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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 844-853, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585108

RESUMO

Lissencephaly is a severe brain malformation in which failure of neuronal migration results in agyria or pachygyria and in which the brain surface appears unusually smooth. It is often associated with microcephaly, profound intellectual disability, epilepsy, and impaired motor abilities. Twenty-two genes are associated with lissencephaly, accounting for approximately 80% of disease. Here we report on 12 individuals with a unique form of lissencephaly; these individuals come from eight unrelated families and have bi-allelic mutations in APC2, encoding adenomatous polyposis coli protein 2. Brain imaging studies demonstrate extensive posterior predominant lissencephaly, similar to PAFAH1B1-associated lissencephaly, as well as co-occurrence of subcortical heterotopia posterior to the caudate nuclei, "ribbon-like" heterotopia in the posterior frontal region, and dysplastic in-folding of the mesial occipital cortex. The established role of APC2 in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to mediate cellular morphological changes suggests shared function with other lissencephaly-encoded cytoskeletal proteins such as α-N-catenin (CTNNA2) and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b regulatory subunit 1 (PAFAH1B1, also known as LIS1). Our findings identify APC2 as a radiographically distinguishable recessive form of lissencephaly.

2.
J Child Neurol ; 34(12): 778-781, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WARS2 encodes a tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase, which is involved in mitochondrial protein synthesis. Biallelic mutations in WARS2 are rare and have been associated with a spectrum of clinical presentations, including neurodevelopmental disorder with abnormal movements, lactic acidosis with or without seizures (NEMMLAS). CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present the case of an 8-year-old girl with ataxia and parkinsonism with periventricular white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and global developmental delay. The initial investigations revealed an elevated lactate level. Extensive metabolic testing, including a muscle biopsy, was inconclusive. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurotransmitter levels were low; however, a trial of levodopa was unremarkable. The chromosomal microarray and initial ataxia gene panel was normal. Zinc supplementation for a heterozygous variant of unknown significance in the CP gene on the ataxia exome panel was not effective in treating her symptoms. Reanalysis of the ataxia exome panel highlighted biallelic mutations in WARS2, which lead to the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorder, mitochondrial, with abnormal movements and lactic acidosis, with or without seizures (NEMMLAS). This lead to parental genetic testing, redirected therapy, and helped to expand the symptomology of this rare condition. CONCLUSION: Here we emphasize the importance of imminent and repeat expanded genetic testing to ensure early diagnosis and treatment for rare pediatric disorders. The patient is being trialed on a mitochondrial cocktail in an attempt to compensate for defects in mitochondrial protein synthesis associated with this variant. Longitudinal monitoring of disease manifestation will help establish the currently unknown natural history of this condition.

3.
PLoS Genet ; 14(11): e1007671, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500825

RESUMO

Mutations that alter signaling of RAS/MAPK-family proteins give rise to a group of Mendelian diseases known as RASopathies. However, among RASopathies, the matrix of genotype-phenotype relationships is still incomplete, in part because there are many RAS-related proteins and in part because the phenotypic consequences may be variable and/or pleiotropic. Here, we describe a cohort of ten cases, drawn from six clinical sites and over 16,000 sequenced probands, with de novo protein-altering variation in RALA, a RAS-like small GTPase. All probands present with speech and motor delays, and most have intellectual disability, low weight, short stature, and facial dysmorphism. The observed rate of de novo RALA variants in affected probands is significantly higher (p = 4.93 x 10-11) than expected from the estimated random mutation rate. Further, all de novo variants described here affect residues within the GTP/GDP-binding region of RALA; in fact, six alleles arose at only two codons, Val25 and Lys128. The affected residues are highly conserved across both RAL- and RAS-family genes, are devoid of variation in large human population datasets, and several are homologous to positions at which disease-associated variants have been observed in other GTPase genes. We directly assayed GTP hydrolysis and RALA effector-protein binding of the observed variants, and found that all but one tested variant significantly reduced both activities compared to wild-type. The one exception, S157A, reduced GTP hydrolysis but significantly increased RALA-effector binding, an observation similar to that seen for oncogenic RAS variants. These results show the power of data sharing for the interpretation and analysis of rare variation, expand the spectrum of molecular causes of developmental disability to include RALA, and provide additional insight into the pathogenesis of human disease caused by mutations in small GTPases.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 553-567, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290151

RESUMO

The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is involved in intracellular vesicular transport, and is composed of eight subunits distributed in two lobes, lobe A (COG1-4) and lobe B (COG5-8). We describe fourteen individuals with Saul-Wilson syndrome, a rare form of primordial dwarfism with characteristic facial and radiographic features. All affected subjects harbored heterozygous de novo variants in COG4, giving rise to the same recurrent amino acid substitution (p.Gly516Arg). Affected individuals' fibroblasts, whose COG4 mRNA and protein were not decreased, exhibited delayed anterograde vesicular trafficking from the ER to the Golgi and accelerated retrograde vesicular recycling from the Golgi to the ER. This altered steady-state equilibrium led to a decrease in Golgi volume, as well as morphologic abnormalities with collapse of the Golgi stacks. Despite these abnormalities of the Golgi apparatus, protein glycosylation in sera and fibroblasts from affected subjects was not notably altered, but decorin, a proteoglycan secreted into the extracellular matrix, showed altered Golgi-dependent glycosylation. In summary, we define a specific heterozygous COG4 substitution as the molecular basis of Saul-Wilson syndrome, a rare skeletal dysplasia distinct from biallelic COG4-CDG.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1195-1203, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861108

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.

