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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(6): 864-870, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303247

RESUMO

The REVEAL AF study demonstrated a high incidence of previously undetected atrial fibrillation (AF) using insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) in patients with risk factors for AF and stroke. This analysis evaluated whether ICM monitoring led to changes in clinical management after AF detection. Patients with CHADS2 scores ≥3 (or =2 with ≥1 additional AF risk factor) but no history of AF received an ICM and were followed 18 to 30 months. Physicians recorded changes in clinical management in response to AF detection at scheduled (every 6 months) and unscheduled follow-up visits. Changes in clinical management included oral anticoagulation, rhythm or rate control pharmacotherapy, cardioversion, ablation, and cardiac subspecialist referral. In 387 patients who met inclusion criteria and received an ICM, AF was found in 115. A change in clinical management was taken in 87 patients with AF (76%). In 80 of these 87, a change was taken at the first visit after AF detection. In total, 31 patients (27%) with AF had ≥2 visits at which changes in clinical management were taken. The most common change was initiation of oral anticoagulation (n = 73, 63% of patients with AF). Patients with a change in clinical management at the first visit after AF detection tended to have longer AF episodes and a higher maximal daily AF burden compared with AF patients for whom no change was taken (longest episode: 52 vs 28 minutes; maximal daily AF burden:112 vs 23 minutes). Changes in management more frequently occurred at visits where patients reported AF-compatible symptoms (65% vs 46% of visits, p = 0.01). In conclusion, ICM monitoring to identify AF guides both immediate and long-term patient management in a population at high risk for stroke.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268487

RESUMO

Importance: Bleeding and thrombotic events (eg, stroke and systemic embolism) are common in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) taking warfarin sodium despite a well-established therapeutic range. Objective: To evaluate whether history of therapeutic warfarin control in patients with AF is independently associated with subsequent bleeding or thrombotic events. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter cohort study of 176 primary care, cardiology, and electrophysiology clinics in the United States, data were obtained during 51 830 visits among 10 137 patients with AF in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) Registry; 5545 patients treated with warfarin were included in the bleeding analysis, and 5635 patients were included in the thrombotic event analysis. Patient follow-up was performed from June 29, 2010, to November 30, 2014. Data analysis was performed from August 4, 2016, to February 15, 2019. Exposures: Multiple measures of warfarin control within the preceding 6 months were analyzed: time in therapeutic range of 2.0 to 3.0, most recent international normalized ratio (INR), percentage of time that a patient had interpolated INR values less than 2.0 or greater than 3.0, INR variance, INR range, and percentage of INR values in therapeutic range. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of INR measures, alone or in combination, with clinical factors and risk for thrombotic events and bleeding during the subsequent 6 months was assessed post hoc using logistic regression models. Results: A total of 5545 patients (mean [SD] age, 74.5 [9.8] years; 3184 [57.4%] male) with AF were included in the major bleeding analysis and 5635 patients (mean [SD] age, 74.5 [9.8] years; 3236 [57.4%] male) in the thrombotic event analysis. During a median follow-up of 1.5 years (interquartile range, 1.0-2.5 years), there were 339 major bleeds (6.1%) and 51 strokes (0.9%). Multiple metrics of warfarin control were individually associated with subsequent bleeding. After adjustment for clinical bleeding risk, 3 measures-time in therapeutic range (per 1-SD increase ≤55: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32), variation in INR values (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-1.47), and maximum INR (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.31)-remained associated with bleeding risk. Adding INR variance to a clinical risk model slightly increased the C statistic from 0.68 to 0.69 and had a net reclassification improvement index of 0.028 (95% CI, -0.029 to 0.067). No INR measures were associated with subsequent stroke risk. Conclusions and Relevance: Three metrics of prior warfarin control were associated with bleeding risk but only marginally more so than traditional clinical factors. This study did not identify any measures of INR control that were significantly associated with stroke risk.

