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1.
Clin Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490566

RESUMO

A novel smartphone-based patient support tool was developed to increase the adherence to antiplatelet therapy and lifestyle changes in patients after coronary angioplasty for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The eMocial study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02615704) investigates whether an electronic support tool will improve adherence to comedication and lifestyle changes in ACS patients. The primary hypothesis of this trial is that an electronic support tool can increase adherence to comedication (primary endpoint) thereby supporting positive lifestyle changes (secondary endpoints). Patients hospitalized with ACS (ST elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI], non-ST elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI], or unstable angina pectoris) and treated with ticagrelor coadministered with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid will be randomized 1:1 to an active group receiving the patient support tool via a smartphone-based application or to a control group without the patient support tool. Patient questionnaires to evaluate lifestyle changes and quality of life will be used at baseline and at the end of the 48-week observation phase. Patients are asked to fill out questionnaires to determine their adherence, treatment attitudes, health-care utilization and risk factors on a monthly basis. The study was started in February 2016 and the completion date is scheduled for October 2019. For final analysis 664 patients are expected be available. Preliminary baseline demographics were unstable angina pectoris (13.7%), NSTEMI (49.9%), STEMI (36.4%), male gender (86.3%), and diabetes mellitus (17.6%). Our study could significantly help to understand how inadequate adherence to antiplatelet therapy in ACS patients could be improved with a smartphone-based application.

3.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314045

RESUMO

Importance: Invasive physiologic indices such as fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) are used in clinical practice. Nevertheless, comparative prognostic outcomes of iFR-guided and FFR-guided treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes have not yet been fully investigated. Objective: To compare 1-year clinical outcomes of iFR-guided or FFR-guided treatment in patients with and without diabetes in the Functional Lesion Assessment of Intermediate Stenosis to Guide Revascularization (DEFINE-FLAIR) trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: The DEFINE-FLAIR trial is a multicenter, international, randomized, double-blinded trial that randomly assigned 2492 patients in a 1:1 ratio to undergo either iFR-guided or FFR-guided coronary revascularization. Patients were eligible for trial inclusion if they had intermediate coronary artery disease (40%-70% diameter stenosis) in at least 1 native coronary artery. Data were analyzed between January 2014 and December 2015. Interventions: According to the study protocol, iFR of 0.89 or less and FFR of 0.80 or less were used as criteria for revascularization. When iFR or FFR was higher than the prespecified threshold, revascularization was deferred. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or unplanned revascularization at 1 year. The incidence of MACE was compared according to the presence of diabetes in iFR-guided and FFR-guided groups. Results: Among the total trial population (2492 patients), 758 patients (30.4%) had diabetes. Mean age of the patients was 66 years, 76% were men (1868 of 2465), and 80% of patients presented with stable angina (1983 of 2465). In the nondiabetes population (68.5%; 1707 patients), iFR guidance was associated with a significantly higher rate of deferral of revascularization than the FFR-guided group (56.5% [n = 477 of 844] vs 46.6% [n = 402 of 863]; P < .001). However, it was not different between the 2 groups in the diabetes population (42.1% [n = 161 of 382] vs 47.1% [n = 177 of 376]; P = .15). At 1 year, the diabetes population showed a significantly higher rate of MACE than the nondiabetes population (8.6% vs 5.6%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.88; 95% CI, 1.28-2.64; P < .001). However, there was no significant difference in MACE rates between iFR-guided and FFR-guided groups in both the diabetes (10.0% vs 7.2%; adjusted HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.78-2.25; P = .30) and nondiabetes population (4.7% vs 6.4%; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.51-1.35; P = .45) (interaction P = .25). Conclusions and Relevance: The diabetes population showed significantly higher risk of MACE than the nondiabetes population, even with the iFR-guided or FFR-guided treatment. The iFR-guided and FFR-guided treatment showed comparable risk of MACE and provided equal safety in selecting revascularization target among patients with diabetes. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02053038.

4.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888959

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the impact of 23-month ticagrelor monotherapy following one-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the rates of patient-oriented composite endpoints (POCE) and net adverse clinical events (NACE). METHODS AND RESULTS: The rates of site-reported Academic Research Consortium (ARC)-2 defined POCE (all-cause death, any stroke, any myocardial infarction or any revascularization) and NACE (POCE or bleeding type 3 or 5 according to the Bleeding ARC [BARC]) were reported up to two-years by intention-to-treat principle in the randomized, multi-centre, open-label GLOBAL LEADERS study comparing two antiplatelet strategies in 15,991 patients undergoing PCI. The experimental strategy consisted of aspirin with ticagrelor for one month followed by ticagrelor monotherapy for 23 months, whereas the reference treatment consisted of 12-month DAPT followed by 12-month aspirin monotherapy. At two years, POCE occurred in 1050 (13.2%) patients in the experimental group and in 1131 (14.2%) in the reference group (HR 0.93, 95%CI 0.85-1.01, p=0.085). NACE occurred in 1145 (14.4%) patients in the experimental group and in 1237 (15.5%) patients in the reference group (HR 0.92, 95%CI 0.85-1.00, p=0.057). In prespecified subgroup analyses, no significant treatment-by-subgroup interactions were found for either POCE or NACE at two years. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental treatment strategy of one-month DAPT followed by 23 months of ticagrelor alone did not result in a significant reduction in the rates of site-reported POCE or NACE, when compared to the reference treatment.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2164-2169, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891599

RESUMO

AIMS: Haemodynamic load induces cardiac remodelling via mechano-transduction pathways, which can further trigger inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that particularly in an inflammatory disorder such as myocarditis, a therapeutic strategy is required which, in addition to providing adequate circulatory support, unloads the left ventricle, decreases cardiac wall stress, and mitigates inflammatory responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Axial flow pumps such as the Impella systems comply with these requirements. Here, we report a potential mode-of-action of prolonged Impella support (PROPELLA concept) in fulminant myocarditis, including a decrease in cardiac immune cell presence, and integrin α1, α5, α6, α10 and ß6 expression during unloading. CONCLUSION: PROPELLA may provide benefits beyond its primary function of mechanical circulatory support in the form of additional disease-altering effects, which may contribute to enhanced myocardial recovery/remission in patients with chronic fulminant myocarditis.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(4): 444-453, 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicians are not always comfortable deferring treatment of a stenosis in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery because of the perception that there is a high risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The authors describe, using the DEFINE-FLAIR (Functional Lesion Assessment of Intermediate Stenosis to Guide Revascularisation) trial, MACE rates when LAD lesions are deferred, guided by physiological assessment using fractional flow reserve (FFR) or the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to establish the safety of deferring treatment in the LAD using FFR or iFR within the DEFINE-FLAIR trial. METHODS: MACE rates at 1 year were compared between groups (iFR and FFR) in patients whose physiological assessment led to LAD lesions being deferred. MACE was defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), and unplanned revascularization at 1 year. Patients, and staff performing follow-up, were blinded to whether the decision was made with FFR or iFR. Outcomes were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: A total of 872 patients had lesions deferred in the LAD (421 guided by FFR, 451 guided by iFR). The event rate with iFR was significantly lower than with FFR (2.44% vs. 5.26%; adjusted HR: 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22 to 0.95; p = 0.04). This was driven by significantly lower unplanned revascularization with iFR and numerically lower MI (unplanned revascularization: 2.22% iFR vs. 4.99% FFR; adjusted HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.93; p = 0.03; MI: 0.44% iFR vs. 2.14% FFR; adjusted HR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.05 to 1.07; p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: iFR-guided deferral appears to be safe for patients with LAD lesions. Patients in whom iFR-guided deferral was performed had statistically significantly lower event rates than those with FFR-guided deferral.

7.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 13: 1753944719826335, 2019 Jan-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: Polymer-free drug-eluting stents (DES) without permanent-polymer coating may be associated with rapid vessel healing, providing a rationale to reduce dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). The aim of the current study was to compare vessel healing of a polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stent (PF-SES), its bare metal stent (BMS) analogue to a permanent polymer-based sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) with proven effectiveness in porcine coronary arteries. MATERIAL AND METHODS:: An ultrathin-strut cobalt-chromium PF-SES, its BMS analogue and an SES with a permanent polymer were used to study vessel healing and their antistenotic potential. Stents were implanted in porcine coronary arteries for histopathologic analysis at 7, 28 and 180 days. In an additional in vitro study, the thrombogenicity of PF-SES was compared with a fluoropolymer-coated everolimus-eluting stent (EES) which demonstrated low stent thrombosis rates in numerous studies. RESULTS:: In the animal study, neointimal growth and injury scores were minimal and inflammation scores were low in the neointima and adventitia in all study groups. After 28 days, neointimal area was lowest in PF-SES when compared with SES and BMS (1.48 ± 0.55 mm² versus 2.43 ± 0.69 mm² versus 1.90 ± 0.85 mm², respectively, p < 0.05) and endothelialization of luminal surfaces was nearly complete in all groups, though SES show the least coverage with occasional adherent luminal inflammatory cells ( p > 0.05). At 180 days, neointimal area and thickness were most pronounced in SES ( p < 0.05) and comparable with BMS implantations, which were characterized by nearly completed vessel healing. PF-SES and BMS had complete endothelialization, absence of fibrin and sustained low inflammatory reaction when compared with the permanent polymer-based SES (inflammation score: PF-SES 0.41 ± 0.74 versus SES 2.52 ± 1.72 versus BMS 0.30 ± 0.65, respectively, p < 0.05 BMS versus SES). Granuloma formation and fibrin accumulation were most pronounced in SES but did not reach statistical significance, p > 0.05). In the in vitro thrombogenicity study, the PF-SES confirmed comparable antithrombogenic properties with regard to the parameters fibrin and platelet binding, and platelet aggregation when compared with the EES. CONCLUSIONS:: As compared with BMS, the ultrathin-strut cobalt-chromium PF-SES showed similar endothelialization at 28 days and comparable healing characteristics at 180 days efficacious inhibition of neointimal proliferation in porcine coronary arteries with low inflammation responses and a BMS-like endothelialization at 180 days. In addition, in an in vitro model, the PF-SES also confirmed low thrombogenicity as compared with the EES.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Animais , Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Polímeros , Desenho de Prótese , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084076

RESUMO

Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is often required to stabilize patients with acute fulminant myocarditis with cardiogenic shock. This review gives an overview of the successful use of left-sided Impella in the setting of fulminant myocarditis and cardiogenic shock as the sole means of MCS as well as in combination with right ventricular (RV) support devices including extracorporeal life support (ECLS) (ECMELLA) or an Impella RP (BI-PELLA). It further provides evidence from endomyocardial biopsies that in addition to giving adequate support, LV unloading by Impella exhibits disease-modifying effects important for myocardial recovery (i.e., bridge-to-recovery) achieved by this newly termed "prolonged Impella" (PROPELLA) concept in which LV-IMPELLA 5.0, implanted via an axillary approach, provides support in awake, mobilized patients for several weeks. Finally, this review addresses the question of how to define the appropriate time point for weaning strategies and for changing or discontinuing unloading in fulminant myocarditis.

9.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(15): 1437-1449, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of patients deferred from coronary revascularization on the basis of instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) or fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements in stable angina pectoris (SAP) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS). BACKGROUND: Assessment of coronary stenosis severity with pressure guidewires is recommended to determine the need for myocardial revascularization. METHODS: The safety of deferral of coronary revascularization in the pooled per-protocol population (n = 4,486) of the DEFINE-FLAIR (Functional Lesion Assessment of Intermediate Stenosis to Guide Revascularisation) and iFR-SWEDEHEART (Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Versus Fractional Flow Reserve in Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris or Acute Coronary Syndrome) randomized clinical trials was investigated. Patients were stratified according to revascularization decision making on the basis of iFR or FFR and to clinical presentation (SAP or ACS). The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or unplanned revascularization at 1 year. RESULTS: Coronary revascularization was deferred in 2,130 patients. Deferral was performed in 1,117 patients (50%) in the iFR group and 1,013 patients (45%) in the FFR group (p < 0.01). At 1 year, the MACE rate in the deferred population was similar between the iFR and FFR groups (4.12% vs. 4.05%; fully adjusted hazard ratio: 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 0.72 to 1.79; p = 0.60). A clinical presentation with ACS was associated with a higher MACE rate compared with SAP in deferred patients (5.91% vs. 3.64% in ACS and SAP, respectively; fully adjusted hazard ratio: 0.61 in favor of SAP; 95% confidence interval: 0.38 to 0.99; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, deferral of revascularization is equally safe with both iFR and FFR, with a low MACE rate of about 4%. Lesions were more frequently deferred when iFR was used to assess physiological significance. In deferred patients presenting with ACS, the event rate was significantly increased compared with SAP at 1 year.

