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1.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety and efficacy of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone-derivative EA-230 in cardiac surgery patients. Cardiac surgery induces systemic inflammation and may impair renal function, affecting patient outcome. EA-230 exerted immunomodulatory and renoprotective effects in preclinical models and was safe and showed efficacy in phase I and II human studies. DESIGN: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized study. SETTING: Collaboration of the Cardiothoracic Surgery, Anesthesiology, and the Intensive Care departments of a tertiary hospital in the Netherlands. PATIENTS: One hundred eighty patients undergoing an on-pump coronary artery bypass procedure with or without concomitant valve surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Ninety mg/kg/hr EA-230 or placebo administered during surgery. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During the study, no safety concerns emerged. EA-230 did not modulate interleukin-6 plasma concentrations (area under the curve 2,730 pg/mL × hr [1,968-3,760] vs 2,680 pg/mL × hr [2,090-3,570] for EA-230 and placebo group, respectively; p = 0.80). Glomerular filtration rate increased following surgery (mean ± SEM increase in the EA-230 vs placebo groups: glomerular filtration rateiohexol measured using iohexol plasma clearance: 19 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 mL/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.13 and estimated glomerular filtration rate with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation using creatinine: 6 ± 1 vs 2 ± 1 mL/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.01). The "injury" stage of the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease criteria for acute kidney injury was 7% in the EA-230 group versus 18% in the placebo group (p = 0.07). In addition, EA-230-treated patients had a less positive fluid balance compared with placebo-treated patients (217 ± 108 vs 605 ± 103 mL; p = 0.01), while the use of vasoactive agents was similar in both groups (p = 0.39). Finally, hospital length of stay was shorter in EA-230 treated patients (8 d [7-11] vs 10 d [8-12]; p = 0.001). Efficacy results were more pronounced in patients that had longer duration of surgery and thus longer duration of study drug infusion. CONCLUSIONS: EA-230 was safe in patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery. It did not modulate interleukin-6 plasma concentrations but appeared to exert beneficial renal and cardiovascular effects and shortened in-hospital length of stay.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524124

RESUMO

The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 varies and the differences in host response characterizing this variation have not been fully elucidated. COVID-19 disease severity correlates with an excessive pro-inflammatory immune response and profound lymphopenia. Inflammatory responses according to disease severity were explored by plasma cytokine measurements and proteomics analysis in 147 COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production assays and whole blood flow cytometry were performed. Results confirm a hyperinflammatory innate immune state, while highlighting hepatocyte growth factor and stem cell factor as potential biomarkers for disease severity. Clustering analysis reveals no specific inflammatory endotypes in COVID-19 patients. Functional assays reveal abrogated adaptive cytokine production (interferon-gamma, interleukin-17 and interleukin-22) and prominent T cell exhaustion in critically ill patients, whereas innate immune responses were intact or hyperresponsive. Collectively, this extensive analysis provides a comprehensive insight into the pathobiology of severe to critical COVID-19 and highlight potential biomarkers of disease severity.

3.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(3): 652-664, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression after surgery is associated with postoperative complications, mediated in part by catecholamines that exert anti-inflammatory effects via the ß-adrenergic receptor. Phenylephrine, generally regarded as a selective α-adrenergic agonist, is frequently used to treat perioperative hypotension. However, phenylephrine may impair host defence through ß-adrenergic affinity. METHODS: Human leukocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of phenylephrine and α- and ß-adrenergic antagonists. C57BL/6J male mice received continuous infusion of phenylephrine (30-50 µg kg-1 min-1 i.v.) or saline via micro-osmotic pumps, before LPS administration (5 mg kg-1 i.v.) or caecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Twenty healthy males were randomised to a 5 h infusion of phenylephrine (0.5 µg kg-1 min-1) or saline before receiving LPS (2 ng kg-1 i.v.). RESULTS: In vitro, phenylephrine enhanced LPS-induced production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 (maximum augmentation of 93%) while attenuating the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. These effects were reversed by pre-incubation with ß-antagonists, but not α-antagonists. Plasma IL-10 levels were higher in LPS-challenged mice infused with phenylephrine, whereas pro-inflammatory mediators were reduced. Phenylephrine infusion increased bacterial counts after CLP in peritoneal fluid (+42%, P=0.0069), spleen (+59%, P=0.04), and liver (+35%, P=0.09). In healthy volunteers, phenylephrine enhanced the LPS-induced IL-10 response (+76%, P=0.0008) while attenuating plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators including IL-8 (-15%, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Phenylephrine exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects, possibly involving the ß-adrenoreceptor. Phenylephrine promotes bacterial outgrowth after surgical peritonitis. Phenylephrine may therefore compromise host defence in surgical patients and increase susceptibility towards infection. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02675868 (Clinicaltrials.gov).

