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1.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625614

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can involve multiple organ systems, and pancreatic manifestations of IBD are not uncommon. The incidence of several pancreatic diseases is more frequent in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in the general population. Pancreatic manifestations in IBD include a heterogeneous group of disorders and abnormalities ranging from mild, self-limited disorders to severe diseases. Asymptomatic elevation of amylase and/or lipase is common. The risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with IBD is increased due to the higher incidence of cholelithiasis and drug-induced pancreatitis in this population. Patients with IBD commonly have altered pancreatic histology and chronic pancreatic exocrine dysfunction. Diagnosing acute pancreatitis in patients with IBD is challenging. In this review, we discuss the manifestations and possible causes of pancreatic abnormalities in patients with IBD.

3.
Pancreas ; 50(1): 54-63, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients have moderately increased risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). We evaluated the incidence and survival of PAC in 2 cohorts and aimed to identify potential risk factors. METHODS: This study performed a retrospective cohort analysis. Cohort A was extracted from the United Network of Organ Sharing data set and cohort B from SOT recipients evaluated at 3 Mayo Clinic transplant centers. The primary outcome was age-adjusted annual incidence of PAC. Descriptive statistics, hazard ratios, and survival rates were compared. RESULTS: Cohort A and cohort B included 617,042 and 29,472 SOT recipients, respectively. In cohort A, the annual incidence rate was 12.78 per 100,000 in kidney-pancreas, 13.34 in liver, and 21.87 in heart-lung transplant recipients. Receiving heart-lung transplant, 50 years or older, and history of cancer (in either recipient or donor) were independent factors associated with PAC. Fifty-two patients developed PAC in cohort B. Despite earlier diagnosis (21.15% with stage I-II), survival rates were similar to those reported for sporadic (non-SOT) patients. CONCLUSIONS: We report demographic and clinical risk factors for PAC after SOT, many of which were present before transplant and are common to sporadic pancreatic cancer. Despite the diagnosis at earlier stages, PAC in SOT portends a very poor survival.

4.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(1): 96-101, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Arthritis is a known manifestation of hereditary hemochromatosis. However, whether patients with hereditary hemochromatosis have an increased risk of having joint replacement surgery compared to the general population is still unknown. This meta-analysis was conducted to better characterize this risk. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted utilizing the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases through September 2019 to identify all cohort studies that compared prevalence or incidence of joint replacement surgery (hip, ankle, or knee) between patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and individuals without hereditary hemochromatosis. Effect estimates from each study were extracted and combined together using the random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. RESULTS: A total of five studies with 1 293 407 participants fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the risk of having joint replacement surgery was significantly increased in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis compared to individuals without hereditary hemochromatosis with the pooled relative risk (RR) of 3.32 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.60-6.86; I 88%]. Analysis by joint found a significantly increased risk of having hip and ankle replacement surgery among patients with hereditary hemochromatosis compared with the pooled RR of 2.62 (95% CI, 2.09-3.30; I 47%) and 8.94 (95% CI, 3.85-20.78; I 14%), respectively. The risk of having knee replacement surgery was also increased but was not statistically significant (pooled RR 1.57, 95% CI, 0.83-2.98; I 66%). CONCLUSIONS: A significantly increased risk of needed joint replacement surgery among patients with hereditary hemochromatosis compared to patients without hereditary hemochromatosis was demonstrated in this study. Further studies are required to determine whether this association is causal.

5.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 33(6): 661-666, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162743

RESUMO

Background: Cardiovascular disease is a common comorbidity of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), particularly coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. However, the relation between NAFLD and cardiac conduction defects has not been well studied. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to identify all available studies on this association and summarize their results. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases through June 2020 to identify studies that compared the risk of a cardiac conduction defect among patients with NAFLD versus those without. Effect estimates from each study were extracted and combined using the random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. Results: Three cross-sectional studies with 3651 participants fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The risk of a cardiac conduction defect was significantly higher among patients with NAFLD than in those without NAFLD, with a pooled odds ratio of 5.17 (95% confidence interval 1.34-20.01; I 2 96%). Conclusion: A significantly greater risk of cardiac conduction defects among patients with NAFLD was observed in this meta-analysis. How this risk should be managed in clinical practice requires further investigation.