6.
Pediatr Neurol ; 53(6): 535-40, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26483087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lethal neonatal rigidity and multifocal seizure syndrome is a newly recognized genetic disorder associated with early onset of rigidity, multifocal epilepsy, developmental arrest, and early death. It is an autosomal recessive condition resulting from a mutation in the BRAT1 (BRCA1 [breast cancer-1]-associated ataxia telangiectasia mutated activator 1) gene. There are few cases in the literature, and all patients have died before age 2 years, most within the first 6 months of life. The objective of this report is to expand the phenotypic spectrum of BRAT1 disorders and propose new nomenclature for this condition. RESULTS: We describe a child with compound heterozygosity for mutations in BRAT1. Her neonatal course was unremarkable. Over the first year of life she was noted to have progressive global developmental delay, visual impairment, microcephaly, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, and seizures. No epileptiform discharges were seen on electroencephalogram. Serial magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed progressive cerebellar and brainstem atrophy. Unlike previously described patients, our patient has gained a number of developmental skills and, at this time, is 3 years and 8 months old. CONCLUSION: Despite the name of this disorder, patients with lethal neonatal rigidity and multifocal seizure syndrome may not present until after the neonatal period and may have a much longer life span than previously reported. We suggest renaming the condition "BRAT1-associated neurodegenerative disorder" to avoid the assumptions associated with the original nomenclature and to encourage clinicians to consider this condition outside the neonatal period.


Assuntos
Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Microcefalia/genética , Rigidez Muscular/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Convulsões/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Síndrome
7.
Biochem Genet ; 52(5-6): 225-32, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24504995

RESUMO

Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding for fibrillin-1 (FBN1). More than 1,000 FBN1 mutations have been identified, which may lead to multiple organ involvement, particularly of the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Mutations in exons 59-65 have been reported in the past to cause mild Marfan-like fibrillinopathies. We report a family with a mutation in exon 63 that manifests with significant cardiovascular system involvement such as aortic root dilatations, dissection of the aorta, and sudden death at a young age. Genetic analysis revealed that four related individuals are positive for a novel heterozygous Cys2633Arg mutation in exon 63. Their genotype-phenotype profile (based on the revised Ghent nosology) is described. We postulate that the Cys2633Arg mutation may manifest with significant and progressive enlargement of the aortic root, risk of aortic dissections, and minor skeletal abnormalities, without involving the ocular system (i.e., ectopia lentis).


Assuntos
Cisteína/genética , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência Conservada , Éxons , Feminino , Fibrilina-1 , Fibrilinas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 92(4): 632-6, 2013 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23561849

RESUMO

Biochemical analysis and whole-exome sequencing identified mutations in the Golgi-localized UDP-galactose transporter SLC35A2 that define an undiagnosed X-linked congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) in three unrelated families. Each mutation reduced UDP-galactose transport, leading to galactose-deficient glycoproteins. Two affected males were somatic mosaics, suggesting that a wild-type SLC35A2 allele may be required for survival. In infancy, the commonly used biomarker transferrin showed abnormal glycosylation, but its appearance became normal later in childhood, without any corresponding clinical improvement. This may indicate selection against cells carrying the mutant allele. To detect other individuals with such mutations, we suggest transferrin testing in infancy. Here, we report somatic mosaicism in CDG, and our work stresses the importance of combining both genetic and biochemical diagnoses.


Assuntos
Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/etiologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Mosaicismo , Mutação/genética , Uridina Difosfato Galactose/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/metabolismo , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/patologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Glicosilação , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Transferrina/análise , Transferrina/metabolismo
9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 155A(9): 2247-52, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21815259

RESUMO

We report on a case of a multiple congenital anomalies in a newborn infant whose mother was on allopurinol treatment through the pregnancy. The pattern of congenital anomalies that was noted in our patient was similar to the pattern described in a number of published reports following mycophenolate mofetil [CellCept®] treatment during pregnancy. The anomalies present in our patient include: diaphragmatic hernia, unilateral microtia and absence of external auditory canal, micrognathia, microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, unilateral renal agenesis, pulmonary agenesis, and cleft lip and palate. Since both allopurinol and mycophenolate mofetil act by disrupting purine biosynthesis and given the similarities in anomalies seen after prenatal exposure, we suggest that allopurinol should also be considered a teratogen.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/etiologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/induzido quimicamente , Alopurinol/efeitos adversos , Teratogênios , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos/efeitos adversos , Antimetabólitos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cálculos Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Ácido Micofenólico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Micofenólico/análogos & derivados , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Purinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Purinas/biossíntese
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