10.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 18(1): 155, 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical trials have shown that pulmonary artery pressure-guided therapy via the CardioMEMS™ system reduces the risk of recurrent hospitalizations in chronic heart failure (HF) patients. The CardioMEMS™ pressure sensor is percutaneously implanted in a branch of the pulmonary artery and allows telemetric pressure monitoring via a receiver. According to the most recent ESC guidelines, this technology has currently a class IIb indication in patients with class III New York Heart Association symptoms and a previous hospitalization for congestive heart failure within the last year, regardless of ejection fraction. Aim of this guided-therapy is multifold, including an early prediction of upcoming decompensation, optimization of patients' therapy and thereby avoidance of hospital admissions. In addition, it can be used during acute decompensation events as a novel tool to direct intra-hospital therapeutic interventions such as inotropes infusion or left ventricular (LV) assist device monitoring, with the aim of achieving an optimal volume status. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case series of three end-stage HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who received a CardioMEMS™ device as an aid in their clinical management. The CardioMEMS™ system enabled a closer non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring of these patients and guided the extent of therapeutic interventions. Patients were free from device- or system-related complications. In addition, no pressure-sensor failure was observed. Two patients received a 24-h infusion of the calcium sensitizer levosimendan. One patient showed a refractory acute decompensation and underwent LV assist device (LVAD) implantation as a bridge to cardiac transplantation. Switching a patient with recurrent hospitalizations to the Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor (ARNI, Sacubitril-Valsartan) on top of the optimal heart failure-therapy improved its subjective condition and hemodynamics, avoiding further hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Our case series underlines the potential impact of CardioMEMS™ derived data in the daily clinical management of end-stage HF patients. The new concept to combine CardioMEMS™ in the setting of an outpatient levosimendan program as well as a bridge to LVAD-implantation/heart transplantation looks promising but needs further investigations.

11.
Cardiol Res Pract ; 2018: 8053168, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29686890

RESUMO

Objective: Coronary revascularization in chronic total occlusion (CTO) is associated with improved clinical outcomes. The choice of the coronary stent is crucial in maintaining long-term vessel patency after CTO revascularization. We investigated the efficacy and safety of polymer-free ultrathin strut sirolimus-probucol coated drug-eluting stents (PF-SES) for CTO lesions. Methods: Patients with CTO lesions treated with PF-SES were identified from the prospective multicenter international ISAR 2000 registry. The primary endpoint was clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 9 months. Secondary endpoints were 9-month major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, or TLR) (MACE) and the occurrence of stent thrombosis. Results: A total of 111 patients with CTO lesions (n=127) were available for analysis. The 9-month clinical follow-up rate was 91%. The mean reference vessel diameter and lesion length were 2.76 mm ± 0.40 and 26.8 mm ± 13.1, respectively. The overall DAPT duration was 9.7 ± 2.8 months. Only one (1%) in-hospital MI was reported. The TLR and MACE rates at 9 months were 2% (2/101) and 5.9% (6/101), respectively. The 9-month accumulated rates of definite or probable stent thrombosis was 0% (0/101). Conclusion: Revascularizations for CTO with PF-SES are associated with low rates of TLR and MACE at 9 months with no stent thrombosis. These initial findings need to be compared with results of other new generation DES of larger studies.

12.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(8): 757-767, 2018 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate the accuracy of instantaneous wave-Free Ratio (iFR) pullback measurements to predict post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) physiological outcomes, and to quantify how often iFR pullback alters PCI strategy in real-world clinical settings. BACKGROUND: In tandem and diffuse disease, offline analysis of continuous iFR pullback measurement has previously been demonstrated to accurately predict the physiological outcome of revascularization. However, the accuracy of the online analysis approach (iFR pullback) remains untested. METHODS: Angiographically intermediate tandem and/or diffuse lesions were entered into the international, multicenter iFR GRADIENT (Single instantaneous wave-Free Ratio Pullback Pre-Angioplasty Predicts Hemodynamic Outcome Without Wedge Pressure in Human Coronary Artery Disease) registry. Operators were asked to submit their procedural strategy after angiography alone and then after iFR-pullback measurement incorporating virtual PCI and post-PCI iFR prediction. PCI was performed according to standard clinical practice. Following PCI, repeat iFR assessment was performed and the actual versus predicted post-PCI iFR values compared. RESULTS: Mean age was 67 ± 12 years (81% male). Paired pre- and post-PCI iFR were measured in 128 patients (134 vessels). The predicted post-PCI iFR calculated online was 0.93 ± 0.05; observed actual iFR was 0.92 ± 0.06. iFR pullback predicted the post-PCI iFR outcome with 1.4 ± 0.5% error. In comparison to angiography-based decision making, after iFR pullback, decision making was changed in 52 (31%) of vessels; with a reduction in lesion number (-0.18 ± 0.05 lesion/vessel; p = 0.0001) and length (-4.4 ± 1.0 mm/vessel; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In tandem and diffuse coronary disease, iFR pullback predicted the physiological outcome of PCI with a high degree of accuracy. Compared with angiography alone, availability of iFR pullback altered revascularization procedural planning in nearly one-third of patients.

13.
Clin Cardiol ; 41(5): 569-575, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527709

RESUMO

The treatment of coronary small vessel disease (SVD) remains an unresolved issue. Drug-eluting stents (DES) have limited efficacy due to increased rates of instent-restenosis, mainly caused by late lumen loss. Drug-coated balloons (DCB) are a promising technique because native vessels remain structurally unchanged. Basel Stent Kosten-Effektivitäts Trial: Drug-Coated Balloons vs. Drug-Eluting Stents in Small Vessel Interventions (BASKET-SMALL 2) is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial of DCB vs DES in native SVD for clinical endpoints. Seven hundred fifty-eight patients with de novo lesions in vessels <3 mm in diameter and an indication for percutaneous coronary intervention such as stable angina pectoris, silent ischemia, or acute coronary syndromes are randomized 1:1 to angioplasty with DCB vs implantation of a DES after successful initial balloon angioplasty. The primary endpoint is the combination of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target-vessel revascularization up to 1 year. Secondary endpoints include stent thrombosis, Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 3 to 5 bleeding, and long-term outcome up to 3 years. Based on clinical endpoints after 1 year, we plan to assess the noninferiority of DCB compared to DES in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for SVD. Results will be available in the second half of 2018. This study will compare DCB and DES regarding long-term safety and efficacy for the treatment of SVD in a large all-comer population.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/instrumentação , Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Cateteres Cardíacos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Idoso , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/mortalidade , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/mortalidade , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Clínicos , Reestenose Coronária/etiologia , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/mortalidade , Stents Farmacológicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 91(7): 1221-1228, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of a polymer-free sirolimus coated, ultrathin strut drug eluting stent (PF-SES) to its uncoated bare-metal stent (BMS) platform of identical stent architecture. BACKGROUND: Recently published randomized trials comparing BMS to DES with a focus on shortened dual-antiplatelet therapy reported incidences of stent thrombosis (ST) and bleeding complications (LEADERS FREE) in favor of drug eluting stents (DES). METHODS: Data of previously published large-sale, international, single-armed, multicenter, observational studies of ultra-thin PF-SES, and BMS were propensity score (PS) matched for selected lesion morphological and cardiovascular risk factors to compare target lesion revascularization (TLR), myocardial infarction, cardiac death, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), bleeding complications and ST rates. Primary endpoint in both studies was TLR at 9 months. RESULTS: At 9 months the rates of TLR was significantly lower in the PF-SES group as compared with patients treated with the BMS analogue of identical stent design (1.4% vs. 4.6%, P = 0.005). Likewise the 9-month MACE rates were lower in the PF-SES group (3.2% vs. 8.7%, P = 0.001) whereas there were no differences in the accumulated ST rates (0.5% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.109). Overall accumulated bleeding incidences (BARC 1-5) were not significantly different between PF-SES and BMS patients (1.8% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.388). CONCLUSIONS: PF-SES are superior over analogue BMS of identical stent architecture in daily clinical routine with lower rates of TLR and MACE in a PS-matched, unselected patient population without differences in accumulated ST rates and bleeding frequencies given the currently favored postprocedural comedication (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02629575).

15.
Coron Artery Dis ; 29(2): 127-137, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with severe ischemic heart disease, complete revascularization by a percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting is often not achieved and may still cause residual angina. In case of progressive coronary artery occlusions, therapeutic arteriogenesis constitutes a promising strategy for increasing blood supply to the ischemic myocardium. Whether the formation of collaterals in the hypofused myocardium is angiogenetic in nature or based on preformed coronary artery anastomoses remains debatable. The objectives of this research were (i) the development of an appropriate research methodology to study a humanoid animal semiacute infarction model with low mortality and (ii) to answer the question of whether collateral revascularization follows a pre-existing 'blueprint'. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A porcine model was chosen in which a step-wise vessel occlusion was performed by implantation of a copper stent into the distal left anterior descending artery. Vessel occlusion and collateral development were confirmed in vivo every 14 days up to day 56 by repeated coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion measurement using cardiac MRI. After the completion of the in-vivo imaging studies, animals were euthanized and collateral growth was evaluated using microcomputer tomography. RESULTS: Our porcine model of semiacute noninvasive coronary artery occlusion confirmed the existence of preformed coronary anastomoses and the proliferation of functional vessels in hypoperfused myocardium. Repetitive intra-animal MRIs showed the functional impact of these growing collaterals. CONCLUSION: The confirmation of preformed coronary anastomoses during the process of collateralization (natural bypasses) offers a preclinical avenue to carry out arteriogenetic pharmaceutical research in patients with ischemic heart disease.