4.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity appears to be an independent risk factor for ICU admission and a severe disease course in COVID-19 patients. An aberrant inflammatory response and impaired respiratory function have been suggested as underlying mechanisms. We investigated whether obesity is associated with differences in inflammatory, respiratory, and clinical outcome parameters in critically ill COVID-19 patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixty-seven COVID-19 ICU patients were divided into obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, n = 18, 72% class I obesity, 28% class II obesity) and non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2, n = 49) groups. Concentrations of circulating interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA) were determined from ICU admission until 10 days afterward, and routine laboratory and clinical parameters were collected. RESULTS: BMI was 32.6 [31.2-34.5] and 26.0 [24.4-27.7] kg/m2 in the obese and non-obese group, respectively. Apart from temperature, which was significantly lower in obese patients (38.1 [36.9-38.9] vs. 38.7 [38.0 -39.5] °C, p = 0.02), there were no between-group differences on ICU admission. Plasma cytokine concentrations declined over time (p < 0.05 for all), but no differences between obese and non-obese patients were observed. Also, BMI did not correlate with the cytokine response (IL-6 r = 0.09, p = 0.61, TNF-α r = 0.03, p = 0.99, IP-10 r = 0.28, p = 0.11). The kinetics of clinical inflammatory parameters and respiratory mechanics were also similar in both groups. Finally, no differences in time on ventilator, ICU length of stay or 40-day mortality between obese and non-obese patients were apparent. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the ICU, a higher BMI is not related to a different immunological response, unfavorable respiratory mechanics, or impaired outcome.

5.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 7, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is currently leading to increasing numbers of COVID-19 patients all over the world. Clinical presentations range from asymptomatic, mild respiratory tract infection, to severe cases with acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, and death. Reports on a dysregulated immune system in the severe cases call for a better characterization and understanding of the changes in the immune system. METHODS: In order to dissect COVID-19-driven immune host responses, we performed RNA-seq of whole blood cell transcriptomes and granulocyte preparations from mild and severe COVID-19 patients and analyzed the data using a combination of conventional and data-driven co-expression analysis. Additionally, publicly available data was used to show the distinction from COVID-19 to other diseases. Reverse drug target prediction was used to identify known or novel drug candidates based on finding from data-driven findings. RESULTS: Here, we profiled whole blood transcriptomes of 39 COVID-19 patients and 10 control donors enabling a data-driven stratification based on molecular phenotype. Neutrophil activation-associated signatures were prominently enriched in severe patient groups, which was corroborated in whole blood transcriptomes from an independent second cohort of 30 as well as in granulocyte samples from a third cohort of 16 COVID-19 patients (44 samples). Comparison of COVID-19 blood transcriptomes with those of a collection of over 3100 samples derived from 12 different viral infections, inflammatory diseases, and independent control samples revealed highly specific transcriptome signatures for COVID-19. Further, stratified transcriptomes predicted patient subgroup-specific drug candidates targeting the dysregulated systemic immune response of the host. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides novel insights in the distinct molecular subgroups or phenotypes that are not simply explained by clinical parameters. We show that whole blood transcriptomes are extremely informative for COVID-19 since they capture granulocytes which are major drivers of disease severity.


Assuntos
/patologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Regulação para Baixo , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA/sangue , RNA/química , RNA/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Regulação para Cima
6.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 688, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A subset of critically ill COVID-19 patients develop a hyperinflammatory state. Anakinra, a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, is known to be effective in several hyperinflammatory diseases. We investigated the effects of anakinra on inflammatory parameters and clinical outcomes in critically ill, mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients with clinical features of hyperinflammation. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 21 critically ill COVID-19 patients treated with anakinra were compared to a group of standard care. Serial data of clinical inflammatory parameters and concentrations of multiple circulating cytokines were determined and aligned on start day of anakinra in the treatment group, and median start day of anakinra in the control group. Analysis was performed for day - 10 to + 10 relative to alignment day. Clinical outcomes were analyzed during 28 days. Additionally, three sensitivity analyses were performed: (1) using propensity score-matched groups, (2) selecting patients who did not receive corticosteroids, and (3) using a subset of the control group aimed to match the criteria (fever, elevated ferritin) for starting anakinra treatment. RESULTS: Baseline patient characteristics and clinical parameters on ICU admission were similar between groups. As a consequence of bias by indication, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) (p = 0.0002), ferritin (p = 0.009), and temperature (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the anakinra group on alignment day. Following treatment, no relevant differences in kinetics of circulating cytokines were observed between both groups. Decreases of clinical parameters, including temperature (p = 0.03), white blood cell counts (p = 0.02), and plasma levels of ferritin (p = 0.003), procalcitonin (p = 0.001), creatinine (p = 0.01), and bilirubin (p = 0.007), were more pronounced in the anakinra group. No differences in duration of mechanical ventilation or ICU length of stay were observed between groups. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: Anakinra is effective in reducing clinical signs of hyperinflammation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to draw conclusion about the effects of anakinra on clinical outcomes.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 559671, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251227

