cathode. The determined work-function shifts are as high as 1.5 eV for PEI and 1.3 eV for PEIE. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy images reveal that homogeneous PEI and PEIE layers are present at nominal thicknesses of about 11 nm. Finally, we solution prepare blue emitting polymer-based OLEDs using PEI/PEIE in combination with Ag as cathode layers. Luminous efficiency reaches 3 and 2.2 cd A(-1), whereas maximum luminance values are as high as 8000 and 3000 cd m(-2) for PEI and PEIE injection layers, respectively. The prepared devices show a comparable performance to Ca/Ag OLEDs and an improved shelf lifetime.

14.
Nano Lett ; 14(5): 2735-40, 2014 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24702643

RESUMO

Hybrid solar cells based on organometal halide perovskite absorbers have recently emerged as promising class for cost- and energy-efficient photovoltaics. So far, unraveling the morphology of the different materials within the nanostructured absorber layer has not been accomplished. Here, we present the first visualization of the mesoporous absorber layer in a perovskite solar cell from analytical transmission electron microscopy studies. Material contrast is achieved by electron spectroscopic imaging. We found that infiltration of the hole transport material into the scaffold is low and inhomogeneous. Furthermore, our data suggest that the device performance is strongly affected by the morphology of the TiO2 scaffold with a fine grained structure being disadvantageous.

15.
Microsc Microanal ; 20(1): 175-83, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24382158

RESUMO

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of beam sensitive weak-phase objects such as biological cryo samples usually show a very low signal-to-noise ratio. These samples have almost no amplitude contrast and instead structural information is mainly encoded in the phase contrast. To increase the sample contrast in the image, especially for low spatial frequencies, the use of phase plates for close to focus phase contrast enhancement in TEM has long been discussed. Electrostatic phase plates are favorable in particular, as their tunable potential will allow an optimal phase shift adjustment and higher resolution than film phase plates as they avoid additional scattering events in matter. Here we show the first realization of close to focus phase contrast images of actin filament cryo samples acquired using an electrostatic Zach phase plate. Both positive and negative phase contrast is shown, which is obtained by applying appropriate potentials to the phase plate. The dependence of phase contrast improvement on sample orientation with respect to the phase plate is demonstrated and single-sideband artifacts are discussed. Additionally, possibilities to reduce contamination and charging effects of the phase plate are shown.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Preparação Histocitológica/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/instrumentação , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase/métodos , Actinas , Animais , Catalase , Bovinos , Eletrodos
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(2): 1193-9, 2014 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24351143

RESUMO

The gas-phase molecular layer deposition (MLD) of conformal and highly luminescent monolayers of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3) is reported. The controlled formation of Alq3 monolayers is achieved for the first time by functionalization of the substrate with amino groups, which serve as initial docking sites for trimethyl aluminum (TMA) molecules binding datively to the amine. Thereby, upon exposure to 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ), the self-limiting formation of highly luminescent Alq3 monolayers is afforded. The growth process and monolayer formation were studied and verified by in situ quartz crystal monitoring, optical emission and absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The nature of the MLD process provides an avenue to coat arbitrarily shaped 3D surfaces and porous structures with high surface areas, as demonstrated in this work for silica aerogels. The concept presented here paves the way to highly sensitive luminescent sensors and dye-sensitized metal oxides for future applications (e.g., in photocatalysis and solar cells).

17.
Org Lett ; 14(19): 5090-3, 2012 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22992123

RESUMO

In an attempt to synthesize a novel homoleptic complex 3 from 2-methyl-3-phenylquinoxaline 1 and Ir(acac)(3) for application as a triplet emitter in OLEDs (organic light-emitting diodes) no cyclometalation was observed. Instead, an annulation to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline 2 was observed. Since pyrroloquinoxalines are potentially bioactive and few paths for their synthesis are known, selected reactions and conditions were investigated, suggesting Ir(acac)(3) as catalyst and proving glycerol to be a reactant.


Assuntos
Pirróis/síntese química , Quinoxalinas/química , Alquilação , Glicerol/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Quinoxalinas/síntese química
18.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 8: 1037-47, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23019431

RESUMO

The compounds 6-(pyrrol-2-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine, 2-(pyrrol-2-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline and 2-(2-(N-methylbenz[d,e]imidazole)-6-(pyrrol-2-yl)-pyridine were synthesized by using an in situ generated boronic acid for the Suzuki coupling. Crystals of the products could be grown and exhibited interesting structures by X-ray analysis, one of them showing a chain-like network with the adjacent molecules linked to each other via intermolecular N-H(…)N hydrogen bonds.

19.
Adv Mater ; 24(40): 5408-27, 2012 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22945550

RESUMO

During the last few years, transition metal oxides (TMO) such as molybdenum tri-oxide (MoO(3) ), vanadium pent-oxide (V(2) O(5) ) or tungsten tri-oxide (WO(3) ) have been extensively studied because of their exceptional electronic properties for charge injection and extraction in organic electronic devices. These unique properties have led to the performance enhancement of several types of devices and to a variety of novel applications. TMOs have been used to realize efficient and long-term stable p-type doping of wide band gap organic materials, charge-generation junctions for stacked organic light emitting diodes (OLED), sputtering buffer layers for semi-transparent devices, and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells with improved charge extraction, enhanced power conversion efficiency and substantially improved long term stability. Energetics in general play a key role in advancing device structure and performance in organic electronics; however, the literature provides a very inconsistent picture of the electronic structure of TMOs and the resulting interpretation of their role as functional constituents in organic electronics. With this review we intend to clarify some of the existing misconceptions. An overview of TMO-based device architectures ranging from transparent OLEDs to tandem OPV cells is also given. Various TMO film deposition methods are reviewed, addressing vacuum evaporation and recent approaches for solution-based processing. The specific properties of the resulting materials and their role as functional layers in organic devices are discussed.


Assuntos
Eletrônica , Molibdênio/química , Óxidos/química , Tungstênio/química , Compostos de Vanádio/química , Eletrodos , Polímeros/química , Teoria Quântica , Semicondutores , Energia Solar
20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(33): 13818-22, 2012 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22845011

RESUMO

The use of blue phosphorescent emitters in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) imposes demanding requirements on a host material. Among these are large triplet energies, the alignment of levels with respect to the emitter, the ability to form and sustain amorphous order, material processability, and an adequate charge carrier mobility. A possible design strategy is to choose a π-conjugated core with a high triplet level and to fulfill the other requirements by using suitable substituents. Bulky substituents, however, induce large spatial separations between conjugated cores, can substantially reduce intermolecular electronic couplings, and decrease the charge mobility of the host. In this work we analyze charge transport in amorphous 2,8-bis(triphenylsilyl)dibenzofuran, an electron-transporting material synthesized to serve as a host in deep-blue OLEDs. We show that mesomeric effects delocalize the frontier orbitals over the substituents recovering strong electronic couplings and lowering reorganization energies, especially for electrons, while keeping energetic disorder small. Admittance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the material has indeed a high electron mobility and a small Poole-Frenkel slope, supporting our conclusions. By linking electronic structure, molecular packing, and mobility, we provide a pathway to the rational design of hosts with high charge mobilities.

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