16.
J Interv Cardiol ; 31(3): 338-344, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the 9-month safety and efficacy of polymer-free sirolimus eluting drug eluting stents in septuagenarians and octogenarians. METHODS: An all-comer, worldwide single armed trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02629575) was conducted to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of an ultra-thin strut, polymer-free sirolimus eluting stent (PF-SES). The primary endpoint was the 9-month target revascularization rate (TLR). Secondary endpoints included the rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), stent thrombosis (ST) and bleeding (BARC) in septuagenarians (≥70 years, <80 years), and in octogenarians (≥80 years) to be compared to the younger patient group (<70 years). RESULTS: A total of 1607 patients were treated with PF-SES in the sub-70-year-old age group, 694 in septuagenarians, and 371 in the octogenarian patient group. At 9 months, the MACE rates were 7.2% in octogenarians, 5.3% in septuagenarians, and 3.0% in the younger patient group (P = 0.001). These were mostly driven by all-cause mortality (4.4% vs 1.9% vs 0.6%, P < 0.001) while the TLR rates were only numerically lower in the younger age group (P = 0.080). BARC 1-5 bleeding events were more frequent in the older age group (1.9% vs 2.7% vs 4.6%, P = 0.012) whereas the rates for ST were not different (0.7% vs 0.6% vs 0.6%, P = 0.970). CONCLUSIONS: In octogenarians treated with PF-SES, the rates for MACE, overall mortality, and bleeding are higher as compared to the younger age groups. However, the rates for TLR and ST were not significantly different across the investigated age groups. PF-SES are safe and effective in octogenarians.


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Polímeros , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Oclusão Coronária/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Open Heart ; 4(2): e000592, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28761678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a polymer-free sirolimus coated, ultrathin strut drug-eluting stent (PF-SES) in an unselected patient population with a focus on acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Furthermore, stable coronary artery disease (CAD) with short (≤6 months) versus long (>6 months) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) were also studied. METHODS: Patients who received PF-SES were investigated in an unselected large-scale international, single-armed, multicenter, 'all comers' observational study. The primary endpoint was the 9-month target lesion revascularisation (TLR) rate, whereas secondary endpoints included the 9-month major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and procedural success rates. A priori defined subgroups such as patients with ACS, diabetes, lesion subsets and procedural characteristics relative to DAPT were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 2877 patients of whom 1084 had ACS were treated with PF-SES (1.31±0.75 stents per patient). At 9 months, the accumulated overall TLR rate was 2.3% (58/2513). There was no significant difference between ACS and stable CAD (2.6% vs 2.1%, p=0.389). However, the overall MACE rate was 4.3% (108/2513) with a higher rate in patients with ACS when compared with the stable CAD subgroup (6.1%, 58/947 vs 3.2%, 50/1566, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PF-SES angioplasty is safe and effective in the daily clinical routine with low rates of TLR and MACE in an unselected patient population. Our data are in agreement with prior clinical findings that extended DAPT duration beyond 6 months do not improve clinical outcomes in patients with stable CAD (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02629575). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02629575.