6.
Pancreas ; 49(9): 1202-1206, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies suggest that adults diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) are at higher risk of developing acute pancreatitis (AP). The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between CD and AP in terms of inpatient prevalence, mortality, morbidity, and resource utilization in the past decade. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2007-2016). The primary outcome was the occurrence of AP in CD patients. Secondary outcomes were the trend in AP cases in CD patients, and mortality, morbidity, length of stay, and total hospital charges and costs. RESULTS: Of 337,201 CD patients identified, 7372 also had AP. The mean age was 53 years, 71% were women. The inpatient prevalence of AP in CD was 2.2% versus 1.2% in non-CD cohort (P < 0.01). Patients with CD displayed increased odds of having AP (adjusted odds ratio, 1.92; P < 0.01). Patients with AP and CD displayed lower odds of morbidity and mortality than non-CD patients with AP. CONCLUSIONS: The inpatient prevalence of AP is higher in CD patients, and increased from 2007 to 2016. Patients with CD and AP displayed lower morbidity and mortality, which may suggest that they have a less severe form of AP or lower baseline comorbidity.

7.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) are more likely to have associated hiatal hernia (HH) compared to the general population. Studies show that HH are typically longer and wider in patients with BE. AIMS: To determine whether patients with HH have associated increased odds of coexistence of BE by examining inpatient prevalence, as well as determining other inpatient outcomes. METHODS: This was a case-control study using the NIS 2016, the largest public inpatient database in the USA. All patients with ICD10CM codes for BE were included. None were excluded. The primary outcome was determining the association between BE and HH in hospitalized patients, stratified by grade of dysplasia. Secondary outcomes included measuring use of endoscopic ablation in patients with BE and HH compared to patients with BE and no HH, determining the degree of association between HH and esophagitis in patients with or without BE, as well as the association between esophagitis and dysplasia in patients with BE and HH. RESULTS: A total of 118,750 patients with BE were identified, of which 24,030 had associated HH. Adjusted odds of having associated BE in patients with HH was 10.9 (p < 0.01) compared to patients without HH. Patients with HH also displayed significantly higher odds of both low-grade dysplasia (aOR 34.5, p < 0.01) and high-grade dysplasia (aOR 14.7, p < 0.01). For secondary outcomes, the odds of undergoing ablation for BE was higher 4.77 (p < 0.01) in patients with HH. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HH have significantly higher odds of having associated BE, regardless of the level of dysplasia. Furthermore, the odds of undergoing ablation are much higher, likely reflecting higher odds of dysplasia. This highlights the importance of BE in patients with HH, and potentially consider these patients as higher risk.

8.
Transpl Int ; 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772404

RESUMO

Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) at the time of liver transplant (LT) has been argued to decrease resource utilization. However, larger studies examining outcomes are lacking. We aim to determine the outcomes of simultaneous SG and LT compared to LT alone. This is a retrospective cohort study using the 2011-2017 National Inpatient Sample (NIS). The primary outcome was the odds of inpatient mortality in patients undergoing simultaneous SG and LT compared with LT alone. Secondary outcomes included inpatient morbidity, resource utilization, hospital length of stay (LOS), and inflation-adjusted total hospital costs and charges. A total of 45 361 patients underwent LT in the study period, 49 underwent simultaneous SG. Patients undergoing simultaneous LT and SG had lower crude mortality (0.0%) compared to LT alone (2.97%; P = 0.52). There were no statistically significant differences in morbidity, resource utilization, and hospital costs and charges. Patients undergoing simultaneous LT and SG did not have significantly different mortality rates, morbidity, resource utilization, or LOS during the index admission when compared to LT alone. SG may be feasible at the time of LT in very carefully selected patients. Studies should focus in determining which patients are the optimal candidates to undergo simultaneous LT and SG.

9.
Pancreas ; 49(8): 1069-1074, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare incidence and outcomes of acute pancreatitis among advanced heart failure therapies. METHODS: Two retrospective cohorts are as follows: A, patients with heart failure presenting to our hospitals and B, the US National Inpatient Sample. Three groups were compared: left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients, transplant recipients, and controls who did not qualify for advanced therapies. Primary outcomes were pancreatitis incidence and mortality. Secondary outcomes included kidney failure, multiorgan failure, shock, and health care utilization. RESULTS: Cohort A included 1344 heart failure patients, and cohort B included 677,905 patients with acute pancreatitis. In cohort A, annual pancreatitis incidence was 6.7 cases per 1000 LVAD recipients, 4.1 per 1000 LVAD bridge-to-transplant, 2.3 per 1000 transplant recipients, and 3.2 per 1000 heart failure controls (P = 0.03). Combined, the incidence was 5.6 per 1000 LVAD users and 2.7 in 1000 non-LVAD users (relative risk, 2.1; P = 0.009). In cohort B, increased mortality was seen in LVAD users, but not in transplant recipients. Left ventricular assist device patients had higher odds of kidney failure, multiorgan failure, shock, and intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with LVAD have double risk of pancreatitis, worse clinical outcomes, and increased healthcare utilization. Studies elucidating the mechanisms behind pancreatic injury in advanced heart failure are suggested.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568803

RESUMO

OBJECT: Spinal arthropathy is associated with hereditary hemochromatosis and has been linked to calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystal deposition (CPPD) which resembles ankylosing spondylitis on radiograph, yet lacks clinical findings of inflammatory spinal arthritis. The aim of our study was to assess the use of spinal surgery and its outcomes in the US inpatient population with hereditary hemochromatosis from 2012 to 2016 by using the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. METHODS: The observational retrospective cohort study uses the NIS 2012 to 2016. All patients with hereditary hemochromatosis were included using International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revisions, Clinical Modification codes. The cohort was stratified according to having undergone spinal surgery and substratified by the type of surgery. The primary outcome was determining the use of spinal surgery in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis. Secondary outcomes were determining length of hospital stay and total hospital charges and costs. RESULTS: A total of 39 780 patients with hereditary hemochromatosis were identified and propensity matched to nonhereditary hemochromatosis controls. The mean patient age was 61 years, and 65% were females. For the primary outcome patients with hereditary hemochromatosis underwent significantly more spinal fusion surgery compared to patients without hereditary hemochromatosis odds of 2.13 (P = 0.05). While there was no difference in mean LOS, or costs, patients with hereditary hemochromatosis had higher hospital charges. CONCLUSION: Hereditary hemochromatosis is associated with higher odds of spinal fusion. It is a major complication not improved by phlebotomy, and there are currently no therapies to prevent this joint disease.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Liver transplant recipients have an increased risk of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) which associated with higher morbidity and mortality. CDI in liver transplant has been argued to increase hospital costs, charges, and length of stay (LOS) in small studies. However, no recent nationwide analysis determines these outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using the National Inpatient Sample 2016. All patients with ICD10CM diagnostic codes for CDI were included. The cohort was stratified for the history of liver transplant and liver transplant index admission. The primary outcome was the odds of CDI in both patient cohorts to patients without liver transplant. Secondary outcomes were inpatient morbidity, mortality, resource utilization, colectomy rates, LOS, and total hospital costs and charges. RESULTS: A total of 360 364 patients with CDI were identified, 1665 had a history of liver transplant and 155 had liver transplant during that admission. Patients with a history of liver transplant had increased odds of CDI compared to patients with no history of liver transplant (adjusted odds ratio 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 2.44-3.16). Patients with CDI had greater odds of shock, acute kidney injury, ICU stay, organ failure and significantly higher costs, charges and LOS. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of liver transplant increased odds of CDI. CDI with history of liver transplant and the index admission for liver transplant had higher odds of morbidity and resource utilization. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for CDI for early diagnosis and appropriate initiation of treatment.

13.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448912

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease can manifest in many extraintestinal organ systems. The most frequently involved extraintestinal locations include the mucocutaneous, hepatobiliary, and ocular organ systems. The respiratory tract is less commonly involved and is therefore frequently overlooked. Consequently, it is believed that involvement of the respiratory tract in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is underreported. The pathogenesis is thought to be multifactorial, involving the common embryologic origin shared by the respiratory and luminal digestive tract, molecular mimicry, and immunologic interactions leading to immune-complex deposition in affected tissue. The spectrum of manifestations of the respiratory tract related to inflammatory bowel disease is broad. It not only includes direct involvement of the respiratory tract (ie, airways, interstitium, and pleura) but also can result as a consequence of systemic involvement such as in thromboembolic events. In addition, it may also be related to other conditions that affect the respiratory tract such as sarcoidosis and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Though some conditions related to respiratory tract involvement might be subclinical, others may have life-threatening consequences. It is critical to approach patients with suspected inflammatory bowel disease-related respiratory tract involvement in concert with pulmonology, infectious diseases, and any other pertinent experts, as treatments may require a multidisciplinary overlap of measures. Therefore, it is of paramount importance for the clinician to be aware of the array of respiratory tract manifestations of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, in addition to the possible spectrum of therapeutic measures.

14.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 92(3): 524-534.e6, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has limited endoscopy utilization, causing significant health and economic losses. We aim to model the impact of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing into resuming endoscopy practice. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of endoscopy utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic for a baseline reference. A computer model compared 3 approaches: strategy 1, endoscopy for urgent indications only; strategy 2, testing for semiurgent indications; and strategy 3, testing all patients. Analysis was made under current COVID-19 prevalence and projected prevalence of 5% and 10%. Primary outcomes were number of procedures performed and/or canceled. Secondary outcomes were direct costs, reimbursement, personal protective equipment used, and personnel infected. Disease prevalence, testing accuracy, and costs were obtained from the literature. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, endoscopy volume was 12.7% of expected. Strategies 2 and 3 were safe and effective interventions to resume endoscopy in semiurgent and elective cases. Investing 22 U.S. dollars (USD) and 105 USD in testing per patient allowed the completion of 19.4% and 95.3% of baseline endoscopies, respectively. False-negative results were seen after testing 4700 patients (or 3 months of applying strategy 2 in our practice). Implementing PCR testing over 1 week in the United States would require 13 and 64 million USD, with a return of 165 and 767 million USD to providers, leaving 65 and 325 healthcare workers infected. CONCLUSIONS: PCR testing is an effective strategy to restart endoscopic practice in the United States. PCR screening should be implemented during the second phase of the pandemic, once the healthcare system is able to test and isolate all suspected COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Endoscopia/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/economia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Árvores de Decisões , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Seleção de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos
15.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(5): 650-655, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the hospitalization rate for Hepatitis A virus (HAV) among kidney transplant (KTx) recipients and its outcomes as well as resource utilization. METHODS: The 2005-2014 National Inpatient Sample database was used to identify all hospitalized KTx recipients with an associated diagnosis of HAV. The hospital mortality, resource utilization, and associated liver conditions were compared between patients with and without HAV, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 871 024 KTx recipients identified, 204 had HAV. The overall inpatient prevalence of HAV in KTx recipients over 10 years in the United States was 23.42 cases per 100 000 admissions. There were no statistically significant changes in the inpatient prevalence of HAV in KTx recipients during the study period (P = 0.77), ranging from 9.2 to 34.3 per 100 000 admissions. Among hospitalized KTx recipients with HAV, 27.9% were from Northeast, 29.2% were from Midwest, 23.8% were from South, and 19.1% were from West. HAV was not significantly associated with increased hospital mortality, multiorgan failure, need for abdominal ultrasound, hospital length of stay, and total hospitalization costs and charges when compared with those without HAV. However, it is significantly associated with increased ICU stay, coexisting hepatitis B and C infection, and liver failure. CONCLUSION: Overall, inpatient prevalence of HAV in KTx recipients in the United States (years 2005-2014) was 23.42 cases per 100 000 admissions. Hospitalization for HAV after KTx is associated with increased ICU stay, coexisting hepatitis B and C infection, and liver failure.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize inpatient epidemiology and economic burden of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). METHODS: Patients with GPA were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), the largest inpatient database in the USA consisting of over 4000 non-federal acute care hospitals, using the ICD-9 CM code. A cohort of comparators without GPA was also constructed from the same database. Data on demographics, procedures, length of stay, mortality, morbidity and total hospitalization charges were extracted. All analysed data were extracted from the database for the years 2005-2014. RESULTS: The inpatient prevalence of GPA was 32.6 cases per 100 000 admissions. GPA itself (38.3%), pneumonia (13.7%) and sepsis (8.4%) were the most common reasons for admission. After adjusting for potential confounders, the all-cause mortality adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of patients with GPA was significantly higher than that of patients without GPA (aOR 1.20; 95% CI: 1.41, 1.61). This was also true for several morbidities, including acute kidney injury, multi-organ failure, shock and need for intensive care unit admission. Hospitalizations of patients with GPA were associated with higher cost as demonstrated by an adjusted additional mean of $5125 (95% CI: $4719, $5531) for total hospital cost and an adjusted additional mean of $16 841 (95% CI: $15 280, $18 403) for total hospitalization charges when compared with patients without GPA. CONCLUSION: Inpatient prevalence of GPA was higher than what would be expected from prevalence in the general population. Hospitalizations of patients with GPA were associated with higher morbidity, mortality and cost.