RESUMO

Introduction: Sepsis is the most prevalent cause of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Conversely, in some septic patients the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is augmented. The role of the inflammatory response and blood pressure to induce this increased GFR is unknown. Herein, we relate inflammatory mediators and blood pressure to the iohexol clearance-derived "true" GFR and kidney injury markers during systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers. Methods: Twelve healthy subjects underwent experimental endotoxemia (i.v. administration of 2 ng/kg Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide, LPS). As a gold-standard to determine the GFR, iohexol plasma clearance (GFRiohexol) was calculated during a 6-h period on the day before (baseline) as well as 2 and 24 h after LPS administration. Intra-arterial blood pressure was recorded continuously using a radial artery catheter. Circulating inflammatory mediators and urinary excretion of kidney injury markers were serially measured. Results: Experimental endotoxemia profoundly increased plasma concentrations of inflammatory mediators, including [mean ± SD or median [IQR] peak values (pg/mL) of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α: 92 ± 40, interleukin (IL)-6: 1,246 ± 605, IL-8: 374 ± 120, IL-10: 222 ± 119, IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA): 8,955 ± 2,429, macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1: 2,885 [2,706 - 3,765], vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1: 296,105 ± 34,822, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1: 25,0170 ± 41,764]. Mean arterial pressure decreased with 13 ± 11 mmHg (p < 0.0001). No significant increase in the urinary excretion of tubular injury markers was observed following LPS administration. GFRiohexol increased from 97 ± 6 at baseline to 118 ± 10 mL/min/1.73m2 (p < 0.0001) post-LPS administration and returned to baseline levels at 24 h post-LPS (99 ± 9 mL/min/1.73m2). Peak plasma concentrations of IL-6 (R 2 = 0.66, p = 0.001) and IL-8 (R 2 = 0.51, p = 0.009), MCP-1 (R 2 = 0.38, p = 0.03) and VCAM-1 levels (R 2 = 0.37, p = 0.04) correlated with the increase in GFRiohexol, whereas a trend was observed for TNF-α (R 2 = 0.33, p = 0.0509) and IL-1RA (R 2 = 0.28, p = 0.08). None of the kidney injury markers or changes in blood pressure were associated with GFRiohexol. In multiple linear regression analysis, both peak IL-6 (p = 0.002) and IL-8 (p = 0.01) concentrations remained significantly correlated with GFRiohexol, without collinearity. Discussion: Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but not blood pressure, are correlated with the endotoxemia-induced increase in GFR in healthy volunteers. These findings may indicate that inflammatory mediators orchestrate the augmented GFR observed in a subgroup of sepsis patients.

9.
Eur J Immunol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125159

RESUMO

The IL-1 family member IL-38 (IL1F10) suppresses inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Here, we report that plasma concentrations of IL-38 in 288 healthy Europeans correlate positively with circulating memory B cells and plasmablasts. IL-38 correlated negatively with age (p = 0.02) and was stable in 48 subjects for 1 year. In comparison with primary keratinocytes, IL1F10 expression in CD19+ B cells from PBMC was lower, whereas cell-associated IL-38 expression was comparable. In vitro, IL-38 is released from CD19+ B cells after stimulation with rituximab. Intravenous LPS in humans failed to induce circulating IL-38, compared to 100-fold induction of IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. In a cohort of 296 subjects with body mass index > 27 at high risk for cardiovascular disease, IL-38 plasma concentrations were significantly lower than in healthy subjects (p < 0.0001), and lowest in those with metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05). IL-38 also correlated inversely with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (p < 0.01), IL-6, IL-1Ra, and leptin (p < 0.05). We conclude that a relative deficiency of the B cell product IL-38 is associated with increased systemic inflammation in aging, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, and is consistent with IL-38 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine.

10.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 628, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expiratory muscle weakness leads to difficult ventilator weaning. Maintaining their activity with functional electrical stimulation (FES) may improve outcome. We studied feasibility of breath-synchronized expiratory population muscle FES in a mixed ICU population ("Holland study") and pooled data with our previous work ("Australian study") to estimate potential clinical effects in a larger group. METHODS: Holland: Patients with a contractile response to FES received active or sham expiratory muscle FES (30 min, twice daily, 5 days/week until weaned). Main endpoints were feasibility (e.g., patient recruitment, treatment compliance, stimulation intensity) and safety. Pooled: Data on respiratory muscle thickness and ventilation duration from the Holland and Australian studies were combined (N = 40) in order to estimate potential effect size. Plasma cytokines (day 0, 3) were analyzed to study the effects of FES on systemic inflammation. RESULTS: Holland: A total of 272 sessions were performed (active/sham: 169/103) in 20 patients (N = active/sham: 10/10) with a total treatment compliance rate of 91.1%. No FES-related serious adverse events were reported. Pooled: On day 3, there was a between-group difference (N = active/sham: 7/12) in total abdominal expiratory muscle thickness favoring the active group [treatment difference (95% confidence interval); 2.25 (0.34, 4.16) mm, P = 0.02] but not on day 5. Plasma cytokine levels indicated that early FES did not induce systemic inflammation. Using a survival analysis approach for the total study population, median ventilation duration and ICU length of stay were 10 versus 52 (P = 0.07), and 12 versus 54 (P = 0.03) days for the active versus sham group. Median ventilation duration of patients that were successfully extubated was 8.5 [5.6-12.2] versus 10.5 [5.3-25.6] days (P = 0.60) for the active (N = 16) versus sham (N = 10) group, and median ICU length of stay was 10.5 [8.0-14.5] versus 14.0 [9.0-19.5] days (P = 0.36) for those active (N = 16) versus sham (N = 8) patients that were extubated and discharged alive from the ICU. During ICU stay, 3/20 patients died in the active group versus 8/20 in the sham group (P = 0.16). CONCLUSION: Expiratory muscle FES is feasible in selected ICU patients and might be a promising technique within a respiratory muscle-protective ventilation strategy. The next step is to study the effects on weaning and ventilator liberation outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID NCT03453944. Registered 05 March 2018-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03453944 .

11.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In most Dutch hospitals, because of putative peri-operative swelling of the fingers, patients must remove rings before entering the operating theatre. If this proves impossible, destructive methods for removal may be required. For some patients, this might be too radical, as the risk of wearing rings may not be in proportion to the economic and emotional damage to the patient. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether peri-operative swelling of fingers occurs in elective surgery patients. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: University Medical Centre. PATIENTS: Five groups of patients: major cardiothoracic surgery, major noncardiothoracic surgery, nonmajor surgery with a minimum of one overnight stay, nonmajor surgery without overnight stay and surgery under intrathecal anaesthesia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Finger swelling, as measured by the circumference of the first phalanx of the middle and ring fingers of both hands, pre-operatively and at 3, 24 and 48 h postsurgery, using a roller tape with one winding and 20-g weights in a custom-made frame. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-eight patients were enrolled. Peri-operative swelling reached statistical significance in all groups and was most prominent in major cardiothoracic and noncardiothoracic surgery (maximum increases in circumference were 10.6 and 7.3%, respectively). In all groups, maximal swelling was observed 24 h postsurgery. CONCLUSION: Peri-operative swelling of fingers is a common phenomenon, which is related to the extent of the surgical procedure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NL8066.

12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 575047, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123154

RESUMO

Reports suggest a role of endothelial dysfunction and loss of endothelial barrier function in COVID-19. It is well established that the endothelial glycocalyx-degrading enzyme heparanase contributes to vascular leakage and inflammation. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) serve as an inhibitor of heparanase. We hypothesize that heparanase contributes to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and that heparanase may be inhibited by LMWH. To test this hypothesis, heparanase activity and heparan sulfate levels were measured in plasma of healthy controls (n = 10) and COVID-19 patients (n = 48). Plasma heparanase activity and heparan sulfate levels were significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients. Heparanase activity was associated with disease severity including the need for intensive care, lactate dehydrogenase levels, and creatinine levels. Use of prophylactic LMWH in non-ICU patients was associated with a reduced heparanase activity. Since there is no other clinically applied heparanase inhibitor currently available, therapeutic treatment of COVID-19 patients with low molecular weight heparins should be explored.


Assuntos
Endotélio/patologia , Glucuronidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glucuronidase/sangue , Antagonistas de Heparina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Junções Íntimas/patologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Creatinina/sangue , Cuidados Críticos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Heparitina Sulfato/sangue , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
15.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2(9): e523-e524, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838316
16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(6): 830-842, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520577

RESUMO

Rationale: Sepsis is characterized by a dysregulated immune response to infection. Norepinephrine, the cornerstone vasopressor used in septic shock, may contribute to immune dysregulation and impact host defense.Objectives: To investigate effects of norepinephrine and the alternative vasopressor vasopressin on the immune response and host defense.Methods: Leukocytes from six to nine donors were stimulated in the presence or absence of norepinephrine and vasopressin. A total of 190 C57BL/6J mice received a continuous infusion of norepinephrine or vasopressin via microosmotic pumps and were challenged with LPS or underwent cecal ligation and puncture. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomized to a 5-hour infusion of norepinephrine, vasopressin, or saline and intravenously challenged with LPS. The relationship between the norepinephrine infusion rate and the use of ß-blockers and plasma cytokines was assessed in 195 patients with septic shock.Measurements and Main Results: Norepinephrine attenuated the production of proinflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species and augmented antiinflammatory IL-10 production both in vitro and in LPS-challenged mice. Norepinephrine infusion during cecal ligation and puncture resulted in increased bacterial dissemination to the spleen, liver, and blood. In LPS-challenged volunteers, norepinephrine enhanced plasma IL-10 concentrations and attenuated the release of the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ-induced protein 10. Vasopressin exerted no immunomodulatory effects across these experimental setups. In patients, higher norepinephrine infusion rates were correlated with a more antiinflammatory cytokine balance, whereas ß-blocker use was associated with a more proinflammatory cytokine balance.Conclusions: Norepinephrine dysregulates the immune response in mice and humans and compromises host defense. Therefore, it may significantly contribute to sepsis-induced immunoparalysis, whereas vasopressin does not have untoward immunologic effects.


Assuntos
Imunidade Ativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Norepinefrina/efeitos adversos , Norepinefrina/imunologia , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Séptico/imunologia , Vasoconstritores/efeitos adversos , Vasoconstritores/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Animais , Países Baixos , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
17.
Cytokine ; 133: 155135, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534356

RESUMO

The anti-tuberculosis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is able to boost innate immune responses through a process called 'trained immunity'. It is hypothesized that BCG-induced trained immunity contributes to protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Since alveolar macrophages are the first cell type to encounter M. tuberculosis upon infection, we aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of BCG vaccination on alveolar macrophages. Searching for a less-invasive method than bronchoalveolar lavage, we optimized the isolation of alveolar macrophages from induced sputum of healthy volunteers. Viable alveolar macrophages could be successfully isolated from induced sputum and showed signs of activation already upon retrieval. Further flow cytometric analyses revealed that at baseline, higher expression levels of activation markers were observed on the alveolar macrophages of smokers compared to non-smokers. In addition, BCG vaccination resulted in decreased expression of the activation markers CD11b and HLA-DR on alveolar macrophages. Future studies should evaluate the functional consequences of this reduced activation of alveolar macrophages after BCG vaccination.

19.
Metabolites ; 10(4)2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290188

RESUMO

We recently demonstrated that the sympathetic nervous system can be voluntarily activated following a training program consisting of cold exposure, breathing exercises, and meditation. This resulted in profound attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Herein, we assessed whether this training program affects the plasma metabolome and if these changes are linked to the immunomodulatory effects observed. A total of 224 metabolites were identified in plasma obtained from 24 healthy male volunteers at six timepoints, of which 98 were significantly altered following LPS administration. Effects of the training program were most prominent shortly after initiation of the acquired breathing exercises but prior to LPS administration, and point towards increased activation of the Cori cycle. Elevated concentrations of lactate and pyruvate in trained individuals correlated with enhanced levels of anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10. In vitro validation experiments revealed that co-incubation with lactate and pyruvate enhances IL-10 production and attenuates the release of pro-inflammatory IL-1ß and IL-6 by LPS-stimulated leukocytes. Our results demonstrate that practicing the breathing exercises acquired during the training program results in increased activity of the Cori cycle. Furthermore, this work uncovers an important role of lactate and pyruvate in the anti-inflammatory phenotype observed in trained subjects.

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