18.
Heart Vessels ; 32(11): 1400-1409, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28776069

RESUMO

Bridging collaterals (BC) develop in several chronic total artery occlusion diseases, and can prevent extensive myocardial necrosis. Yet, their origin, growth process, and histo-morphology are still unclear. Since vasa vasorum (VV) may take part in collateralization, we hypothesized that VV are the basis for BCs. To comprehensively investigate this arteriogenesis process, we used high-resolution imaging, including corrosion casts, post-mortem angiography with stereoscopy, micro-CT, and immunohistology, in combination with a novel semi-acute vessel occlusion model. This porcine model was produced by implanting a copper stent minimally invasively into the left anterior descending coronary artery. To define the kinetics of arteriogenesis, pigs (n = 11) were assigned to one of the five euthanasia timepoints: day 0.5 (D0.5, n = 2), D3 (n = 2), D5 (n = 1), D7 (n = 3), or D12 (n = 3) after stent implantation. We found that (1) BCs originate from longitudinally running type 1 VV, mainly VV interna, partially also from VV externa; (2) the growth of VV to BC is rapid, occurring within 7 days; and (3) porcine BCs are likely functionally relevant, considering an observed 102% increase in the number of smooth muscle cell layers in their vascular wall. High-resolution imaging in a minimally invasive non-acute vessel occlusion model is an innovative technique that allowed us to provide direct evidence that porcine BCs develop from the VV. These data may be crucial for further studies on the treatment of angina pectoris and thromboangiitis obliterans through therapeutic stimulation of BC development.


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Neovascularização Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Vasa Vasorum/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Doença Aguda , Animais , Angiografia Coronária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suínos
19.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 65(6): 545-552, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28565887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) and the role of postinterventional anticoagulation often evokes controversy in daily practice. This study aimed to evaluate LAAC in patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation, high thromboembolic risk and contraindications for long-term anticoagulation in a clinical scenario. METHODS: Between 2010-2015, LAAC was attempted in 118 patients (47 women). RESULTS: Devices were successfully implanted in 95% (Watchman™ device: N.=97; Amplatzer™ Cardiac Plug/Amulet: N.=14; Amplatzer PFO Occluder: N.=1). Mean age was 75±8.35 years. Mean HAS-BLED and CHA2DS2VASc scores were 4.3 and 4.9, respectively. Median follow-up was 447 days (IQR: 183-789 days). The primary safety endpoint was defined as major bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis. The combined efficacy endpoint included ischemic strokes, transitory ischemic attacks (TIA) and systemic embolisms. Procedural complication rate was 3.4%. After successful intervention, either a therapy with anticoagulants (N.=62) or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT, N.=50) was prescribed temporarily. Medication was reduced if implantation proved satisfying in a 6-week follow-up transesophageal echocardiography, which was the case in 79% of these patients. During follow-up, one patient suffered a TIA (0.6%/year). No other efficacy event was observed. Eleven major bleedings occurred (6.6%/year): one each under DAPT plus phenprocoumon, DAPT plus rivaroxaban, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) plus rivaroxaban, two under DAPT, two under ASA plus low molecular weight heparin, and four under ASA only. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, catheter-based LAA occlusion prevented thromboembolisms with high efficacy. Major bleedings were however common in patients with, but also without anticoagulation, independent from time course.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Contraindicações , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
N Engl J Med ; 376(19): 1824-1834, 2017 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28317458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary revascularization guided by fractional flow reserve (FFR) is associated with better patient outcomes after the procedure than revascularization guided by angiography alone. It is unknown whether the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR), an alternative measure that does not require the administration of adenosine, will offer benefits similar to those of FFR. METHODS: We randomly assigned 2492 patients with coronary artery disease, in a 1:1 ratio, to undergo either iFR-guided or FFR-guided coronary revascularization. The primary end point was the 1-year risk of major adverse cardiac events, which were a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or unplanned revascularization. The trial was designed to show the noninferiority of iFR to FFR, with a margin of 3.4 percentage points for the difference in risk. RESULTS: At 1 year, the primary end point had occurred in 78 of 1148 patients (6.8%) in the iFR group and in 83 of 1182 patients (7.0%) in the FFR group (difference in risk, -0.2 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.3 to 1.8; P<0.001 for noninferiority; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.33; P=0.78). The risk of each component of the primary end point and of death from cardiovascular or noncardiovascular causes did not differ significantly between the groups. The number of patients who had adverse procedural symptoms and clinical signs was significantly lower in the iFR group than in the FFR group (39 patients [3.1%] vs. 385 patients [30.8%], P<0.001), and the median procedural time was significantly shorter (40.5 minutes vs. 45.0 minutes, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Coronary revascularization guided by iFR was noninferior to revascularization guided by FFR with respect to the risk of major adverse cardiac events at 1 year. The rate of adverse procedural signs and symptoms was lower and the procedural time was shorter with iFR than with FFR. (Funded by Philips Volcano; DEFINE-FLAIR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02053038 .).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/terapia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico por imagem , Angina Pectoris/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Retratamento , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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