3.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(5): e005358, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092022

RESUMO

Background The Atrial Fibrillation Effect on Quality-of-Life (AFEQT) questionnaire has recently been validated to measure the impact of atrial fibrillation on quality of life, but a clinically important difference in AFEQT score has not been well defined. Methods and Results To determine the clinically important difference in overall AFEQT (score range= 0 [worst] to 100 [best]) and selected subscales, we analyzed data in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) registry, a United States-based outpatient atrial fibrillation registry. AFEQT was assessed at baseline and 1 year in a subset of 1347 ORBIT-AF patients from 80 US sites participating in ORBIT-AF from June 2010 to August 2011. The mean change method was used to relate changes in 1-year AFEQT scores to clinically important changes in the physician assessment of European Heart Rhythm Association functional status (1 class improvement and separately 1 class deterioration). Clinically important differences and 95% CI corresponding to either a 1 European Heart Rhythm Association class improvement or deterioration were 5.4 (3.6-7.2) and -4.2 (-6.9 to -1.5) AFEQT points, respectively. Similarly, clinically important difference values were seen for a 1 European Heart Rhythm Association class improvement for the AFEQT subscales Activities of Daily Living and Symptoms: 5.1 (2.5-7.6) and 7.1 (5.3-9.0) AFEQT points, respectively. Conclusions Based on the anchor of 1 European Heart Rhythm Association class change, changes in AFEQT score of + or -5 points are clinically important changes in patients' health. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01165710.

4.
Am Heart J ; 213: 81-90, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment patterns and outcomes of individuals with vascular disease who have new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) are not well characterized. METHODS: Among patients with new-onset AF, we analyzed treatment and outcomes in those with or without vascular disease in the ORBIT-AF II registry. Vascular disease was defined as coronary disease with or without myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularization, or peripheral artery disease. The primary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular or neurological events (MACNE) and major bleeding. Cox proportional hazard models were used to adjust the difference in patient characteristics. RESULTS: Overall 1920 of 6203 (31.0%) of new-onset AF had vascular disease. In patients with vascular disease, 62.2% of those were treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and 23.4% with warfarin. Dual therapy and triple therapy were used in 36.9% and 4.9%, respectively. Vascular disease patients had increased risk of MACNE (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.83 [95%CIs 1.32-2.55]), but not major bleeding (aHR 1.24 [0.95-1.63]). Among patients with vascular disease, relative to those on warfarin, those treated with DOACs had similar risk for MACNE (aHR 1.20 [0.77-1.87]) but lower risks for bleeding, although it did not reach statistical significance (aHR 0.70 [0.43-1.15]). Concomitant antiplatelet therapy was associated with higher bleeding (aHR 2.27 [1.38-3.73]) with no apparent reduction in MACNE (aHR 1.50 [1.00-2.25]). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with AF and vascular disease were managed with oral anticoagulation. About half of them were also treated with concomitant antiplatelet therapy, which was associated with increased risk of bleeding, without evidence of improved cardiovascular outcomes.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(9): e011205, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023126

RESUMO

Background Patient satisfaction with therapy is an important metric of care quality and has been associated with greater medication persistence. We evaluated the association of patient satisfaction with warfarin therapy to other metrics of anticoagulation care quality and clinical outcomes among patients with atrial fibrillation ( AF ). Methods and Results Using data from the ORBIT - AF (Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation) registry, patients were identified with AF who were taking warfarin and had completed an Anti-Clot Treatment Scale ( ACTS ) questionnaire, a validated metric of patient-reported burden and benefit of oral anticoagulation. Multivariate regressions were used to determine association of ACTS burden and benefit scores with time in therapeutic international normalized ratio range ( TTR ; both ≥75% and ≥60%), warfarin discontinuation, and clinical outcomes (death, stroke, major bleed, and all-cause hospitalization). Among 1514 patients with AF on warfarin therapy (75±10 years; 42% women; CHA 2 DS 2- VAS c 3.9±1.7), those most burdened with warfarin therapy were younger and more likely to be women, have paroxysmal AF , and to be treated with antiarrhythmic drugs. After adjustment for covariates, ACTS burden scores were independent of TTR ( TTR ≥75%: odds ratio, 1.01 [95% CI , 0.99-1.03]; TTR ≥60%: odds ratio, 1.01 [95% CI , 0.98-1.05]), warfarin discontinuation (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% CI , 0.97-1.01), or clinical outcomes. ACTS benefit scores were also not associated with TTR , warfarin discontinuation, or clinical outcomes. Conclusions In a large registry of patients with AF taking warfarin, ACTS scores provided independent information beyond other traditional metrics of oral anticoagulation care quality and identified patient groups at high risk for dissatisfaction with warfarin therapy.

6.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(10): 1628-1636, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846214

RESUMO

Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and its association with clinical outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in community practice are poorly characterized. In patients with AF, we sought to (1) examine the prevalence of baseline uncontrolled hypertension and the overall change in SBP control, (2) identify predictors of uncontrolled SBP over 2 years of follow-up, and (3) determine the relation between SBP and clinical outcomes. We analyzed 10,132 patients with AF at 176 clinics in the ORBIT-AF registry between 2010 and 2014, classified as: (1) no history of hypertension; (2) controlled hypertension (baseline SBP <140 mm Hg); (3) and uncontrolled hypertension (baseline SBP >140 mm Hg). Predictors of SBP >140 mm Hg at baseline or in follow-up were identified with pooled logistic regression. Random effects Cox regression models were used to compare cardiovascular outcomes and major bleeding as a function of continuous, time-dependent SBP. Overall 8,383 (83%) of patients with AF had hypertension. Of these, 24.2% (n = 2032) had uncontrolled baseline SBP, with little change over 2 years. Predictors of elevated follow-up SBP included uncontrolled baseline SBP, females, previous percutaneous coronary intervention, and diabetes. For every 5 mm Hg increase in follow-up SBP, the adjusted risk of stroke or systemic embolism or transient ischemic attack (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.08, p = 0.01), myocardial infarction (aHR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.11, p = 0.04), and major bleeding (aHR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06, p = 0.04) increased modestly. In conclusion, in patients with AF, higher SBP was associated with increasing adverse events; therefore, more rigorous blood pressure control should be emphasized.

7.
Cardiol Clin ; 37(2): 197-206, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926021

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are the epidemics of the twenty-first century. These often coexist and are the cause of major morbidity and mortality. Management of these patients has posed a significant challenge to the medical community. Guideline-directed pharmacologic therapy for heart failure is important; however, there is no clear consensus on how best to treat AF with concomitant HF. In this article, we provide an in-depth review of the management of AF in patients with HF and provide insight as to why catheter ablation should not be the first line of therapy in this population.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Ablação por Cateter , Tomada de Decisões , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Saúde Global , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Am Heart J ; 211: 77-89, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of cognitive impairment and frailty increase with age and may impact both therapy and outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: We examined the prevalence of clinically recognized cognitive impairment and frailty (as defined by the American Geriatric Society Criteria) in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Care in AF (ORBIT AF) and associated adjusted outcomes via multivariable Cox regression. The interaction between cognitive impairment and frailty and oral anticoagulation (OAC) in determining outcomes was examined. RESULTS: Among 9749 patients with AF [median (IQR) age 75 (67-82) y, 57% male], cognitive impairment and frailty was identified in 293 (3.0%) and 575 (5.9%) patients respectively. Frail patients (68 vs 77%, P < .001) and those with cognitive impairment (70 vs 77%, P = .006) were both less likely to receive an OAC. Both cognitive impairment [HR (95% CI) 1.34 (1.05-1.72), P = .0198] and frailty [HR 1.29 (1.08-1.55), P = .0060] were associated with increased risk of death. Cognitive impairment and frailty were not associated with stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) or major bleeding. In multivariable analysis, there was no interaction between OAC use and cognitive impairment or frailty in their associations with mortality, major bleeding and a composite end point of stroke, non-central nervous system systemic embolism, TIA, myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death. CONCLUSION: Those with cognitive impairment or frailty in AF had higher predicted risk for stroke and higher observed mortality, yet were less likely to be treated with OAC. Despite this, the benefits of OAC were similar in patients with and without cognitive impairment or frailty.

9.
JAMA ; 321(13): 1261-1274, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874766

RESUMO

Importance: Catheter ablation is effective in restoring sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation (AF), but its effects on long-term mortality and stroke risk are uncertain. Objective: To determine whether catheter ablation is more effective than conventional medical therapy for improving outcomes in AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Catheter Ablation vs Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation trial is an investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter, randomized trial involving 126 centers in 10 countries. A total of 2204 symptomatic patients with AF aged 65 years and older or younger than 65 years with 1 or more risk factors for stroke were enrolled from November 2009 to April 2016, with follow-up through December 31, 2017. Interventions: The catheter ablation group (n = 1108) underwent pulmonary vein isolation, with additional ablative procedures at the discretion of site investigators. The drug therapy group (n = 1096) received standard rhythm and/or rate control drugs guided by contemporaneous guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of death, disabling stroke, serious bleeding, or cardiac arrest. Among 13 prespecified secondary end points, 3 are included in this report: all-cause mortality; total mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization; and AF recurrence. Results: Of the 2204 patients randomized (median age, 68 years; 37.2% female; 42.9% had paroxysmal AF and 57.1% had persistent AF), 89.3% completed the trial. Of the patients assigned to catheter ablation, 1006 (90.8%) underwent the procedure. Of the patients assigned to drug therapy, 301 (27.5%) ultimately received catheter ablation. In the intention-to-treat analysis, over a median follow-up of 48.5 months, the primary end point occurred in 8.0% (n = 89) of patients in the ablation group vs 9.2% (n = 101) of patients in the drug therapy group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86 [95% CI, 0.65-1.15]; P = .30). Among the secondary end points, outcomes in the ablation group vs the drug therapy group, respectively, were 5.2% vs 6.1% for all-cause mortality (HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.60-1.21]; P = .38), 51.7% vs 58.1% for death or cardiovascular hospitalization (HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.74-0.93]; P = .001), and 49.9% vs 69.5% for AF recurrence (HR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.45-0.60]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with AF, the strategy of catheter ablation, compared with medical therapy, did not significantly reduce the primary composite end point of death, disabling stroke, serious bleeding, or cardiac arrest. However, the estimated treatment effect of catheter ablation was affected by lower-than-expected event rates and treatment crossovers, which should be considered in interpreting the results of the trial. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00911508.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter , Parada Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
10.
11.
Int J Cardiol ; 274: 152-157, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal function has been associated with an increased stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, whether renal function incrementally adds to risk prediction in both anticoagulated and non-anticoagulated patients with AF is unclear. METHODS: We used data from the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF)-a national, prospective, outpatient AF registry in patients aged >18 years (2010-2011). The association between baseline renal function and risk of stroke/systemic embolism (SSE) was evaluated in proportional hazards models adjusting for stroke risk score components. We compared discrimination of 2-year outcomes using C-indices and evaluated calibration by comparing event rates in ORBIT-AF to published rates from an external clinical trial population (ROCKET AF) and an observational cohort (ATRIA). RESULTS: Among 9743 patients included in the analysis, the median age was 75 years (interquartile range [IQR] 67-82), 89.5% were white, 43% were female, and 76% were taking oral anticoagulation (OAC). Over a median follow-up of 2.3 years, 214 SSE events occurred (1.00 per 100 patient-years). Continuous creatinine clearance (CrCl) was not associated with SSE risk after adjusting for other clinical factors (components of CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc). Discrimination for predicting stroke (C-index; 95% CI) was similar for R2CHADS2 (0.65; 0.61-0.69), CHADS2 (0.65; 0.61-0.69), and CHA2DS2-VASc (0.66; 0.62-0.70). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In a community patient population with AF, renal dysfunction was not independently associated with embolic risk beyond other established risk factors in either OAC-treated or untreated patients. Additional study is needed to identify clinical factors that incrementally add to stroke risk prediction.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(16): e008764, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369317

RESUMO

Background Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines suggest that for patients with atrial fibrillation who are at low risk for stroke (CHA2DS2VASc=1) (or women with CHA2DS2VASc=2) a variety of treatment strategies may be considered. However, in clinical practice, patterns of treatment in these "low-risk" patients are not well described. The objective of this analysis is to define thromboembolic event rates and to describe treatment patterns in patients with low-risk CHA2DS2VASc scores. Methods and Results We compared characteristics, treatment strategies, and outcomes among patients with a CHA2DS2VASc=0, CHA2DS2VASc=1, females with a CHA2DS2VASc=2, and CHA2DS2VASc ≥2 in ORBIT-AF (Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation) I & II. Compared with CHA2DS2VASc ≥2 patients (84.2%), those with a CHA2DS2VASc=0 (60.3%), 1 (69.9%), and females with a CHA2DS2VASc score=2 (72.4%) were significantly less often treated with oral anticoagulation ( P<0.0001). Stroke rates were low overall and ranged from 0 per 100 patient-years in those with CHA2DS2VASc=0, 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.5-1.2]) in those with CHA2DS2VASc=1, 0.8 (95% CI [0.4-1.6]) in females with a CHA2DS2VASc score=2, and 1.7 (95% CI [1.6-1.9]) in CHA2DS2VASc ≥2. All-cause mortality (per 100 patient-years) was highest in females with a CHA2DS2VASc score=2 (1.4) (95% CI [0.8-2.3]), compared with patients with a CHA2DS2VASc=0 (0.2) (95% CI [0.1-1.0]), and CHA2DS2VASc=1 (1.0) (95% CI [0.7-1.4]), but lower than patients with a CHA2DS2VASc ≥2 (5.7) (95% CI [5.4-6.0]). Conclusion The majority of CHA2DS2VASc=0-1 patients are treated with oral anticoagulation. In addition, the absolute risks of death and stroke/transient ischemic attack were low among both male and females CHA2DS2VASc=0-1 as well as among females with a CHA2DS2VASc score=2. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01701817.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(18): e008928, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371218

RESUMO

Background Chronic kidney disease ( CKD ) is a common comorbidity in patients with atrial fibrillation. The presence of CKD complicates drug selection for stroke prevention and rhythm control. Methods and Results Patients enrolled in ORBIT AF (Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation) with baseline renal function and follow-up data were included (N=9019). CKD was defined as an estimated creatinine clearance <60 mL /min. Patient characteristics were compared by CKD status, and Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to examine the association between oral anticoagulant ( OAC ) use and outcomes and antiarrhythmic drug use and outcomes stratified by CKD stages. At enrollment, 3490 (39%) patients had an estimated creatinine clearance <60 mL /min. Patients with CKD were older and had higher CHA 2 DS 2 VAS c and Anticoagulant and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) scores. A rhythm control strategy was selected less frequently in patients with CKD , while OAC use was lower among Stage IV and V CKD patients. After adjustment, no significant interaction was noted for OAC and CKD on all-cause mortality ( P=0.5442) or cardiovascular death ( P=0.1233), although a trend for increased major bleeding ( P=0.0608) and stroke, systemic embolism or transient ischemic attack ( P=0.0671) was observed. No interaction was noted for antiarrhythmic drug use and CKD status on all-cause mortality ( P=0.9706), or stroke, systemic embolism or transient ischemic attack ( P=0.4218). Conclusions Patients with atrial fibrillation and CKD are less likely to be treated with rhythm control. Patients with advanced CKD are less likely to receive OAC . Finally, outcomes with OAC in patients with advanced CKD may be materially different with higher rates of both bleeding and stroke.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247575

RESUMO

Context: Increases in heart rate were seen during the clinical program for fixed-dose combination phentermine (PHEN) and topiramate (TPM), an oral medication indicated for weight management, but the effect on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes is uncertain. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) while patients were using PHEN and TPM (including fixed dose) differed from MACE rates during unexposed periods. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: MarketScan, US insurance billing data. Patients or other participants: Patients over 18 years with at least 6 months continuous enrollment in database before taking PHEN and/or TPM or after stopping these medications. Intervention(s): PHEN and TPM, taken separately and together (including fixed dose). Main outcome measure(s): MACE, a composite of hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction and stroke, and in-hospital CV death. Results: Because the outcomes are rare and the duration of medication use was brief, there were few events. Rates of MACE among current users of PHEN/TPM, fixed-dose PHEN/TPM, and PHEN were lower than those among unexposed former users, whereas the rate of MACE among current users of TPM was higher than among unexposed former users (incidence rate ratio [95% confidence interval]: PHEN/TPM 0.57 [0.19-1.78]; fixed-PHEN/TPM 0.24 [0.03-1.70]; PHEN 0.56 [0.34-0.91]; TPM 1.58 [1.33-1.87]). Conclusions: Overall, the data indicate no increased risk of MACE for current PHEN/TPM users, but confidence intervals for the PHEN/TPM groups were broad, indicating that the data were compatible with a wide range of possible values.

15.
Am J Cardiol ; 122(10): 1677-1683, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227964

RESUMO

Asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) is being increasingly diagnosed via implantable devices, screening, and inpatient telemetry. Management of asymptomatic AF is controversial, in part, because the associated risks have not been well described. We examined the incidence of major adverse outcomes in patients with asymptomatic versus symptomatic AF using Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial, a nationwide US registry of AF patients. We compared stroke and/or non-central nervous system (CNS) embolism, major adverse cardiovascular and neurologic events, bleeding, and death in 9,319 asymptomatic (defined by European Heart Rhythm Association score = 1 or "no symptoms") versus symptomatic patients. Overall, median (interquartile) age was 75 (67 to 82) years, 3,944 (42%) were women, and 38% versus 37% were asymptomatic based on physician versus patient-reported symptoms. Compared with those with symptoms, physician-defined asymptomatic patients were less likely to be woman (35%/47%) or be on an antiarrhythmic agent (22%/33%), but were more likely to have permanent and/or persistent AF (51%/40%). CHA2DS2-VASc scores did not vary by symptom status. After adjustment, risk of first stroke and/or non-CNS embolism (hazard ratio [HR] 0.85 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.63 to 1.16], p = 0.32), major adverse cardiovascular and neurologic events (HR 0.88 [95% CI 0.76 to 1.03], p = 0.11), bleeding (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.72 to 1.00], p = 0.05), and death (HR 0.99 [95% CI 0.87 to 1.13], p = 0.88) were similar in asymptomatic (European Heart Rhythm Association = 1) and symptomatic AF, respectively. Prospective, randomized studies are needed to further define associated adverse events and delineate optimal prophylactic therapies in patients with asymptomatic AF.

16.
Heart ; 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association with B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), disease progression and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been thoroughly investigated. METHODS: We evaluated the association between BNP levels and outcomes, including AF progression, composite outcome of major adverse cardiovascular or neurological events (MACNE) and major bleeding, via pooled logistic regression and Cox frailty models in Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation II registry. AF progression was defined as either paroxysmal becoming persistent or permanent, or persistent becoming permanent at any follow-up. RESULTS: Among 13 375 patients with AF, 2797 with BNP values at baseline (median age (IQR), 72.0 (63.0-80.0) years; 43.0% women; median BNP, 238 (102-502) ng/L; 42.3% prior heart failure) were included in the models evaluating the association between BNP levels and MACNE or major bleeding. Of these, 1282 patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF at baseline were analysed in AF progression model. The likelihood of AF progression (adjusted OR, 1.11 for every 100 ng/mL; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19) and MACNE (adjusted HR, 1.11 for every doubling in BNP values; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.22) increased with BNP concentration, while the elevated BNP values were not associated with increased risks of major bleeding. BNP values improved the risk prediction of AF progression and MACNE when added to conventional risk estimates. CONCLUSIONS: BNP levels are associated with increased risk of AF progression and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AF. Further studies are required to assess whether biomarker-based risk stratification improves patient outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01701817.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052825

