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Chem Sci ; 12(18): 6238-6263, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34084423


The development of high-performance inorganic solid electrolytes is central to achieving high-energy- density solid-state batteries. Whereas these solid-state materials are often prepared via classic solid-state syntheses, recent efforts in the community have shown that mechanochemical reactions, solution syntheses, microwave syntheses, and various post-synthetic heat treatment routines can drastically affect the structure and microstructure, and with it, the transport properties of the materials. On the one hand, these are important considerations for the upscaling of a materials processing route for industrial applications and industrial production. On the other hand, it shows that the influence of the different syntheses on the materials' properties is neither well understood fundamentally nor broadly internalized well. Here we aim to review the recent efforts on understanding the influence of the synthetic procedure on the synthesis - (micro)structure - transport correlations in superionic conductors. Our aim is to provide the field of solid-state research a direction for future efforts to better understand current materials properties based on synthetic routes, rather than having an overly simplistic idea of any given composition having an intrinsic conductivity. We hope this review will shed light on the underestimated influence of synthesis on the transport properties of solid electrolytes toward the design of syntheses of future solid electrolytes and help guide industrial efforts of known materials.

Inorg Chem ; 59(15): 11009-11019, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673483


The lithium argyrodites Li6PS5X (X = Cl, Br, I) exhibit high lithium-ion conductivities, making them promising candidates for use in solid-state batteries. These solid electrolytes can show considerable substitutional X-/S2- anion disorder, typically correlated with higher lithium-ion conductivities. The atomic-scale effects of this anion site disorder within the host lattice-in particular how lattice disorder modulates the lithium substructure-are not well understood. Here, we characterize the lithium substructure in Li6PS5X as a function of temperature and anion site disorder, using Rietveld refinements against temperature-dependent neutron diffraction data. Analysis of these high-resolution diffraction data reveals an additional lithium position previously unreported for Li6PS5X argyrodites, suggesting that the lithium conduction pathway in these materials differs from the most common model proposed in earlier studies. An analysis of the Li+ positions and their radial distributions reveals that greater inhomogeneity of the local anionic charge, due to X-/S2- site disorder, is associated with more spatially diffuse lithium distributions. This observed coupling of site disorder and lithium distribution provides a possible explanation for the enhanced lithium transport in anion-disordered lithium argyrodites and highlights the complex interplay between the anion configuration and lithium substructure in this family of superionic conductors.

J Am Chem Soc ; 140(47): 16330-16339, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380843


Solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes are currently being discussed as a more reliable and safer future alternative to the current lithium-ion battery technology. To compete with state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, solid electrolytes with higher ionic conductivities are needed, especially if thick electrode configurations are to be used. In the search for optimized ionic conductors, the lithium argyrodites have attracted a lot of interest. Here, we systematically explore the influence of aliovalent substitution in Li6+ xP1- xGe xS5I using a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction, as well as impedance spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. With increasing Ge content, an anion site disorder is induced and the activation barrier for ionic motion drops significantly, leading to the fastest lithium argyrodite so far with 5.4 ± 0.8 mS cm-1 in a cold-pressed state and 18.4 ± 2.7 mS cm-1 upon sintering. These high ionic conductivities allow for successful implementation within a thick-electrode solid-state battery that shows negligible capacity fade over 150 cycles. The observed changes in the activation barrier and changing site disorder provide an additional approach toward designing better performing solid electrolytes.

J Am Chem Soc ; 139(31): 10909-10918, 2017 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741936


In the search for novel solid electrolytes for solid-state batteries, thiophosphate ionic conductors have been in recent focus owing to their high ionic conductivities, which are believed to stem from a softer, more polarizable anion framework. Inspired by the oft-cited connection between a soft anion lattice and ionic transport, this work aims to provide evidence on how changing the polarizability of the anion sublattice in one structure affects ionic transport. Here, we systematically alter the anion framework polarizability of the superionic argyrodites Li6PS5X by controlling the fractional occupancy of the halide anions (X = Cl, Br, I). Ultrasonic speed of sound measurements are used to quantify the variation in the lattice stiffness and Debye frequencies. In combination with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and neutron diffraction, these results show that the lattice softness has a striking influence on the ionic transport: the softer bonds lower the activation barrier and simultaneously decrease the prefactor of the moving ion. Due to the contradicting influence of these parameters on ionic conductivity, we find that it is necessary to tailor the lattice stiffness of materials in order to obtain an optimum ionic conductivity.