17.
Joint Bone Spine ; 87(4): 327-330, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize inpatient prevalence and resource utilization of patients with polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM). METHODS: Patients with PM/DM were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from the year 2005 to 2014 using ICD-9 diagnostic codes. The primary outcome of this study was inpatient prevalence of PM/DM in the United States across the span of 10 years. Secondary outcomes included reason for hospitalization, inpatient mortality, morbidity, hospital length of stay (LOS), utilization of specialized procedures/tests and expenditures. A cohort of patients without PM/DM was also identified from the same database to serve as comparators. Multivariate regression analysis was used to adjust for age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities and hospital characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 160,528 admissions of patients with a diagnosis of PM/DM occurred in the study period, corresponding to the inpatient prevalence of 41.9 cases per 100,000 discharges. During admission, patients with PM/DM died more frequently than patients without PM/DM with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 2.22 (P<0.01). A significantly higher inpatient morbidity among patients with PM/DM was also observed as indicated by a significantly higher risk of shock (aOR 2.33; P<0.01), acute kidney injury (aOR 1.12; P<0.01), multi-organ failure (aOR 1.83; P<0.01) and need for admission to intensive care unit (aOR 1.94; P<0.01). Patients in the PM/DM had an average of 1.7 more days of LOS (P<0.01). The mean hospital costs and total hospitalization charges for patients with PM/DM were significantly higher than patients without PM/DM with additional adjusted mean of $4,217 and $13,531, respectively, in the multivariate model. Patients with PM/DM underwent computerized tomography scan (aOR 1.90; P<0.01), magnetic resonance imaging (aOR 1.68; P<0.01) and angiography (aOR 1.15; P<0.01) more often than comparators. CONCLUSIONS: Inpatient prevalence of PM/DM was higher than what would be expected from the overall incidence. Hospitalizations of patients with PM/DM were associated with significantly higher rate of mortality, morbidity and resource utilization.

18.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 24(2): 270-277, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is primarily medically managed. Colectomy is required in patients with refractory disease or severe complications. Older studies have reported 20-year colectomy rates of over 50%, but recent studies showed decreased rates to 15%. Temporal trends in the use of colectomy in UC over the past decade (when the use of biologics has become widespread) are lacking. METHODS: Case-control study using the National Inpatient Sample database for years of 2007, 2010, 2013, and 2016 was performed. The primary outcome was determining the temporal trends in the use of colectomy in hospitalized patients with UC. Secondary outcomes were determining the total number of admissions for patients with UC and associated trend in inflation-adjusted hospital costs, charge, and length of hospital stay (LOS). Multivariate regression analyses were used to adjust for other co-variables. RESULTS: 443,043 patients with UC were identified, of which 19,208 underwent colectomy in the study period. The mean patient age was 52 years, and 47% were female. Five percent of hospitalized patients with UC underwent colectomy in 2007, while 2.7% of patients with UC had colectomy in 2016, representing a 46% decrease in colectomies in hospitalized patients in the study period. Patients with UC displayed adjusted odds of colectomy of 0.51 (p < 0.01), adjusted additional mean hospital costs decrease by - $2898 (p < 0.01), hospital charges increase by $26,554 (p < 0.01), LOS decrease by - 2.2 days (p < 0.01) in 2016 compared to 2007. CONCLUSION: The odds of colectomy in UC patients decreased significantly over the past decade, likely secondary to improved medical care.

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