RESUMO

Background: Anti-arrhythmic drugs (AAD) for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with limited efficacy and adverse effects. Inhibition of the atrial current IKur, absent from the ventricle, is expected to be antiarrhythmic, without adverse cardiac effects, particularly ventricular pro-arrhythmic effects. Methods: A randomized clinical trial in symptomatic paroxysmal AF patients being considered for ablation. The primary endpoint was AF burden (AFB) as measured by insertable continuous monitoring (ICM) devices. Screened patients had an ICM implanted and were included if AFB was between 1-70% after 4 weeks of recording. They were randomly allocated to 4-week treatment of a selective IKur inhibitor S66913 (5 mg, 25 mg, or 100 mg orally per day) or placebo. The study was to enroll 160 patients. Results: The study was terminated prematurely, due to non-study related preclinical safety concerns, after 58 patients had been enrolled. The median AFB ranged from 4.3% to 10.3% at baseline in the 4 treatment groups. S66913 had no significant effect on AFB or on AFB plus atrial tachycardia (AT) burden, at any dosage; nor on any secondary endpoints including the number and duration of AT or AF episodes, and symptoms. The drug was well tolerated with no safety concern during the treatment or the extended clinical follow-up. Conclusions: DIAGRAF-IKUR was the first study to show that using ICM to assess the effect of an AAD is feasible. The selective IKur inhibitor S66913 was safe but had no clinically meaningful effect at the time of early termination of the study.

18.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 46(4): 435-439, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051164

RESUMO

Anticoagulation is highly effective for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) but it is dependent on patients continuing therapy. While studies have demonstrated suboptimal therapeutic persistence on warfarin, few have studied persistence rates with non vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) such as dabigatran. We examined rates of continued use of dabigatran versus warfarin over 1 year among AF patients in the ORBIT-AF registry between June 29, 2010 and August 09, 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify characteristics associated with 1-year persistent use of dabigatran therapy or warfarin. At baseline, 6.4 and 93.6% of 7150 AF patients were on dabigatran and warfarin, respectively. At 12 months, dabigatran-treated patients were less likely to have continued their therapy than warfarin-treated patients [Adjusted persistence rates: 66% (95% CI 60-72) vs. 82% (95% CI 80-84), p < .0001]. Predictors of dabigatran persistence included: CHA2DS2-VASc risk scores ≥ 2 OR 5.69, (95% CI 1.50-21.6) and BMI greater than 25 mg/m2 but less than 38 kg/m2 1.05 (1.01-1.09). Predictors of persistence on warfarin included: African American race (vs. White) 1.53 (1.07-2.19), Hispanic ethnicity (vs. White) 1.66 (1.06-2.60), paroxysmal and persistent AF (vs. new-onset) 1.68 (1.21-2.33) and 1.91 (1.35-2.69) respectively, LVH 1.40 (1.08-1.81), and CHA2DS2-VASc risk scores ≥ 2 1.94 (1.18-3.19). While 1-year persistence rates for dabigatran were lower than warfarin, persistence rates for both agents were not ideal. Future studies evaluating contemporary persistence are needed in order to assist in better targeting interventions aimed to improve anticoagulation persistence.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(12)2018 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulation (OAC) reduces stroke risk in atrial fibrillation, but bleeding is a frequent side effect. The decision to discontinue or modify medication regimens in response to a bleeding event may differ according to bleeding site and severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used data from a large, national outpatient registry, ORBIT-AF (Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation; 2010-2011), to evaluate event characteristics and OAC management following the first bleeding event occurring during follow-up. Bleeding events were classified into 3 categories: (1) International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding, (2) clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding requiring medical attention, and (3) nuisance bleeding not requiring medical attention (eg, bruising, hemorrhoidal bleeding). Of 9743 patients enrolled in ORBIT-AF with follow-up data, 510 (3.23/100 subject-years) experienced a major bleed, 615 (3.90/100 subject-years), experienced a clinically relevant nonmajor bleed, and 1558 (9.87/100 subject-years) experienced a nuisance bleed, among first bleeds over 2 years. Nearly one third of patients (31.6%) discontinued OAC therapy following a major bleeding event, 12.7% following a clinically relevant nonmajor bleed, and 4.5% following a nuisance bleed. Compared with those who experienced a clinically relevant nonmajor or nuisance bleed, patients who experienced a major bleed were more likely to be black and female and to have a history of heart failure and stroke. Those who discontinued were more likely to have central nervous system or gastrointestinal bleeding than those who persisted on OAC therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, 1 in 3 patients who experienced a major bleed was no longer anticoagulated after the event. Those who discontinued OAC were more likely to have central nervous system or gastrointestinal bleeding than those who persisted on OAC.

20.
Circulation ; 138(8): 751-753, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848750
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