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Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 318(3): R619-R633, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994899


In lecithotrophic larvae, egg yolk nutrients are essential for development. Although yolk proteins and lipids are the major nutrient sources for most animal embryos and larvae, the contribution of carbohydrates to development has been less understood. In this study, we assessed glucose and glycogen metabolism in developing Pacific abalone, a marine gastropod mollusc caught and cultured in east Asia. We found that glucose and glycogen content gradually elevated in developing abalone larvae, and coincident expression increases of gluconeogenic genes and glycogen synthase suggested abalone larvae had activated gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis during this stage. At settling, however, glycogen sharply decreased, with concomitant increases in glucose content and expression of Pyg and G6pc, suggesting the settling larvae had enhanced glycogen conversion to glucose. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomic approach that detected intermediates of these pathways further supported active metabolism of glycogen. Immunofluorescence staining and in situ hybridization suggested the digestive gland has an important role as glycogen storage tissue during settlement, while many other tissues also showed a capacity to metabolize glycogen. Finally, inhibition of glycolysis affected survival of the settling veliger larvae, revealing that glucose is, indeed, an important nutrient source in settling larvae. Our results suggest glucose and glycogen are required for proper energy balance in developing abalone and especially impact survival during settling.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017911


Glycogen, as an intracellular deposit of polysaccharide, takes important roles in energy balance of many animals. In fish, however, the role of glycogen during development is poorly understood. In the present study, we assessed changes in glycogen concentration and gene expression patterns of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes in developing masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou masou), a salmonid species inhabiting west side of North Pacific Ocean. As we measured glycogen levels in the bodies and yolk sacs containing the liver separately, the glycogen concentration increased in both parts as the fish developed, whereas it transiently decreased in the yolk sac after hatching, implying glycogen synthesis and breakdown in these tissues. Immunofluorescence staining using anti-glycogen monoclonal antibody revealed localization of glycogen in the liver, muscle and yolk syncytial layer of the pre-hatching embryos and hatched larvae. In order to estimate glycogen metabolism in the fish, the genes encoding homologs of glycogen synthase (gys1 and gys2) and glycogen phosphorylase (pygma, pygmb and pygl) were cloned, and their expression patterns were assessed by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. In the fish, gys1 and gys2 were robustly expressed in the muscle and liver, respectively. Also, expression of pyg isoforms was found in muscle, liver and yolk syncytial layer during hatching. With changes in glycogen concentration and expression patterns of relevant genes, our results suggest, for the first time, possible involvement of glycogen in energy balance of fish embryos, especially during hatching.

Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Músculos/enzimologia , Salmão/metabolismo , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Glicogênio Fosforilase/metabolismo , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Salmão/genética , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento